“A death in the family”


“Our fathers gave us many laws which they had learned from their fathers. These laws were good.” –Chief Joseph, ‘Nez Perce’



by Clara NiiSka
in partial completion of the requirements for a Master’s Degree
Department of Liberal Studies
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

Copyright Clara NiiSka © 2004

December, 2004




Chapter 1 – The ‘South Boundary’

Chapter 2 – May 26, 1998

Chapter 3 – “Race”
            “Race” and internalization of colonial identity
            “Race” and legal status: American apartheid?
            “Race” and eugenics
            The American Anthropological Association and “Race”
            “Race” and legal jurisdiction

Chapter 4 - Apartheid at Red Lake
            The I.R.A. and tribal courts
            Indian court jurisdiction
            Dead “Indians”
            Wub-e-ke-niew and “race”

Chapter 5 – Exile
                Narratives of exile

Chapter 6 – Context

Chapter 7 - Background
                a bit of personal description
                “the rez”
            A statistical description: population
            Several Vantages
                Politics and land
            Colonial transformations and genocide

Chapter 8 – Acknowledging reality
                Archival research and B.I.A. documents
            B.I.A. documents, 1972
            National media and ‘hot’ documents
                “Criminal possession” of information?
            B.I.A. documents, mid 1980s
            Research ‘on the rez’

Chapter 9 – Red Lake retrospective
                The ‘Red Lake genealogies’
            Compiling genealogical information

Chapter 10 – the hidden Holocaust
                Four million “Indians
            “highly emotionally charged” … vigorous ‘denial’
            ‘Hot’ documents
                Who Are The “Indians”?

Chapter 11 - Indians are not the Ahnishinahbæótjibway
                    The Métis
                    The Ahnishinahbæótjibway
                    The Indians
                    The Ahnishinahbæótjibway
            Culture and Identity
                    The Métis
                    The Ahnishinahbæótjibway
            Ecological Infrastructure
                    The Métis
                    The Ahnishinahbæótjibway
            Patterns of Interaction with Western European Colonizers
                    The Métis
                    The Ahnishinahbæótjibway
                    The Métis
                    The Ahnishinahbæótjibway
                    The Ahnishinahbæótjibway
                    The Métis

Chapter 12 – Colonial Structures and Western Hegemony
                Indians and the Indian Mystique

Chapter 13 - Genocide
                Academic advocacy for human rights?

Chapter 14 – An Outside Retrospective  – Journey to Red Lake
                Journey to Red Lake
            I. Introduction
            II. Wub-e-ke-niew’s and Clara’s Home
            III.  The “Sugar Bush”
            IV.  Their Ahnishinahbæótjibway strategy
            V. “Indians”
            VI. The timeliness of this work
                    A. Sovereignty
                    B. Cultural Preservation
            VII.  A longer-range strategy

Chapter 15 – Language from an Ahnishinahbæótjibway perspective

            A workshop on language
            Language from an Ahnishinahbæótjibway perspective



Appendix I


To the Ahnishinahbæótjibway
to all Aboriginal Indigenous Peoples of Grandmother Earth
those who have been annihilated in 500 years of Holocaust
and those who survive

 and to all our relations.

This book is published in honor of Wub-e-ke-niew,
and in honor of his vision of, “making this a better world
for all human beings.”

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