The narrative of life, post-exile, is in some ways a disjointed chronicle, a search for meaning along stochastic paths, of a life in which the center – largely unacknowledged in Western philosophies – has been ripped out.

            The ambiguous mid-spring of the Twin Cities in early April, when from day to day the weather shifts from freezing cold and snow flurries, to the heady blissful warmth of seventy degrees in sparkling sunlight, then back to chilling rain from low-lying clouds in leaden skies, and the buds on trees have not yet begun to swell noticeably, is more potent in its contrasts with Minnesota’s long winters.  The old and chronically ill who have hung precariously onto life through the winter, let go and die, the severely depressed commit suicide when the long-awaited brilliant sunlight does not assuage the painful twisted darkness of their inner anguish, and the downtown yuppies who commute by express bus to their quarter-million dollar homes stand exuberantly in their shirt-sleeves on the street corners, savoring the warmth.

            Spring is a time of changes.  As an old friend from Red Lake put it, as we were sitting in a downtown coffee-shop and I was lamenting the lack of central focus to my life, “I should just walk away from it all and move to Siberia or something,” I’d said to him, “get away from Indian politics” … “I always get restless in the Spring,” he said.

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A Death in the Family




Chapter 1 – The ‘South Boundary’

Chapter 2 – May 26, 1998

Chapter 3 – “Race”
            “Race” and internalization of colonial identity
            “Race” and legal status: American apartheid?
            “Race” and eugenics
            The American Anthropological Association and “Race”
            “Race” and legal jurisdiction

Chapter 4 - Apartheid at Red Lake
            The I.R.A. and tribal courts
            Indian court jurisdiction
            Dead “Indians”
            Wub-e-ke-niew and “race”

Chapter 5 – Exile
                Narratives of exile

Chapter 6 – Context

Chapter 7 - Background
                a bit of personal description
                “the rez”
            A statistical description: population
            Several Vantages
                Politics and land
            Colonial transformations and genocide

Chapter 8 – Acknowledging reality
                Archival research and B.I.A. documents
            B.I.A. documents, 1972
            National media and ‘hot’ documents
                “Criminal possession” of information?
            B.I.A. documents, mid 1980s
            Research ‘on the rez’

Chapter 9 – Red Lake retrospective
                The ‘Red Lake genealogies’
            Compiling genealogical information

Chapter 10 – the hidden Holocaust
                Four million “Indians
            “highly emotionally charged” … vigorous ‘denial’
            ‘Hot’ documents
                Who Are The “Indians”?

Chapter 11 - Indians are not the Ahnishinahbæótjibway
                    The Métis
                    The Ahnishinahbæótjibway
                    The Indians
                    The Ahnishinahbæótjibway
            Culture and Identity
                    The Métis
                    The Ahnishinahbæótjibway
            Ecological Infrastructure
                    The Métis
                    The Ahnishinahbæótjibway
            Patterns of Interaction with Western European Colonizers
                    The Métis
                    The Ahnishinahbæótjibway
                    The Métis
                    The Ahnishinahbæótjibway
                    The Ahnishinahbæótjibway
                    The Métis

Chapter 12 – Colonial Structures and Western Hegemony
                Indians and the Indian Mystique

Chapter 13 - Genocide
                Academic advocacy for human rights?

Chapter 14 – An Outside Retrospective  – Journey to Red Lake
                Journey to Red Lake
            I. Introduction
            II. Wub-e-ke-niew’s and Clara’s Home
            III.  The “Sugar Bush”
            IV.  Their Ahnishinahbæótjibway strategy
            V. “Indians”
            VI. The timeliness of this work
                    A. Sovereignty
                    B. Cultural Preservation
            VII.  A longer-range strategy

Chapter 15 – Language from an Ahnishinahbæótjibway perspective

            A workshop on language
            Language from an Ahnishinahbæótjibway perspective



Appendix I