Minutes of councils held by James McLaughlin, United States Indian Inspector, with the Indians of Red Lake Agency, Minnesota, from March 4th to March 10th, 1902, for Cession of land.
1902 cession of 11 western townships, Red Lake Indian Reservation, page 34



than the United States.  That is because of sovereign right, the general right in the United States Government in all the country. The Government don't want to take your land from you for nothing. There is no country on the face of the globe that has treated the people found in the country, when the country was discovered, or taken by conquest, as our Government has treated the people found in the United States of America.  All other nations, when they discovered a new country and conquered the people, have simply let them retain their homes, they have never given them large tracts of land nor treated them as a sovereign nation.  When you drove the Sioux out of portions of the country that you now occupy, you didn't give them a reservation within its borders.  When the Sioux drove the weaker tribes out of that portion of the country west of the Missouri river they did not give them any land.  But the United States have been very liberal and have given every tribe of Indians homes on the land acquired by conquest or by purchase.  There was set apart for each tribe rich tracts of country called reservations, over which the Indians have absolute control and no white persons are allowed to come upon it without authority of the Government.  And it has been the practice of the Government, from its first establishment, to treat with the Indians for any portion of their reservation that is desired to have opened up to settlement, and when the demand for more land is heard near any reservation, requiring the opening of land that is not needed by the Indians, treaties have always been negotiated with the Indians for same.   That was done to obtain what was called extinguishment of the Indian title, to the tract of land negotiated for.  This for the reason that, under our policy of treating with the Indians, the Government could not give a patent with clear title to that portion of land to any person without such an agreement with the Indians to extinguish the Indian title, otherwise there would be a cloud on the title.  Therefore, I said, and I want you to understand

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