J. St. Hil. Expos. Fam. I : 204.  1805.

Herbs, some exotic genera low shrubs, with alternate or opposite simple mostly entire thin leaves.  Flowers small, green or white, perfect, monoecious, polygamous, or diocious, bracteolate, variously clustered, usually in terminal spikes or ancillary heads.  Petals none.  Calyx herbacious ormembranous, 2-5 parted, or 5-cleft, the segments distinct or somewhat united, equal, or the inner ones smaller.  Stamens 1-5, mostly opposite the calyx-segments, hypogynous ; filaments distinct, united at the base, or into a tube ; anthers 1-celled or 2-celled.  Ovary ovoid or subglubose, 1-celled ; ovule solitary in the following genera, amphitropous (several in some tropical genera) ; style short, elongated or none ; stigmas 1-3.  Fruit a utricle, curcumscissile, bursting irregularly or indehiscent, 1-seeded in our genera.  Seed mostly smooth ; embryo annular ; endosperm mealy, usually copious.

About 40 genera and 475 species, widely dispersed, most abundant in warm regions.

      Anthers 2-celled ; leaves alternate
Calyx 2-5 parted or of 2-5 sepals                                   1. Amaranthus.
Calyx of the pistillate flowers wanting.                             2. Acnida.
      Anthers 1-celled ; leaves opposite
Flowers in small ancillary clusters.                                   3. Cladothrix.
Flowers variously spicate or paniculate.
Calyx 5-cleft ; filmanents united into a tube.          4. Froelichia.
Calyx 5-parted ; filaments united at the base.        5. Iresine.


Nathanie1 L. Britton amd Addison Lord Brown,
An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, and the British Possessions from Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102d Meridian, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1913

Wisconsin State Herbarium, University of Wisconsin - Madison, WISFLORA: Wisconsin Vascular Plant Specie
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