Ojibwe Bibliography Ė part 5

[01-19-04]

 

 

2265. Morsette, J. D. [Letter to Cosens, Barbara A.].
Notes: Source: cited by Cosens, Barbara A.(Winter 1998:footnote 3)
Abstract: Unemployment rate on the Rocky Boy's Reservation

2266. Mortensen, S., & Estes, C. (1993). Uncommon Terns of Leech Lake. The Minnesota Volunteer, 56(331), 36.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Abstract: Gulls on nesting grounds spell trouble for terns.

2267. Mortimore, G. E. (1976). Colonial transfer: abandonment of disguised domination?A Canadian Indian reserve case. Anthropologica (Ottawa), 17(2), 187-203.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXII (1979:348)

2268. Mortimore, R. G. E. (1978). The road to Eagle Bay: strucure, process and power in a highly acculturated Ojibwa band. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto (Canada).

2269. Morton, L. L., Allen, J. D., & Williams, N. H. (1994). Hemisphericity and Information Processing in North American Native (Ojibwa) and Non-Native Adolescents. International Journal of Neuroscience, 75(3-4), 189-202.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Thirty-two male and female adolescents of native ancestry (Ojibwa) and 32 controls were tested using (1) four WISC-R subtests and (2) two dichotic listening tasks which employed a focused-attention paradigm for processing consonant-vowel combinations (CVs) and musical melodies. On the WISC-R, natives scored higher than controls on Block Design and Picture Completion subtests but lower on Vocabulary and Similarities subtests. On laterality measures more native males showed a left ear advantage on the CV task and the melody task. For CVs the left ear advantage was due to native males' lower right ear (i.e., left hemisphere) involvement. For melodies, the laterality index pointed to less left hemisphere involvement for native males, however, the raw scores showed that natives were performing lower overall. The findings are consistent with culturally-based strategy differences, possibly linked to 'hemisphericity,' but additional clarifying research regarding the cause and extent of such differences is warranted. Thus, implications for education are premature but a focus on teaching 'left hemisphere type' strategies to all individuals not utilizing such skills, including many native males, may prove beneficial.(Abstract by: Author)

2270. Moss, H. L. (1898). Last days of Wisconsin territory and early days of Minnesotaterritory . in Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. Volume VIII.††St. Paul, Minn.: The Minnesota Historical Society.
Notes: Source: PALS online catalog (October 1999 search)
Abstract: The international boundary between Lake Superiorand the Lake of the Woods / by Ulysses Sherman Grant -- The settlement anddevelopment of the Red River Valley / by Warren Upham -- The discovery anddevelopment of the iron ores of Minnesota / by N.H. Winchell -- The originand growth of the Minnesota Historical Society / by Alex. Ramsey -- Openingof the Red River of the North to commerce and civilization / by Russell Blakeley -- Last days of Wisconsin territory and early days of Minnesotaterritory / by Henry L. Moss -- Lawyers and courts of Minnesota prior toand during its territorial period / by Charles E. Flandrau -- Homes andhabitations of the Minnesota Historical Society / by Charles E. Mayo -- Thehistorical value of newspapers / by J.B. Chaney -- The United Statesgovernment publications / by D.L. Kingsbury -- The first organizedgovernment of Dakota / by Samuel J. Albright -- How Minnesota became astate / by Thomas F. Moran -- Minnesota's ! northern boundary / by Alexander N. Winchell -- The question of the sourcesof the Mississippi River / by E. Levasseur. The source of the Mississippi / by N.H. Winchell --Prehistoric man at the headwaters of the Mississippi River / by J.V. Brower-- Charter members of the Minnesota Historical Society and its work in 1896/ by Alex. Ramsey -- History of agriculture in Minnesota / by James J. Hill-- History of mining and quarrying in Minnesota / by Warren Upham --History of the discovery of the Mississippi River and the advent ofcommerce in Minnesota / Russell Blakeley -- Reminiscences of persons andevents in the early days of the Minnesota Historical Society / by WilliamH. Kelley -- Fort Snelling from its foundation to the present time / byRichard W. Johnson -- Sully's expedition against the Sioux, in 1864 / byDavid L. Kingsbury -- State-building in the West / by Charles E. Flandrau

2271. Mosser, D. P. (1995). Not First in Nobody's Heart: The Life Story of a Contemporary Chippewa (book reviews). The American Indian Quarterly, 19(4), 579 (3).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: Professor Cleland has undertaken the Herculean task of transforming the technical academic jargon concerning Native American history in the upper Great Lakes, as recorded by anthropologists and physical scientists, into understandable and appealing prose for the general reader. This is a formidable problem that the author has handled smoothly when discussing ethnological and ethnohistorical topics. However, when explaining familial and kin relations, his manuscript is somewhat technical. It is a subject that the author approaches with an honest attempt at refraining from the use of anthropological terminology but in the end is forced to rely on technical linguistic terms, simply because there are no alternatives for explaining such relationships.
Mr. Cleland has incorporated a geographic model wherein the state of Michigan serves as the focal point for his ethnohistories of various Native American peoples that have resided in the Upper Great Lakes. The author examines the pre-Columbian and post-contact periods but concentrates on explaining eighteenth and nineteenth century developments. The political state of Michigan (which was created in has, in the author's opinion, "had an increasingly important role in the course of the history of its native people"(p. v); however, in this book it does not limit the scope of the manuscript, it merely offers a point of reference - a beginning place that the reader can identify.
Furthermore, he has effectively discussed Native peoples' north/ south divisions and differences that define, in part, the ethnic identifications of those groups as Ojibwa, Potawatomi, Ottawa, Menominee, and Miami. Even though members of these "tribes", a term the author tends to question, lived in both the northern forests and the more southern plains, the author argues that subtle differences emerged over time between the residents of the two environments.
The northern bands acquired the majority of their food from fishing and hunting. Historical observers, the author points out, often were puzzled by the insistence of Ojibwas and other northern bands that their livelihood was hunting when, in fact, it seems the bulk of their food supply came from fishing. The superior status of hunting is evident, Cleland writes, because, to the Ojibwa "there are no magical songs for catching fish and even their word for whitefish ... is Atikameg, a variant of the word caribou, Atik. Even as the Ojibwa fish, they hunt" (p. 45).
Due to the poor growing conditions in the northern forest it appears that some villages moved onto the wide flood plains near large rivers and streams and cultivated a variety of crops. For this reason, Cleland contends the southern tribes were farmers. Corn, beans, and squash provided a more stable food supply, that was also supplemented by hunting. Still, the author points out that southern and northern villages remained about the same in size - about seventy-five to one hundred fifty residents.
The author has, from the onset of the manuscript, attempted to keep the discussion of Indian peoples' beliefs, customs and values free of white Anglo-Saxon biases. He has gone to great extremes to tell the story from the perspective of the "losers of history" - the Indians. This point of view is clearly present within the bulk of the book but particularly in its descriptions of events and the characters involved in the post-contact era. Mr. Cleland has accumulated extensive information about contemporary Native Americans who live in Michigan and under what conditions they are attempting to maintain their cultural identity - in an openly hostile environment.
Rites of Conquest examines Michigan's Native peoples collective history and describes their story by citing the past as seen from an Indian peoples' perspective. Ron Paquin and Robert Doherty in Not First In Nobody's Heart describe a contemporary Indian's life - that of a Chippewa man - to serve as an example of a people's history in the modern age. Ron Paquin has suffered from all the worst problems associated with Native Americans living in poverty on the edge of society: broken families, abusive parents, alcoholism, poor education, unsanitary conditions, lack of job skills, and a poor diet. Ron's story is a microcosmic reflection of the plight his people face in modern American culture.
As the story unfolds Ron is living in a filthy, unkempt cabin where his abusive parents are unable and unwilling to provide the one element a child needs to develop normally-love. All that is terrible and disgusting in life the author lives through and accepts as normal for he has known nothing else. The living conditions were so miserable that Ron, like other poor kids with no future, turned to crime and eventually was caught.
Reform school to prison were stepping stones that the author passed over along his path to discovery; a journey that culminated in being Chippewa and proud of a heritage that most of his life he never understood nor even acknowledged. Like many contemporary Native Americans, Ron's story is mired in squalor, pain, poverty, and coping with an openly hostile white society. Ron found happiness and the love he so desperately desired in his Indian wife and their family. Not only did he find satisfaction in a being a father and husband but also in discovering his Indian culture.
Even though this is not a story with the perfect ending where everyone is happily Jogging down the path of life-there are positive elements. Finding a life away from the underside of society was clearly satisfying to Ron. However, it also is evident that part of the reason he has progressed "out of the depths of despair" can be attributed to discovering his past - his Indian past. Although short lived, it seems that Ron Paquin's happiest moments were when he was building traditional Chippewa projects for the St. Ignace museum. This connection was severed when certain "Indian experts" brought large scale funding to the work and pushed the Indians out of the way. Ron and his life, therefore, can be seen as one more in a series of cases where white society overwhelms and destroys an individual in an effort to preserve that person's culture. This text is excellent for contemporary sociology or introductory cultural anthropology students since it is written from a first person perspective. As for Its use in a historical study, it is more appropriate as a suggested reading rather than a required text.
Full Text COPYRIGHT 1995 University of Nebraska-Press

2272. Mossman, M. (1993). H.R. Schoolcraft and Natural History on the Western Frontier, Part 4: Indian Agency Years with Thomas McKenney. The Passenger Pigeon; a Magazine of Wisconsin b ..., 55(2), 147.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2273. MSE-HKM Engineering. (1996). Municipal, Rural and Industrial Water Supply System Needs Assessment, Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation 21-26 (prepared for Bureau of Reclamation) .
Notes: Source: cited by Cosens, Barbara A.(Winter 1998:footnote 2), "manuscript on file with Author."

2274. Mudgett, H. P., 1900- , & Kay, H. G. (1955). Proceedings of the Conference on Indian tribes and treaties . Minneapolis : University of Minnesota, Center for Continuation Study.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 8575434
Abstract: Proceedings of the conference held at the University of Minnesota, April 23-24, 1955. Foreword dated 1955. Includes bibliographical references.

2275. Mukerji, C., & Schudson, M. (1991). Rethinking popular culture: contemporary perspectives in cultural studies. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Notes: Source: Midť bibliography compiled by SŠra Kaiser (1997)

2276. Mulholland, S. C., Mulholland, S. L., & Mooers, H. D. (1997). Paleo-Indian Occupations in Northeastern Minnesota: How Early?North American Archaeologist, 18(4), 371.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2277. Mulvihill, P. R. (1992). Institutional and organizational arrangements for adaptive environmental assessment in Canada's north. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Waterloo (Canada).
Abstract: The combination of important political changes, the economic development of renewable and non-renewable resources, social and cultural change and ecological impacts has created a dynamic and uncertain context for environmental decision-making in Canada's north. To be effective in such a context, this thesis argues, organizations and institutions must be flexible and responsive to these forces of change; i.e. they must be adaptive. The case studies include the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP), the Kativik Environmental Quality Commission (KEQC), the Environmental Screening and Review Process in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, the proposed Nunavut Impact Review Board (NIRB), the proposed Dene/Metis Environmental Impact Review Board and the proposed Environmental Assessment and Review Process for the Government of the Northwest Territories. The thesis recommends that more attention be devoted to the imperative of institutional and organizational adaptiveness by actors currently involved in northern environmental assessment and by designers of future processes. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

2278. Mundy, M.-A. l. (1994). The relationship between self-esteem and the variables of cooperativeness and competition within the Aboriginal culture (Manitoba). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Southern Mississippi.
Abstract: The relationship between self-esteem and the variables of competitiveness and cooperativeness within an Aboriginal culture and whether this relationship differed according to the variables of gender, age, and enculturation was determined in this study. The sample consisted of a random selection of 108 Aboriginal students, 47 males and 61 females, drawn from grades 10 to 12, at a collegiate in Northern Manitoba. There were 57 Status, 6 non-Status, and 45 Metis and the students ranged in age from 14 to 24 years. These subjects were administered Form A of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and The Aboriginal Enculturation/Competitive/Cooperative Instrument. Four clear dimensions were found to describe Enculturation, Competition, Coopersmith SEI, and Cooperation. Both, Total Cooperation and Cooperation-Modesty, loaded highly on the Enculturation dimension. Cooperation is a dominant and influential aspect of the Aboriginal culture. Competition-Teamwork loaded highly on the Cooperation factor, leading to the conclusion that Cooperation and Competition are not on opposite ends of a continuum, but rather are entwined. Cooperation Control loaded negatively on the Coopersmith SEI factor, suggesting that the SEI as an instrument for measuring the Self-Esteem of Aboriginal people may not be valid. Furthermore, the low Goodness of Fit Index that was obtained in performing the Confirmatory Analysis of the SEI also supports this conclusion. Significant differences were found for three of six hypotheses. Age had a minimal relationship with both cooperation and enculturation. The variable of cooperation related negatively with SEI Total and with General Self. The variables of enculturation and competition were found to be negatively correlated, while the variables of enculturation and cooperation were positively related. As cooperation is such a great part of the Aboriginal enculturation, this would seem to have a deleterious effect on the self-esteem score, because the SEI portrayed a tendency to decrease as cooperation increased.

2279. Murie, J. R. (1989). Ceremonies of the Pawnee. Lincoln: Univeristy of Nebraska Press for the American Indian Studies Research Institute, Indiana University.
Notes: Source: Midť bibliography compiled by SŠra Kaiser (1997)

2280. Murphy, L. E. (1996). Economy, race and gender along the Fox-Wisconsin and Rock riverways, 1737-1832 (Iowa, OntarioO. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northern Illinois University.
Abstract: This dissertation examines a northern borderland region's economy during the gradual transition from Indian to white hegemony, evaluating the impact of race, ethnicity, and gender on economic practice, and vice versa. The focus is on the area from Green Bay, Wisconsin, along the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, to Prairie du Chien on the Mississippi River, including the region south to the Rock River and a small section of present-day Iowa around Dubuque. During the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, these river systems constituted a crucial link between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River; their banks were populated with Indian and multi-racial communities, including fur trade centers and lead mining areas where Indian women, and later white and black men, dug for ore. The study describes the regional economy as it evolved over the century between the Fox Wars and the Black Hawk War (1737-1832). It examines the sexual division of labor, and the external trade relations of the Indian villages--especially those of the Winnebagos, Sauks, and Mesquakies (also known as Fox Indians)--and compares them to communities of Euro-Americans and of multi-racial families, such as Prairie du Chien and Green Bay. Exchange within and between local economies as well as regional and international markets is emphasized. This research explores villagers' participation in agricultural production and the fur trade and compares Indian, Metis, and Euro-American lead mining, domestic economy, and other types of production, such as maple sugar making. It examines adaptations and continuities in gender roles as regional and local economies persisted and changed over time. Central to this study are the parts played by gender roles and economic organization in determining multicultural accommodation or conflict, including their impact on dynamics leading up to the Black Hawk War.

2281. (1989). Library of Congress.
Notes: cited by Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2282. . (1973). W. G. Murray, 1903- Appraisal of Winnebago lands in Iowa and Minnesota, Royce area 267 in 1833 and 1846 . New York : Clearwater Pub. Co.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 5819821. Docket 243 before the Indian Claims Commission.
Abstract: Published in the microfiche collection, The expert testimony before the Indian Claims Commission. Photocopy. New York : Clearwater, 1979. -- 22 cm. Includes bibliographical references

2283. Murray, W. G., 1903- , & United States. Indian Claims Commission. (1961). Appraisal of Winnebago Indian lands in Iowa and Minnesota - 1833 and 1846 - Nebraska - 1865 and 1874 docket 243 before the Indian Claims Commission . Ames, Iowa : Indian Claims Commission .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 8543210

2284. . (1971). W. H. MuskeAppraisal, Red Lake Band of Chippewas v. United States of America : land excluded from the Red Lake Reservation by erroneous survey . St. Paul, Minn.Muske.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).United States. Indian Claims Commission. Red Lake Band of Chippewas v. United States of America. ... accession: 17766947.Spine title: Red Lake Band of Chippewas. "Before the Indian Claims Commission, Docket No. 189." This vol. produced from microfiche contained in the published collection, The expert testimony before the Indian Claims Commission. Includes bibliographical references.

2285. Myhre, P. O. (1999). Potawatomi transformation: Potawatomi responses to Catholic and Baptist mission strategy and competition, 1822-1872 (Native Americans). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Saint Louis University.
Abstract: In the nineteenth century the Potawatomi, Native American tribe, responded favorably to Catholic missionary efforts to inculturate Catholic Sacramental and devotional practices. More than two thousand Potawatomi people over a fifty year span of time, 1822 to 1872, inculturated Catholic religious practices and adopted many elements of Western civilization. They did so in response to the mission efforts carried out by Jesuits and Sisters of the Society of the Sacred Heart and because of their indigenous faith practices. Even though the Potawatomi responded well to Catholic missions and missionaries, they were not so eager to embrace the approaches of missionaries from other Christian groups who sought to convert them. In fact, the Baptists, led by Isaac McCoy, were the other principle Christian tradition which sought to transform Potawatomi faith and cultural practices during the time period under consideration. They were largely unsuccessful. Hence, an effort to discern and uncover the factors which explain the success of the one and the failure of the other are addressed in the dissertation. In order to encounter the reasons for the disparity between Catholic mission success and Baptist mission failure the dissertation is divided into seven chapters. Each chapter seeks to uncover the issues which may have contributed to the differences in Potawatomi responses to these two faith traditions. The first chapter introduces the basic argument, terminology, and methods employed. Potawatomi cosmology, culture, social structure and religious practices are examined in chapter two. Chapters three and four examine the mission strategies employed by the Catholic and Baptist missionaries in Michigan, Indiana, Wisconsin, Iowa and Kansas and how the Potawatomi responded to these various strategies. Chapter five is focused on education of children and adults. The sixth chapter explores the relationships between Catholic Sacraments, devotional practices with that of Potawatomi religious practices. The final chapter summarizes the argument of the dissertation.

2286. Myrold, D. (1960). The fascinating story of ancient Lake Agassiz . Crookston, Minn.Polk County Historical Society.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).

2287. Nabhan, G. P. (1989). Wild rice and the Ojibway people (book review) --Vennum, Thomas. Economic Botany , 43, 136-137.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota Biological & Agricultural Index [electronic database], Fall 1999 search

2288. . (1978). NAICJA Long Range Planning ProjectIndian courts and the future report of the NAICJA Long Range Planning Project . [Washington] : National American Indian Court Judges Association.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 30060234

2289. Namias, J. (1989). White captives: gender and ethnicity on successive American frontiers, 1607-1862. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Brandeis University.
Abstract: The American frontier has long been recognized as an important area of study. One of the largest and most evocative sources about the interaction between Euro-Americans and Indians is captivity materials--narratives, paintings, etchings, sculpture, and films which give accounts of life on the frontier. In past scholarship this material has been viewed primarily as propaganda favoring Indian extermination, evidence for the projection of ideas of savagery onto Indians, and as ethnographic information. This dissertation seeks to demonstrate that captivity materials offered earlier generations new ways of looking at gender and ethnic relations. They did so by placing women and children, the most vulnerable members of white society, in a foreign environment, thereby contrasting Anglo-American roles and values with those of a variety of Indian societies. The method of inquiry compares men and women, as well as captives in different periods and on successive frontiers. Period and geography range from colonial New England to mid-nineteenth century Minnesota. The materials used include the various captivity genres mentioned, along with ethnographic works, government documents, newspapers, and private correspondence. For both sexes, gendered archetypes developed as expressions of the challenge of capture and Indian-white coexistence. Part I discusses these archetypes as well as the sexual attitudes expressed in the various captivity materials. Portrayals of captive women in both sections feature issues of female survival, independence, and competence. Part II highlights three female captives. An examination of Jane McCrea's legend demonstrates a concern for the direction of young women's choices in the early Republic. Mary Jemison's and Sarah Wakefield's stories argue for seeing some works as presenting accommodation and understanding of the 'other' as alternatives to nineteenth-century American policy. This study concludes that while elements of horror, propaganda, myth making, and ethnographic documentary were significant, captivity materials also vividly portrayed the anxieties of Anglo-America about the migration process and the impact it could have on gender roles, family survival, and the process of nation building.

2290. Nash, G. B. (1982). Red, White and Black: the peoples of early America. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Notes: Source: Midť bibliography compiled by SŠra Kaiser (1997)

2291. Nathan, R. R. (1967). Report on Royce Area 267, as of February 4, 1847 Winnebago Tribe, et al., v. the United States of America Indian Claims Commission, Docket no. 243. Washington, D.C.Robert R. Nathan Associates.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 8543513
Abstract: Includes portions of Northeast Iowa and Southeast Minnesota. Bibliography: leaves 89-93

2292. (1978).
Notes: ERIC NO: ED157672
Abstract: In 1976 the National American Indian Court Judges Association was awarded a one year contract to study Indian court systems, identify their main strengths and weaknesses, develop a set of model standards, name four model courts with whom to test the model standards, and propose a five year plan of support for Indian courts. Written materials relating to Indian courts and the advice of people knowledgeable in Indian court problems were utilized. Twenty-three courts varying in geographic location, size, types of problems, kind of court, and jurisdiction were visited: Blackfeet, Coeur d-Alene, Colorado River, Colville, Fort Peck, Gila River, Hopi, Isleta Peublo, Jicarilla Apache, Menominee, Metlakatla, Navajo, Nevada Colonies, Oglala Sioux, Papago, Red Lake Chippewa, San Carlos Apache, San Juan Pueblo, Suquamish, Uintah and Ouray, Warm Springs, Yakima, and Zuni Pueblo. This report discusses the legal and historical basis for Indian courts; describes their present status and problems; identifies several strengths and weaknesses of Indian courts; presents the Model Standards for Indian Judicial Systems which were developed, along with a proposal that they be implemented immediately by four Indian courts serving as model courts; and presents a five year plan of support for Indian courts covering individual court needs assessment, tribal legislation, facilities and equipment, court related services, personnel, community relations and education, the National Indian Judiciary Research Institute, data collection, training, interagency coordination, and Congressional action. (NQ)

2293. National American Indian Court Judges Association. (1974). Supplement #1 to the Criminal court procedures manual and Research document. Washington: National American Indian Court Judges Association.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search)
Abstract: National American Indian Court Judges Association. Criminal Court procedures manual. Research document in support of the criminal court procedures manual.

2294. National American Indian Court Judges Association. Long Range Planning Project. (1978). Indian courts and the future : report of the NAICJA Long Range Planning Project . [Washington] : National American Indian Court Judges Association : for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search)."Prepared under Bureau of Indian Affairs contract no. K51C14201023." Bibliography: p. 196-201.

2295. National Congress of American Indians. (1979). Hearings on draft regulations, Indian Child Welfare Act, Public law 95-608 . St. Paul, Minn.National Congress of American Indians.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22639431. "March 5 & 6, 1979."Other: Becker, Bernard P. United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs.

2296. National Congress of American Indians, United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Industrial and Tourism Division, & National Council on Indian Opportunity (U.S.). (1970). Investment opportunities on the Red Lake Reservation, Minnesota. Washington, D.C.Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 37656894.Other: National Congress of American Indians. United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Industrial and Tourism Division. National Council on Indian Opportunity (U.S.)
Abstract: "Revisions of NCAI publication by Industrial & Tourism Division of Bureau of Indian Affairs with cooperation of NCIO."

2297. National Council on Indian Opportunity (U.S.). (1969). Public forum before the Committee on Urban Indians in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, of the National Council on Indian Opportunity, March 18-19, 1969. Washington: U.S. National Council on Indian Opportunity.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 2400342

2298. (1978).
Notes: ERIC NO: ED205305
Abstract: In this statement on H.R. 13343 presented to the Committee on Government Operations, the National Tribal Chairmen's Association, along with the National Congress of American Indians and the Alaska Federation of Natives, has voiced an "emphatic and uncompromising no" to the transfer of Indian education out of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and into the proposed Department of Education. Exercising self- determination as mandated by the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, numerous tribal governments have prepared responses to H.R. 13343. This testimony indicates 99.5% of the federally recognized tribes have said "no" to H.R. 13343. Among the many tribal statements quoted here are negative responses from the Shoshone Bannock, Southern Ute, Utah Ute, Mescalero Apache, Oneida, Colville Confederated and Comanche Tribes, the Yankton Sioux, the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa, Taos Pueblo, Picuris Pueblo, etc. Among the concerns presented by these and other tribal governments are the following: fragmentation of Indian education services, disregard for federal trust responsibility, disregard for Indian preference, elimination of schools separately established for Indians, undermining of tribal sovereignty, conflict with P.L. 93-638 and the contracting education programs that provide for Indian control, loss of BIA's working relationship with Indian tribal organizations, etc. (JC)

2299. Native American Rights Fund. (1972). Indian legal problems. Boulder, Colo.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 41823851. "Helpful Indian law sources": p.223-225.

2300. A sketch of the Missisippi from the town of St. Louis to its source in the Upper Red Cedar Lake ... (1975). [Washington]: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).Relief shown pictorially. Shows portion of Mississippi River from Rock River, Illinois to Black River, Wisconsin. Reproduced from title portion of an original.Other: Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, 1779-1813. United States. Army. Corps of Engineers.

2301. Navet, E. (1992). Esprit nomade dans tous ses ťtats (l'exemple des Indiens Ojibway de la rťgion des Grands Lacs. Ethnographie, 10, 117-138.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2302. Needham, D. (Descendants of Bus-e-noss [sic, i.e. Bah-se-noss]. manuscript.Ahnishinahbśůtjibway archives, Wub-e-ke-niew and Clara NiiSka's residence.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2303. Needham, D. (1980). History of the peace pipe. in D. Needham[Dan Needham's Workshop, Goodridge, Minn.]Authentic handcrafted Indian artifacts from Dan Needham's Workshop, Red Lake Indian Reservation(p. 1). Goodridge, Minn.Dan Needham's Workshop.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 20946617

2304. . (1979). D. Needham, & L. AgardReminiscences of Dan Needham, Red Lake band of Chippewa, Minnesota .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22906319

2305. Needham, D.[Dan Needham's Workshop, Goodridge, Minn.]. (1980). Authentic handcrafted Indian artifacts from Dan Needham's Workshop, Red Lake Indian Reservation. Goodridge, Minn.Dan Needham's Workshop.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 20946617

2306. Neel, J. V., Biggar, R. J., & Sukernik, R. I. (1994). Virologic and Genetic Studies Relate Amerind Origins to the Indigenous People of the Mongolia Manchuria Southeastern Siberia Region. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 91(22), 10737-10741.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: A commonly held theory is that the first wave of migrants into the New World was derivative from the ethnic groups then inhabiting eastern Siberia. However, these ethnic groups jack a mtDNA haplogroup (B) that is well represented in Amerindian tribes. Also, the time depth of the other three mtDNA haplogroups found in Amerindians (A, C, and D) appears to be greater in the Amerindians than in the eastern Siberian ethnic groups. In this communication we demonstrate that the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type II, present in 11 of the 38 Amerindian tribes thus far examined, is not present in any of the 10 ethnic groups of eastern Siberia that we have studied. However, the virus has just been reported in the indigenous population of Mongolia, and mtDNA haplogroup B is also represented in this region. On the basis of these facts, we propose that the ancestors of the first migrants to the New World were not derived from north and central Siberia but from populations to the south, inhabiting the regions of Mongolia, Manchuria, and/or the extreme southeastern tip of Siberia. [References: 50]

2307. Neill, E. D.(Edward Duffield), 1823- 1893 , & Bryant, C. S., 1808-1885. (1882). History of the Minnesota Valley : including the Explorers and pioneers of Minnesota . Minneapolis: North star publishing company.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 4358074
Abstract: Preface signed: George E. Warner. Charles M. Foote. Includes index. Explorers and pioneers of Minnesota, by E. D. Neill: p. 1- 128; Outline history of the state of Minnesota: p. 129-140; Early history of the Minnesota Valley, by E. D. Neill: p. 141- 168; Geology of the Minnesota Valley, by N. H. Winchell: p. 169-176; histories of Ramsey, Hennepin, Dakota, Scott, Carver, Sibley, Le Sueur, Blue Earth, Nicollet, Brown, Redwood, Renville, Lyon, Yellow Medicine, Chippewa, Lac qui Parle, Swift, Big Stone, Traverse and Grant counties: p. 163- 999; Sisseton Indian Reservation: p. 999-1000.

2308. Nelson, A. R. (1997). A Craniofacial View of Eskimo and Amerind Biological Relations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Suppl. 24, 202.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search.Paper presented at the Sixty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, April 1-5, 1997.

2309. Nelson, D. A. (1986). An analysis of variations in bone density and cortical loss in three Native American skeletal populations (mineral analysis, Midwest). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.
Abstract: This studyexamines variations in cortical bone loss after mid-adulthood among three archaeological populations from the Midwest. Hypotheses concerning intrasite (age and sex) and inter-population variation are tested with data obtained from the femoral cortices of 123 specimens. It is suggested that differences in subsistence, particularly diet, are related to the differences in cortical gain and loss at the three sites. One population represents hunter-gatherers from the Archaic and Woodland components at the Black Earth site, Illinois. The other two populations, from theLarson Phase (Middle Mississippian) at Dickson Mounds and the eighteenth-century Fletcher site, Michigan, represent maize agriculturalists. Rectangular pieces of cortical bone approximately 1 x 1.5 cm. were excised from the anterior femoral shaft of each specimen. Photon absorptiometric techniques were applied to each sample in order to determine the bone mineral content, and cortical thickness was measured directly on each sample with Vernier calipers. A bone density index was calculated from the ratio of bone mineral index (g/cm('2)) to cortical thickness (cm), yielding a mass per volume value in terms of g/cm('3) of cortical bone. The result of the intra-site (age and sex) analysis support the proposition that members of all three populations lose cortical bone after midadulthood. The data also indicate that females lose more bone than do males after midadulthood (at the Black Earth site). Results from the comparisons between sites support the proposition that the hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists differ in the amount and patterning of cortical loss after midadulthood. Specifically, the agriculturalists in this study lost more bone mineral, cortical thickness, and bone density with advancing age than did the hunter-gatherers. A comparison of the relative changes in the three variables at the sites indicated that the maize agriculturalists lost proportionately more bone mineral than cortical thickness after midadulthood, and therefore exhibit a loss of bone density. The hunger-gatherers, on the other hand, lost proportionately similar amounts of bone mineral and cortical thickness, thereby maintaining or slightly increasing their bone density after midadulthood. It is suggested that nutritional stress associated with a maize-based diet accounts for the greater bone loss observed among the agriculturalists.

2310. Nelson, J. (1993). A study of the Knife Lake siltstone quarries on Knife Lake (Mookomaan Zaaga'igan), Quetico Provincial Park, Ontario. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Trent University (Canada).
Abstract: Knife Lake, from the Ojibwa Mookomaan zaaga'igan, lies on the Ontario-Minnesota border. A field survey including both the shoreline and the adjacent bush on the Ontario side of the lake was conducted to determine the extent of quarry activity. Twenty quarry sites were found. Evidence of quarry activity included the presence of flake scars on bedrock and boulders, hammerstones, hammerstone marks adjacent to quarry faces, and quarry debris. In addition, intact and broken preforms were recovered from quarry sites and adjacent campsites. Geological samples were obtained and those from quarry sites were overwhelmingly fine-grained Knife Lake siltstone (94%), while non-quarry samples were predominantly coarser-grained (77%). Neutron activation analysis of quarry samples showed that Knife Lake siltstone was distinct from all except some Lake of the Woods chert samples. Flakes from 7 of the 9 archaeological sites analyzed closely matched the Knife Lake quarry samples. Thin-sections of Knife Lake siltstone indicated it is composed of silt-sized particles. Its high silica content and metamorphosed nature indicate it should be called Knife Lake silicified metasiltstone.

2311. Nelson, K. D. (1990). Wisconsin, Walleye, and the Supreme Law of the Land: An Overview of the Chippewa Indian Treaty Rights Dispute in Northern Wisconsin. Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy, 11(2), 381.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2312. . (1995). K. K. NelsonI will remember = inga-minjimendam . Bemidji, Minn.Loonfeather Press.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 33938182
Abstract: "The bi-lingual text -English and Ojibwe- is imaginatively and colorfully illustrated from the artist's own experiences living near the shores of Red Lake in northern Minnesota"--p. 4 of cover.

2313. Nelson, R. E. (1987). Fond du Lac Treaty portraits: 1826. Papers, Algonquian Conference, 18, 239-246.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2314. Nelson, R. E. (1983). Inscribed birch bark scrolls and other objects of the Midewiwin. Papers of the Algonquian Conference, (14), 219-235.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2315. Nelson, R. E. (1984). Midewiwin medicine bags of the Ojibwa. Papers of the Algonquian Conference, 15, 397-408.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2316. Nelson, S. (1991). Canada fires Ojibway woman for harassment protest. Off Our Backs, 21, 5.
Notes: Source: Women's Resources International, Women Studies Abstracts [University of Minnesota onlinedatabases], August 1999 search
Abstract: On the same day in 1986 that Brian Mulroney signed an international Proclamation to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination, his government fired Mary Pitawanakwat from a government office in Regina, Saskatchewan. After an investigation in 1988 and 1989, the Human Rights Commission confirmed many of the incidents, including discriminatory remarks against Aboriginal people, touching of her buttocks, and sexual innuendos in office memos, all creating a poisoned work environment. The government asked a federal court judge to bar the parties in the suit from carrying the case forward. In April 1991, the court ruled against the government, but threw out sexual harassment charges on a technicality, making Pitawanakwat refile them separately. Her case has won support from labor, women's rights organizations, and Aboriginal groups. S. WHALEY.

2317. Neperud, R. W., & Stuhr, P. L. (1993). Cross-Cultural Valuing of Wisconsin Indian Art by Indians and Non-Indians. Studies in Art Education, 34(4), 244.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2318. Nesper, L. E. (1994). Waswagoninniwug: conflict, tradition and identity in the Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians' spearfishing the ceded territory of Wisconsin (Volumes I and II). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Chicago.
Abstract: Beginning shortly after a U.S. Court of Appeals decision in 1983, upholding federal treaties signed in the mid-nineteenth century, the Ojibwa people of Lac du Flambeau began to both hunt deer on the lands, and spearfish prized gamefish in the lakes off their reservation both in spite, and because of growing local non-Indian opposition. By 1989, the conflict had escalated to the point of engaging the sustained attention of both the state government and the state's congressional delegation. The conflict process engendered a cultural renaissance on the reservation. I argue that this ethnic reorganization is continuous with Lac du Flambeau's long tradition of creatively transforming its relationship to dominant and encompassing cultural, social, political and economic orders. I show how a distinct Ojibwa order of value has played an important role in configuring the band's history, and the history and meaning of the conflict over spearfishing in the 1980s.

2319. (1983).[Recording]. Albany, N.Y.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 31939226
Abstract: Raymond: Rural residents opinions on acid rain -- Weinstein: Detecting forest productivity reduction -- LeBlanc: Use of stem analysis to study the impact of deposition on tree growth -- Reich: Effects of O3, simulated acid rain & soil type on sugar maple & no. red oak -- Wilson: Chem. climatology of NY -- Kelly: Measurements of gas & aerosol species contr. to acid rain in Adks. -- Johannes: Est. of wet deposition using regional data -- Cheng: Effect of atmospheric deposition on marble -- Stoss: Acid rain info clearinghouse-services. [cont'd] Truettner: Woods & Panther Lake watersheds: sources of alkalinity -- Driscoll: Chem. & transport of metals in an Adk. lake -- Armstrong: Aquatic impacts of acidification in Rensselaer -- PhilpotL Detection of organic substances & heavy metals using laser fluorosensing -- Singer: Effects of acidification on sm. oligotrophic Adk. lakes -- Eicher: Effect of acidity levels on fish -- Chapman: Acid rain policy proposals -- Menz: Cost function for neutralizing acidic Adk. surface waters -- Mount: Effects of changing econ. conditions on stack emissions from power plants in N.Y

2320. Newbold, L. A. (1994). Application of the ADEA To Indian Tribes: EEOC v. Fond Du Lac Heavy Equipment & Construction Co., 986 F.2d 246 (8th Cir. 1993). Washington University Journal of Urban and Conte ..., 46, 381.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2321. Newcomer, A. D., Mcgill, D. B., & Thomas, P. J. H. A. f. (1978). Tolerance to Lactose Among Lactase Deficient American Indians. Gastroenterology, 74, 44-45.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: To determine the amount of lactose (I) that could be tolerated in a meal, 59 lactase deficient American Indians, ranging in age from 5 to 62, were given graded doses of I.

2322. Newell, W. B., 1892- . (1982). Crime and justice among the Iroquoisnations . Montreal : Caughnawaga HistoricalSociety.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
Abstract: Facsim. of : Montreal : CaughnawagaHistorical Society, 1925 ; 92 p. 24 cm. ; $ 5.00. "List of authorities": p. [181-184].

2323. Newkirk, M. M., Lepage, K., Niwa, T., & Rubin, L. (1998). Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGE) on IgG, a Target for Circulating Antibodies in North American Indians With Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Cellular & Molecular Biology (Noisy-Le-Grand), 44(7), 1129-1138.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: Several tribes of North American Indians are known to have poor glucose control and are at a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Similarly some tribes also exhibit RA at a high frequency. We have recently determined that a subset of Caucasian patients with RA mount an immune response to IgG modified with advanced glycation endproducts (AGE). The AGE modifications on IgG in vivo include N-epsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine, imidazolone and pentosidine. The presence of IgG-AGE and the antibody response to the IgG-AGE in the Ojibwe tribe of First Nations native Indians where both NIDDM and RA are prevalent was investigated. AGE modified IgG and albumin were determined using a modified nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Rheumatoid factors (RFs) and IgM and IgA anti-IgG-AGE were detected by ELISA. Of the 108 individuals tested, 21 had RA only, 3 had both RA and type 2 diabetes, 30 had type 2 diabetes only and 51 had no diagnosed disease. AGE modified IgG was significantly elevated in the RA group compared to the diabetic group. IgM and IgA RFs were detected in 83% and 50% of the RA patients, compared to 31-37% and 7-10% of the diabetics or normal individuals. IgM anti-IgG-AGE was detected in 54% of the RA patients, in contrast to 7-14% in the diabetics or normal individuals. IgA anti-IgG-AGE was detected in 42% of the RA patients and only 7 to 8% of the NIDDM or normal individuals. The IgM or IgA anti-IgG-AGE antibodies likely contribute to the accumulation of IgG-AGE, possibly through blocked clearance through AGE receptors. A trend towards more severe disease was seen in those Ojibwe RA patients with circulating anti-AGE antibodies. Non-enzymatic glycation may be an important pathogenic link in the RA seen in North American Indians.

2324. . (1881). T. M. Newson (Thomas McLean), 1827-1893Indian legends [of Minnesota lakes] . Minneapolis: Hoppin, Palmer & Dimond.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 11446160
Abstract: Minne-too-ka: a legend of Point Wa-kon, Lake Minnetonka.--Mis-se-jar-ga: or the Angel guide. A legend of Lake Calhoun.--Minnehaha, or Laughing water.--Indian diplomacy. Fort Snelling. A run for life.

2325. Ney, J. J., & Smith, L. L., Jr.(1975). First-Year Growth Of The Yellow Perch, /Perca Flavescens/, In The Red Lakes, Minnesota. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 104(4), 718-725.
Notes: Source: Fish & Fisheries Worldwide databases: Fisheries Review [University of Minnesota onlinedatabases], August 29, 1999 search

2326. Nichols, J., & Peterson, D. A. (1996). The Amerind Personal Pronouns. Language, 72(2), 336-371.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Personal pronouns with first person n and second person m have been claimed to be frequent in the native languages of the Americas, widespread there, and rare elsewhere, and thus to indicate genetic unity of Amerind. A controlled cross-linguistic survey shows that these pronouns have an extensive yet restricted geographical range limited to the western Americas, and that they recur (though not frequently) elsewhere around the Pacific rim. This distribution removes the strongest (and perhaps the only) evidence for genetic relatedness of Amerind. In addition, on statistical grounds the n:m paradigm fails as a diagnostic of genetic relatedness, though equally clearly it cannot be due to universals or random chance. Certain other linguistic features and one mitochondrial DNA lineage have much the same geographical and statistical distribution. Though the language families in which these features appear cannot be shown to be genetically related, the families have clearly had some shared history (the type and degree not precisely specifiable) in the distant past. The n:m pronouns reflect a single, datable, noninitial and nonterminal phase in the settlement of the Americas and are probably the best linguistic marker of that phase.* [References: 22]

2327. Nichols, J., & Peterson, D. A. (1998). Amerind Personal Pronouns - a Reply to Campbell. Language, 74(3), 605-614.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

2328. Nichols, J. D. (1980). Ojibwe Morphology. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University.

2329. Nicholson, B. A. (1989). Human ecology and prehistory of the forest/grassland transition zone of Western Manitoba (Canada). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Simon Fraser University (Canada).
Abstract: Viewed from the perspective of prehistory, the forest/grassland transition zone of western Manitoba has remained an unknown and largely uninvestigated tract of land, lying between the southern boreal forest Woodlands to the east, and the Northern Plains to the west. It is an area characterized by marked topographical and ecological diversity when compared to adjacent regions and biomes. Virtually all of the important subsistence resources of the adjacent forest and plains biomes are to be found within this forest/grassland transition zone. In addition, these diverse resources can be found to occur within a moderate distance of each other due to the mosaic pattern of habitats which characterize the distribution of the parkland vegetation. This thesis examines the interactive dynamics of the physical, biological and cultural variables operative in the study area, with the goal of developing models which account for the patterns observed in the archaeological record. These patterns result from activities associated with the local human ecology and the prehistoric adaptive strategies which developed and were utilized by the aboriginal occupants of the study area. The early ethnohistoric accounts of the region have provided sufficient information to reconstruct the basic subsistence pattern of the Assiniboine, Cree, and Ojibwa, who utilized the area during the period of European contact. In addition, it has been possible to outline the adaptive changes in subsistence strategy which these several groups undertook in response to environmental and technological variables which resulted from the European inroads. The Prehistoric period, dating from the commencement of retreat of the continental glaciers 12,000 years ago, is much more complex. The cohesive pattern that integrates developments throughout this timespan is a pattern of flexible demographic and cultural response to new or changed environmental opportunities. While the details of adaptive strategies varied from group to group, the general patterns of subsistence can be shown to conform to a limited number of basic models which are closely tied to the environmental parameters of the biomes under consideration. The human ecology of the forest/grassland transition zone of western Manitoba is characterized by patterns of flexibility in cultural response to changing environmental opportunities. The resulting adaptive strategies, which have been identified and modelled, indicate a varied repertoire of social and technological systems by means of which the various cultural groups effectively exploited the resources which were available. In addition, it can be demonstrated that 'risk reducing strategies' were employed to more fully exploit unique or temporary situations afforded by the interactions of physical, biological, and cultural variables affecting the total human environment.

2330. Nicol, A. J. (1979). Self concept and perceptions of skilled occupations of selected adult Metis in rural northern Alberta. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Oregon State University.

2331. Nicolet College. (1974). Project Native American Resource, May 15, 1973-May 17, 1974 : report and evaluation. Rhinelander, Wis.The College.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)

2332. Niemi, G. J., & Hanowski, J. M. (2). Dynamics Of Breeding Bird Communities And Habitats In The Red Lake Peatland, Northern Minnesota. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am., 239.
Notes: Source: Wildlife Worldwide database,Wildlife Review Abstracts [University of Minnesota onlinedatabases], August 1999 search

2333. Niemi, G. J., & Hanowski, J. M. (1984). Effects of a Transmission Line on Bird Populations in the Red Lake Peatland, Northern Minnesota (Usa). The Auk , 101(3), 487-498, bibl., il.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: University of Minnesota Biological & Agricultural Index [electronic database], Fall 1999 search
Abstract: The effects of a 500-kV transmission line on bird populations were assessed by comparing paired treatment areas (which included a transmission line and right-of-way (ROW)) with similar control areas in 6 different habitat types during the breeding and migration seasons. Habitat structure was measured to examine the inherent differences between control and treatment areas. Using 2 census methods, territorial mapping and transect counts, it was determined that sedge wrens and LeConte's sparrows had lower breeding-population densities in treatment areas than in control areas. LeConte's sparrows and Connecticut warblers occurred at greater mean distances from the transmission line in treatment areas than from a similarly positioned line in control areas. Fifteen paired t-tests (5 habitats in 3 yr), in which territorial mapping data were used, revealed that community densities were lower in 1 treatment habitat (high shrub) in 1 of 3 yr (P lt 0.05). A 2-way analysis of variance with transect counts was not confirmatory when yearly variation was included. Transect counts revealed lower population densities in 1 treatment habitat (low shrub) in 2 of 3 yr (P lt 0.05). Greater species richness (P lt 0.05) was observed in 2 treatment habitats (closed spruce and sedge fen) than in controls. Treatment habitats were most similar in habitat structure to their paired control habitats, but each habitat of the pair was significantly different (P lt 0.05) from the other in at least 2 of 10 habitat characteristics analyzed. It is suggested that avian differences observed between paired areas were primarily attributable to the inherent habitat differences between control and treatment areas and the new habitat created under the transmission line. Data indicated negligible effects of this transmission line on bird populations, but interpretations are difficult, because the effects varied with habitat, season and method considered. Postimpact studies, which compare control and treatment areas, are less effective than before-and-after studies, because differences in habitat structure exist between any 2 areas.

2334. Red Lake genealogies. (1997). [Genealogical database]. C. NiiSka, Wub-e-ke-niew, & et al. Red Lake Ahnishinahbśůtjibway of the Bear Dodem.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2335. Noel, J. V. (1988). Dry Millennium: temperance and a new social order in mid-nineteenth-century Canada and Red River. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto (Canada).
Abstract: From the upsurge of temperance revivals in 1841 to the narrow defeat of a prohibition bill in the Province of Canada in 1855, the records suggest that at least five hundred thousand people took the total abstinence pledge. Campaigns in the less populous western colony of Red River added perhaps another thousand to the number. Their motives ranged from such mundane considerations as labour efficiency to a conviction that the millenium was at hand. The latter notion influenced devout members of the Montreal business community and their wives. Through the agency of the Montreal Temperance Society they undertook in 1841 to send out agents to every English-speaking community in the Province. Montreal's missionaries enjoyed particular success in Canada West, where the rural population was outgrowing 'frontier' drinking patterns. In Toronto and other towns, the increasing influence of evangelicals, growing social problems, and restlessness for progress all helped win recruits. Meanwhile, temperance took different courses in two other British North American communities. Among the French-speaking peoples of Canada East, Father Charles Chiniquy linked temperance to progress and canadien patriotism. He thereby induced over half the population to take the teetotal pledge--helping, in the process, to confirm the social leadership of the clergy. In Red River, restraint by the Hudson's Bay Company and temperance preaching by missionaries led to a more sober society in the three decades following the union of rival fur trade companies in 1821. But enthusiasm was less marked than in Canada. It clashed with the drive for free trade (of which liquor was a major commodity) which was integral to metis nationalism. Red River's drinking practices can also be seen partly in the context of a traditional society resisting attempts at modernization; while political upheaval and the lack of effective law enforcement also play a part. Back in Canada, temperance continued to flourish among many progressive farmers, ambitious artisans, ardent nationalists and in the growing ranks of middle class women. At their fore were a French Catholic clergy, rapidly growing in influence; and the rising entrepreneurs of Toronto and Montreal. Such forces assured the movement's prominence in the mid-nineteenth century and days ahead.

2336. . (1979). J. Norcross, & C. KelseyReminiscences of Josephine Lightning Norcross, Red Lake band of Chippewa, Minnesota .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession:: 22906330

2337. Norland, R. A. (1989). "Boys in blue" : Blue Earth County in the Civil and Indian wars, 1861-1865 . Archive/Manuscript Control.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 20001872

2338. . (1990). R. A. Norland"Common men, uncommon times" : Blue Earth County in the Civil and Indian wars, 1861-1865 .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22466817. Typescript. Cover title. Includes bibliographical references (leaf 33).

2339. Norton, H. V. (1950). The Chippewa and Sioux bury the hatchet. Totem Pole, 24(6), 1-3.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2340. [not identified]. (1900). [Ojibwa beaded carved wood bone glass necklaces.]. United States Minnesota Grand Portage Indian Reservation.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034383
Abstract: Necklace is strung with carved bone beads, some shaped like animal teeth, cylindrical glass beads and various colors of small wood cubes. One end of the necklace has a pendant fringed leather element.From the Grand Portage Reservation, Minn.

2341. [not identified]. ([ca. 1915]). [Ojibwa beaded costume ornament.]. United States Minnesota White Earth Indian Reservation.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034380
Abstract: Beaded ornament is from the White Earth Reservation, Minn.

2342. [not identified]. (1900). United States Minnesota White Earth Indian Reservation.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034385
Abstract: Necklace from the White Earth Reservation, Minn., is a beaded chain of pink, green and blue beads.

2343. [not identified]. (1900a). [Ojibwa beaded cloth leather moccasins].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033559

2344. [not identified]. ([ca. 1900]). [Ojibwa beaded cloth leather moccasins].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033565

2345. [not identified]. ([ca. 1900]). [Ojibwa beaded cloth leather moccasins].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033576

2346. [not identified]. ([Date unknown]). [Ojibwa beaded cloth floral pattern neckties.].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034349
Abstract: Necktie consists of a layer of striped glossy cloth backed with a layer of tan loosely woven cloth and shaped with a narrow center section flanked by rectangular sections.The tan side of each rectangular section has a floral pattern in red, light blue and dark blue glass seed beads on a light blue background.Each pattern is spot-stitched and different.

2347. [not identified]. ([Early 20th century]). [Ojibwa loom-woven beadwork floral pattern necklaces].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034355
Abstract: Narrow loom-woven [sic] beadwork band of glass seed beads has a dark green background and individual multicolored beadwork flowers incorporated along the edge of the band so that half projects from the side of the band. This type of necklace, the daisy chain, was and still is manufactured for commercial sale.

2348. [not identified]. ([194-]). [Ojibwa beaded felt ribbon feather headdresses].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033677
Abstract: Feather headdress was a gift to U.S. representative Harold C. Hagen from an unidentified Minnesota band of Ojibwa.†† The skullcap is felt lined with white satin.The forehead is beaded with a red, white and blue star pattern and has dangling ribbons at either temple.Large tufted brown feathers approximately 17 inches in length are attached to the perimeter of the cap with leather thong.

2349. [not identified]. (1890). [Ojibwa beaded lined leather moccasins].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033581
Abstract: Pair of soft sole leather moccasins are sewn at the center of the toe and heel with tan thread.The separate vamp is beaded leather lined with leather.The beadwork has a pyramid and a cross design that uses rose, gold, dark blue, light green and dark green glass seed beads.The tongue is plain leather lined with leather. Cuffs are leather lined with beige cloth and edged with glossy grayish green cloth on the sides and bottom and glossy black cloth on the top edges.The cuff beadwork consists of a simple zigzag pattern of rose and white beads and a top edge of paired white beads. Two leather ties are sewn to each cuff.

2350. [not identified]. ([ca. 1910]). [Ojibwa beaded lined leather flannel fur moccasins.].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033605
Abstract: Pair of dark brown leather moccasins each have a single unit sole and upper, the toe of which is gathered to a separate vamp and tongue.The vamp is beaded in a floral pattern.The top cuff edge is outlined with brown fur. Both moccasins are lined with gray flannel; one interior has a tape that is marked "Henry T. Richardson 2nd".

2351. [not identified]. ([Date unknown]). [Ojibwa beaded leather moccasins].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033626
Abstract: No description available

2352. [not identified]. (1915). [Beaded suspended ornament.]. United States Minnesota White Earth Reservation.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034389
Abstract: Wide beaded necklace suspends a beaded breast ornament, both from the White Earth Reservation, Minn.The beadwork pattern is a small scale design on a white background.

2353. [not identified]. ([Date unknown]). [Ojibwa dyed beaded cloth hair headdresses].
Abstract: Men's headdress consists of a teardrop shaped base of blue cloth exterior backed with tan cloth.A slit pierces both layers of the wider end of the base.Long strands of natural brown and white animal hair are sewn along the outer edge of the base, encircling an inner row of dyed pink and orange animal hair and an innermost circle of spot-stitched red, green and yellow glass seed beads. The hair most often used for roaches is deer, moose or porcupine.A pink cord dangling from the roach is sewn to the narrower end of the base exterior.

2354. [not identified]. (1875). [Ojibwa beaded shell metal necklaces.]. United States Minnesota White Earth Indian Reservation.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034366
Abstract: Fragment of a necklace that is composed of small white shells and clear glass seed beads strung on white cotton thread with a part of a metal clasp on one end.This necklace was a gift to the donor from a dance at the White Earth Reservation, Minn.

2355. [not identified]. (1881). [Ojibwa lined beaded velvet floral pattern caps]. United States Minnesota Beltrami Red Lake Reservation.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033669
Abstract: Black velvet ceremonial cap from the Red Lake Reservation, Minn., is lined with homespun cloth, bound on the edged with red cloth binding and beaded on the exterior with a multicolor floral pattern.The cap is shaped like a military cap.

2356. [not identified]. ([ca. 1920]). [Ojibwa beaded velvet leather moccasins].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033603
Abstract: Pair of plain dark grayish brown leather moccasins have an oval rust colored velvet vamp edged with red fabric and trimmed with floral beadwork pattern using orange, metallic, green and white beads.The moccasin ties with buckskin laces.

2357. [not identified]. (1910). [Ojibwa beaded fobs.]. United States Minnesota White Earth Indian Reservation.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034379
Abstract: Beaded watch fob is from the White Earth Reservation, Minn.

2358. [not identified]. ([ca. 1900]). [Ojibwa braided beaded glass necklaces.]. United States Minnesota White Earth Indian Reservation.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034361
Abstract: Necklace consists of braided strands of multicolor [predominantly green] glass seed beads strung on tan thread that form a long chain with two large, round green glass beads at each end and multicolor beaded loops at each end.Necklace was in the collection of John R. Howard, Indian agent at White Earth Reservation, Minn., in the early 1900s.

2359. [not identified]. ([Date unknown]). [Ojibwa dyed sewn braided hair yarn headdresses].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033635
Abstract: Men's headdress consists of a teardrop shaped base sewn from braided blue, white and pink wool yarn.The exterior side is covered with black cloth [possibly felt or leather] with a slit near the wider end. Dyed orange animal hairs are sewn along the outer edge of the base, encircling an inner row of natural brown and white animal hair and an innermost ring of dyed red hairs.The hair most often used for roaches is deer, moose or porcupine. A red cord dangling from the roach is sewn to the narrower end of the base exterior.

2360. [not identified]. ([Date unknown]). [Ojibwa braided dyed wool cord hair headdresses].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033638
Abstract: Men's headdress consists of a teardrop shaped base sewn from braided burgundy and white wool yarn with a slit near the wider end.Two types of long and thin animal hairs are sewn with dark thread along the outer edge of the base; some are dyed orangish yellow, others are black with yellow tips. The hair most often used for roaches is deer, moose or porcupine. A pink cord dangling from the roach is sewn to the narrower end of the base exterior. See also roach stick 10000.194 B upon which the roach was stored, then wrapped in white cotton gauze.

2361. [not identified]. ([ca. 1895]). [Ojibwa beaded leather children's moccasins].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033587
Abstract: Pair of beaded soft sole leather moccasins for a child.

2362. [not identified]. ([ca. 1900]). [Ojibwa lined beaded velvet leather children's moccasins].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033624
Abstract: Pair of children's soft leather moccasins each have a seam at the heel and toe.The cuffs are 2.5 inches wide and covered with dark red velvet, on which is beaded a floral design.The cuffs are lined with brown and white checker pattern cloth and are bound with blue twilled cloth tape which forms ties for the front. The vamp and tongue is also red velvet with a single beadwork flower.

2363. [not identified]. ([Date unknown]). [Ojibwa embroidered dyed hide children's moccasins]. United States Minnesota Cass Cass Lake.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033582
Abstract: Child's pair of soft sole, machine-stitched, ankle high moccasins are made of tanned hide with a seam at the back of the heel and leg.A single flower is embroidered on the vamp using a running stitch and pinkish red wool floss with a stem and leaves of medium to dark yellowish green silk floss. The tongue is stitched to the insides of the leg and the front leg edges have two pairs of brass hooks for lacing with no laces present.A single row of pink stitching borders the vamp with the upper.A leather binding around the edge of the upper has been dyed medium bluish green.Moccasins leg is lined with yellow white cotton.Moccasin (B) is marked "1.75" on the lining. [All National Bureau of Standards colors].

2364. [not identified]. ([ca. 1890]). [Ojibwa leather velvet ribbon children's moccasins].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033594
Abstract: A child's single moccasin has a black velvet ankle flap trimmed in red ribbon with a red ribbon tie in front.The leather uppers have white thread stitches on the vamp where there once was beadwork.

2365. [not identified]. ([ca. 1920]). [Ojibwa dyed hair yarn leather headdresses]. United States Minnesota Leech Lake Indian Reservation. Cass Walker.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033659
Abstract: Men's headdress consists of a teardrop shaped braided cotton or yarn base that is sewn with brown thread and has a hole near the wider end. Dyed red porcupine hairs are sewn with brown thread along the outer edge of the base.The center is sewn with dyed red and natural brown animal hair.A leather cord dangling from the roach is sewn to the narrower end of the base exterior.This roach is part of an Ojibwa dance costume used by Kay-zhee-baush-kung (Otto Bismark) of the Leech Lake Reservation, Minn.See also items 1984.156 and 1984.157.

2366. [not identified]. ([Date unknown]). [Ojibwa dyed braided wool hair cord headdresses].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033636
Abstract: Men's headdress consists of a teardrop shaped base sewn from braided yarn with a hole near the wider end. Long strands of dyed red animal hair with black tips are sewn with dark thread along the outer edge of the base. The hair most often used for roaches is deer, moose or porcupine. On the reverse side of the base, a dangling pink cord is tied to the narrower end. See also roach stick 10000.202 B upon which the roach was stored, then wrapped with white cotton gauze.

2367. [not identified]. ([Date unknown]). [Ojibwa sewn dyed hair cord headdresses].
Abstract: Men's headdress consists of a teardrop shaped base with a slit near the wider end, sewn from narrow cord that is wrapped with animal hair. Long natural white and black and dyed red animal hairs are sewn with dark thread along the outer edge of the base.The interior has rows of clipped animal hairs dyed white, red, orange and purple. The hair most often used for roaches is deer, moose or porcupine.A brown cord dangling from the roach is sewn to the narrower end of the base exterior. See also roach stick 10000.197 B upon which the roach was stored, then wrapped in white cotton gauze.

2368. [not identified]. ([Date unknown]). [Ojibwa braided dyed wool hair headdresses].
Abstract: Men's headdress consists of a teardrop shaped base sewn from braided white and blue wool yarn with a hole near the wider end. Long strands of dyed pink animal hair are sewn with dark thread along the outer edge of the base. Natural black and yellow animal hairs are sewn to the inner edge. The hair most often used for roaches is deer, moose or porcupine.A dangling tan string covered with red cloth is sewn to the narrower end of the base.

2369. [not identified]. ([Date unknown]). [Ojibwa braided dyed hair yarn plastic leather headdresses].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033655
Abstract: Men's headdress consists of a teardrop shaped base made from braided burgundy, green and faded purple wool yarn, covered with leather on the exterior, and pierced with a hole near the wider end. Rows of long animal hairs are sewn with grayish brown thread along the outer edge of the base; some are dyed orange, yellow, red or green, others are natural brown, white or gold. The hair most often used for roaches is deer, moose or porcupine. Two ivory colored plastic rings are sewn on one side of the roach and four on the other, all of varying diameters.

2370. [not identified]. ([Late 19th-early 20th century]). [Ojibwa sewn dyed hair cord cloth headdresses].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033644
Abstract: Men's headdress consists of a teardrop shaped base with a hole near the wider end, sewn from narrow cord that is wrapped with animal hair. Dyed long red animal hairs are sewn with dark thread along the outer edge of the base.The interior has rows of clipped animal hairs dyed purple surrounded by long natural brown and yellow animal hairs.The hair most often used for roaches is deer, moose or porcupine.A pink elastic cord with bits of brown, pink and white striped cloth tied at the end is sewn to the reverse side of the narrower end of the base. See also roach stick 10000.199 B upon which the roach was stored, then wrapped in white cotton gauze.

2371. [not identified]. ([ca. 1920]). [Ojibwa beaded embroidered lined buckskin moccasins//Buckskin fringe].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033595
Abstract: Pair of soft sole buckskin moccasins have a blue cloth backing inside the high cuff.The curved vamp seam is fringed and marked with a chain of multicolor beadwork.The vamp center is embroidered with multicolor thread images of a canoe, a deer, a turtle, a star, a moon and a pair of crossed lacrosse sticks.†† The cuff exterior is beaded with a chain of dark blue, light blue, coral and green.

2372. [not identified]. ([ca. 1925]). [Ojibwa feather headdresses]. United States Minnesota Red Lake Reservation.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033672
Abstract: Feather headdress was a gift to U.S. Representative Harold C. Hagen from the Red Lake [Minn.] band of Ojibwa.

2373. [not identified]. ([ca. 1900]). [Ojibwa wool button hoods. Colored fringe]. United States Minnesota Grand Portage Indian Reservation.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033653
Abstract: Brownish gray wool hood is gathered at the back of the neck and has yellow and black fringe sewn in at the edge seams and vertically bisecting the back of the hood.The hood secures by means of a ribbon tied around a brown button at the neck.Hood is from the Grand Portage Reservation, Minn.

2374. [not identified]. ([Date unknown]). United States Minnesota.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033652
Abstract: Men's headdress is decorated with animal hair. The hair most often used for roaches is deer, moose or porcupine.

2375. [not identified]. ([Mid-20th century]). [Ojibwa dyed sewn yarn hair headdresses. Loom-woven lined felt elastic beadwork headbands.].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033664
Abstract: Men's headdress consists of a teardrop shaped base of thick dark brown wool yarn with a small hole in the wider end.Rows of dyed red animal hairs and natural white and brown animal hairs are sewn along the outer edge of the base with black thread. The hair most often used for roaches is deer, moose or porcupine.A loom-woven beadwork headstrap backed with brown felt attaches to the base with two snaps and features a strip of elastic.The beadwork has a light blue, yellow and orange cross design on a transclucent silver bead background.

2376. [not identified]. ([Early 20th century]). [Ojibwa loom-woven glass beadwork necklaces]. United States Minnesota White Earth Indian Reservation.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034388
Abstract: Necklace consists of a strip of loom-woven glass seed beads in a geometric pattern of dark blue and yellow on a black thread warp.Looped tassels of lustrous beads are strung through slits in the chain, one at the center, a second midway to an end, and two at either end of the chain.A short section of the band has rusted beads.The necklace was in the collection of John R. Howard, Indian agent at White Earth Reservation, Minn., in the early 1900s.

2377. [not identified]. ([Late 19th-early 20th century]). [Ojibwa loom-woven beadwork floral pattern neckties. Wool yarn fringe].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034356
Abstract: Necktie consists of a long beadwork panel that is narrow in the center and flanked by unequal long rectangles.The warp ends have a short red wool yarn fringe.The multicolor glass seed beads form a floral pattern with a black border and clear background on a tan thread warp.A square tan and blue paper tag formerly stapled to the necktie is marked "n[checkmark]" and handwritten "Fl 711", now in the accession file.

2378. [not identified]. ([Late 19th-early 20th century]). [Ojibwa loom-woven glass beadwork geometric pattern neckties. Wool yarn fringe.].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034372
Abstract: Necktie consists of a long beadwork panel that is narrow in the center and flanked by unequal long rectangles.The warp ends have a short red wool yarn fringe.The multicolor glass seed beads form a geometric pattern of diamond and triangles on a tan thread warp.A square tan and blue paper tag formerly stapled to the necktie is marked "n[checkmark]", now in the accession file.

2379. [not identified]. ([Early 20th century]). [Ojibwa loom-woven beadwork geometric pattern fobs].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034352
Abstract: Beaded watch fob is a band with two parallel sides, a pointed end and a double-pointed tail, loom-woven of glass seed beads. The design formed is a red, white and blue geometric pattern on a gold ground.Loose warp white threads hang at both pointed ends.

2380. [not identified]. ([20th century]). [Ojibwa loom-woven glass beadwork necklaces].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034369
Abstract: Necklace consists of a narrow loom-woven band of glass seed beads with an attached oblong, bulbous beaded tassel.The band forms a geometric pattern of orange, blue, white and black on a gold background with a tan thread warp.The tassel is a firm substance covered with tan cloth and wrapped with strands of blue or red beads.Loops of red and blue beads hang from the tassel bottom.

2381. [not identified]. ([Late 19th-early 20th century]). [Rectangular Ojibwa loom-woven beadwork neckties].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034373
Abstract: Rectangular loom-woven beaded band is shaped like a necktie, narrowing to a 2.3 cm wide band in the center section.The multicolor glass seed beads are woven on a tan thread warp into a geometric pattern with a colorless translucent bead background.Either end has a short fringe of blue and clear bead loops.

2382. [not identified]. ([Date unknown]). [Ojibwa braided sewn yarn hair ribbon cord headdresses].
Abstract: Men's headdress consists of a teardrop shaped base sewn from braided green and black wool yarn backed with a glossy black cloth.The wider end of the base is pierced with a slit.Long strands of natural white animal hair and natural gold and black animal hair are sewn with dark thread along the outer edge of the base.The interior is sewn with bits of blue ribbon.The hair most often used for roaches is deer, moose or porcupine.On the reverse side of the base a dangling red cord is sewn to the narrower end. See also roach stick 10000.201 B upon which the roach was stored, then wrapped in white cotton cloth.

2383. [not identified]. ([ca. 1890]). [Ojibwa feather headdresses.].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033663
Abstract: No description available

2384. [not identified]. (1866). [White Ojibwa dyed quillwork moccasins].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033552
Abstract: Single white soft sole tanned skin moccasin is sewn across the center of the toe and heel.The separate vamp and cuff are decorated with quillwork that is braided in shades of deep pink anf medium greenish blue along the curve of the vamp.The center of the vamp is worked in a five petal floral and teardrop shape using very light green, very deep purple and soft red quills.The cuff is edged with quillwork in a buttonhole stitch that alternates light purplish pink and medium greenish blue dyed quills.[All National Bureau of Standards colors].

2385. [not identified]. ([ca. 1910]). [Ojibwa women's moccasins]. United States Minnesota White Earth Indian Reservation.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033569

2386. [not identified]. ([Date unknown]). [Ojibwa braided dyed hair leather wool headdresses].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033647
Abstract: Men's headdress consists of a teardrop shaped base sewn from braided burgundy and white wool yarn with a hole near the wider end.Two types of long and thin animal hairs are sewn with dark thread along the outer edge of the base; some are dyed red, others are black with yellow tips. The hair most often used for roaches is deer, moose or porcupine.A stiff leather thong dangling from the roach is sewn to the narrower end of the reverse side of the base.See also roach stick 10000.194 B upon which the roach was stored, when wrapped in white cotton gauze.

2387. [not identified]. ([Date unknown]).
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033648
Abstract: Men's headdress consists of a teardrop shaped base of red wool with a hole near the wider end.A tan cord dangling from the base is sewn to the narrower end of the exterior.A mix of dyed purple animal hairs and natural brown and white animal hairs are sewn along the outer edge of the base. The hair most often used for roaches is deer, moose or porcupine.

2388. [not identified]. ([Late 19th-early 20th century]). [Ojibwa dyed braided wool hair headdresses].
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033665
Abstract: Men's headdress consists of a teardrop shaped base sewn from braided light green and dark green wool yarn with a hole near the wider end. Long strands of dyed red animal hair are sewn with dark thread along the outer edge of the base.Natural black and yellow animal hairs are sewn to the inner edge. The hair most often used for roaches is deer, moose or porcupine. On the reverse side of the base, a pink elastic cord is sewn to the narrower end and two small metal rings are attached to the wider end. See also roach stick 10000.200 B upon which the roach was stored.

2389. [not identified]. ([Late 19th-early 20th century]). [Ojibwa woven beadedcord striped pattern necklaces]. United States Minnesota White Earth Indian Reservation.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00034376
Abstract: Necklace is woven of green and white glass seed beads on tan thread using a bias weave technique around a gold cloth core. The beads form stripes in the round.A gold colored metal cap fits over either end of the necklace with a gold colored clasp attached.The necklace was in the collection of John R. Howard, Indian agent for White Earth Reservation, Minn., in the 1900s.

2390. [not identified]. (1913). [Ojibwa dyed yarn hair cord headdresses]. United States Minnesota Cass Cass Lake.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 09-00033676
Abstract: Men's headdress consists of a teardrop shaped base of thick yarn with a hole near the wider end.Dyed red deer hairs and natural deer hair are sewn with dark thread along the outer edge of the base. Three cord fasteners dangling from the roach are sewn to the narrower end of the base exterior. Roach is from the Ojibwa near Cass Lake on the Leech Lake Indian Reservation, Minn.

2391. Novak, V., Weisskopf, M., & August, M. (1997). Hedging their bets. (the Sault Ste. Marie Chippewa tribe inMichigan is making substantial political contributions across theUS). Time, 149(15), 28(1).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: The Sault Ste. Marie Chippewas, a Michigan tribe rich from casino revenues, know something about spreading their bets around the table. After G.O.P. Governor John Engler trumped their plans to build a casino in downtown Detroit, they gave $100,000 to the national Democratic Party in early '96. That helped win the attention of then deputy White House chief of staff Harold Ickes, whom they pressed to get the Interior Department to back their casino proposal. Actually, the tribe gave the President's party almost four times that much. But to avoid further angering Engler, who was already furious about their support for Michigan Democrats in 1994, they routed most of it to state Democratic parties across the country, where Engler would be unlikely to see it. At the same time, they made an $80,000 donation to Engler's Michigan G.O.P.--and none to their home-state Democratic Party. Though Interior nixed their casino bid, the department is still weighing their request to add hundreds of tax-free acres to their sovereign territory. Tribal spokesman John Hatch said the money wasn't intended to influence policy: "We're proud that we're able to help those who help us."
Full Text COPYRIGHT 1997 Time Inc.

2392. Novick, G. E., Novick, C. C., Yunis, J., Yunis, E., Antunez, D. M. P., Scheer, W. D., Deininger, P. L., Stoneking, M., York, D. S., Batzer, M. A., & Herrera, R. J. (1998). Polymorphic Alu Insertions and the Asian Origin of Native American Populations. Human Biology , 70(1), 23-29.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: A rapid PCR-based assay was used to study the distribution of 5 polymorphic Alu insertions in 895 unrelated individuals from 30 populations, 24 from North, Central, and South America. Although a significant level of interpopulation variability was detected, the variability was less than that observed in a worldwide population survey. This is consistent with the bottleneck effect and genetic drift forces that may have acted on the migrating founder groups. The results corroborate the Asian origin of native American populations but do not support the multiple-wave migration hypothesis supposedly responsible for the tripartite Eskaleut, Nadene, and Amerind linguistic groups. Instead, these populations exhibit three major identifiable clusters reflecting geographic distribution. Close similarity between the Chinese and native Americans suggests recent gene flow from Asia.

2393. Novins, D. K., & Mitchell, C. M. (1998). Factors Associated With Marijuana Use Among American Indian Adolescents. Addiction, 93(11), 1693-1702.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: AIM: To examine the characteristics of marijuana users among a large sample of American Indian high school students. DESIGN: High school survey. SETTING: Seven predominantly American Indian high schools in four communities west of the Mississippi. PARTICIPANTS: 1464 Indian adolescents who: (1) completed a survey in November, 1993, (2) were in grades 9 to 12, (3) were members of one of four Indian tribal groups; and (4) had a complete set of data for these analyses. MEASUREMENTS: Logistic regression models were developed to predict the probability of low-frequency (1-3 times over the last month) and high-frequency (11 or more times) marijuana use. Independent variables included measures of socio-demographics, stressful life events, personal characteristics and beliefs, psychiatric symptomatology and other substance use. FINDINGS: Forty per cent of these American Indian adolescents had used marijuana at least once in the last month. The prevalence of marijuana use varied across the four tribes. Males were no more likely than females to use marijuana at a low frequency, but were more likely to use at a high frequency. The factors associated with marijuana use varied with the frequency of use and by gender. In the final multivariate models, low-frequency marijuana use among females was associated with reporting that peers encouraged alcohol use as well as use of alcohol and stimulants. Among males, low-frequency use was associated with greater positive alcohol expectancies, lower grades in school and alcohol use. While high-frequency marijuana use was associated with use of alcohol, stimulants and cocaine among females, such use was associated with higher scores on the antisocial behavior scale as well as the use of alcohol, stimulants and cocaine among males. Overall, the strongest associations were with the use of alcohol and other illicit substances. CONCLUSION: Low-frequency and high-frequency marijuana use are distinct patterns of use and have different correlates across genders. Marijuana use among American Indian adolescents is a complex phenomenon that is best understood within the context of other substance use.(Abstract by: Author)

2394. (1987).[Recording]. [Saint Paul?] : Minnesota State Arts Board.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 16522206
Abstract: Produced by Folk Arts Program Associate Philip Nusbaum at the WCAL studios, Northfield, Minn. Narrator: Philip Nusbaum. "Recorded on location throughout Minnesota during 1986- 87." Side A. Children's songs, Camp St. Croix (3:21) -- Red Lake pow wow(3:53) -- Ukrainian music (4:26) -- Hardanger fiddle (4:20) -- Scandinavian old-time music (3:30) -- Bill Sherburne (4:06) -- Archie Tiegen (3:36) -- Side B. Bob Andresen (4:12) -- Hmong stories (4:28) -- Gospel music (4:28) --Yiddische Folksmenchn (4:30) -- Bill Lechko (3:52) -- The Bjorngjeld family (3:28).

2395. Nute, G. L., & Ely, E. F. (1925). The Edmund Franklin Ely papers. Minnesota History, 6, 343-354.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2396. Nute, G. L., 1895- . (1944). Indian medals and certificates. Minnesota History, 25, 265-270.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 19260703. At head of title: Notes and documents.

2397. Nutting, S. S. (1992). La representation de l'Indien dans le theatre Quebecois du XXe siecle (French text). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Queen's University at Kingston (Canada).
Abstract: It is the purpose of this study to examine the representation of the Indian in twentieth century Quebecois theatre. The following works are analysed: la Dalle-des-morts by F.-A. Savard, Les Grands Soleils by J. Ferron, Bois Brules de J.-L. Roux, On n'est pas sorti du bois de D. de Pasquale, Un si bel automne de F. Loranger et Il n'y a plus d'Indiens de B. Assiniwi. As is the case in other areas of literature, the presence of a symbolic, simplified prototype of the Indian prevails. However, there is a twist: in Quebecois theatre the Indian (or the Metis) is most often invested with the characteristics of a political rebel who, disarticulated from his own society, appears as the 'emblem' of Quebecois revolt. Moreover, the Indian is invariably stalked by death, if he has not already been claimed by it. He undergoes a symbolic death in view of the new life and yet, ironically, the benefits of this sacrifice are reaped by others. Thus the Indian appears as a sacrificial figure, as both scapegoat and pharmakos, the focal point within the violent mechanism that Rene Girard identifies as the foundation of all myth. Furthermore, as object of mythification in the Barthesian sense, the Indian is put to death by language itself. Consequently, the forms of sacrifice and tragedy can be seen as having disquieting similarities.

2398. O'Connor, J., Schwartz, S., & Wheeler, L. A. Exploring United States History.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
[public school textbook]

2399. O'Gorman, J. (1993). The Tremaine Site Complex: Oneota Occupation In the La Crosse Locality, Wisconsin.State Historical Society of Wisconsin.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

2400. O'nell, T. D. (1998). Cultural Formulation of Psychiatric Diagnosis. Psychotic Depression and Alcoholism in an American Indian Man. Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry, 22(1), 123-136.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

2401. O'Reilly, M. (1900). The burning of Indian Village on the banks of Burt Lake in the fall of 1900. Archive/Manuscript Control.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search).Donor: 580.

2402. Obey, D. (1989 April). [Letter to Lake Superior Chippewa Tribal, & Chairmen].
Notes: Source: cited by Loew, Patty (Fall 1997).

2403. Oen, K., El-Gabalawy, H. S., & Canvin, J. M. G. (1998). HLA Associations of Seropositive RA in a Cree and Ojibway Population. The Journal of Rheumatology, 25(12), 2319.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2404. Oen, K., El-Gabalawy, H. S., Canvin, J. M. G., Hitchon, C., Chalmers, I. M., Schroeder, M., Jacobson, K., Reed, M., Wood, S., & Cheang, M. (1998). HLA Associations of Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis in a Cree and Ojibway Population. Journal of Rheumatology, 25(12), 2319-2323.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: Objective. To determine the HLA associations of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a Cree and Ojibway population; to determine whether specific alleles distinguish juvenile or adult onset. Methods. HLA-A, B, C, and DRB1 alleles were analyzed in 23 Ojibway and Cree patients with RA seen in a single tertiary care center. Comparisons were made with published results of controls and with results of 18 patients with rheumatoid factor (RF) positive polyarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) from the same population. Results. Comparisons among patients with RA, patients with RF positive polyarticular JRA, and controls showed increased frequencies of the RA shared epitope in patients with RA and of DRB1*0901 in patients with seropositive polyarticular JRA, while the frequency of DRB1*08 alleles was decreased in patients with RF positive polyarticular JRA. Conclusion. In this population, DRB1*0901 may promote while DRB1*08 alleles may protect against a juvenile onset of RA specifically. In contrast, the RA shared epitope may have a greater effect on the risk of adult onset seropositive RA. Due to the small patient numbers, these results require confirmation.

2405. Oen, K., Schroeder, M., Jacobson, K., Anderson, S., Wood, S., Cheang, M., & Dooley, J. (1998). Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis in a Canadian First Nations (Aboriginal) Population - Onset Subtypes and HLA Associations. Journal of Rheumatology, 25(4), 783-790.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: Objective, To determine onset subtypes and HLA associations of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) in a First Nations (aboriginal) population; to determine whether population frequencies of HLA antigens may explain the distribution of subtypes of JRA in this population.

2406. Oen, K. G., & Cheang, M. (1996). Epidemiology of Chronic Arthritis in Childhood. Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism, 26(3), 575-591.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: This study was performed to review reports of the descriptive epidemiology of chronic arthritis in childhood and to analyze the factors that may explain differences in its reported frequency. Articles were retrieved by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE under the following index terms: juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA), spondyloarthropathy, epidemiology, prevalence, and incidence. For reports published between 1977 to 1982, the Index Medicus was used. All original articles that provided prevalence or incidence rates, population size, or number of cases, were reviewed and entered into the analysis. Variables analyzed were disease prevalence and incidence. Modifier variables investigated were diagnostic criteria, source population, geographic origin of the report (Europe or North America), duration of the study, and race of the population studied. Diagnostic criteria had no effect on reported prevalence or incidence rates. Prevalence per 100,000 at risk obtained from population studies (132, 95% Cl:119, 145) was significantly higher than values derived from practitioner- (26, 95% Cl:23, 29) or clinic-based studies (12, 95% Cl:10, 15) (P=.02). North American clinic-based studies had higher prevalence values compared with European reports (32, 95% Cl:26, 38 versus 8, 95% Cl:5, 11, P=.009). None of the factors analyzed accounted for the variability in reported incidence rates. An effect of race was detected only in the distribution of patients among onset subsets. Thus, the percentage of patients with pauciarticular JRA was highest in series of North American and European caucasian patients (58, 95% Cl:56, 60) compared with series of East Indian (25, 95% Cl:20, 31), native North American Indian (26, 95% Cl:15, 37), or other races (31, 95% Cl:28, 35) (P=.001). In contrast, the percentage of patients with polyarticular JRA was lowest in the former (27, 95% Cl:25, 28) compared with the other racial groups (East Indian, 61, 95% Cl:55, 66; native North American Indian, 64,95% Cl:53, 76; other races, 34, 95% Cl:30, 38) (P=.004). Although an effect of source population on reported prevalence was confirmed, the effect of geographic origin suggests that environmenttar or ethnic differences also may influence the prevalence of chronic arthritis in children. Differences in the percentages of patients with pauciarticular and polyarticular JRA may reflect racial differences in the prevalence of these conditions. Copyright (C) 1996 by W.B. Saunders Company. [References: 78]

2407. Ogan, D. G. (Branch of Relocation). (1958). E. F. MittelholtzHistorical Review of the Red Lake Indian Reservation .
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2408. Ogden, C. K. C. K. K. (1940). The general Basic English dictionary, giving more than 40,000 senses of over 20,000 words, in Basic English. London : Evans brothers limited.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
Orthological Institute (Cambridge, England) Basic English dictionary.

2409. Ogg, A. C. (1989). Ojibwa tales of the Foolish Maidens. Papers, Algonquian Conference, (20), 279-291.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2410. Ogle, D. H., Spangler, G. R., Shroyer, S. M., & Cyterski, M. J. (1994). Using Temporal Signatures To Age Fish With An Example From Red Lakes, MN Walleye. Am. Fish. Soc. Annu. Meet. Abstr., 124( [FR 40(3)]), 146-147.
Notes: Source: Fish & Fisheries Worldwide databases: Fisheries Review [University of Minnesota onlinedatabases], August 29, 1999 search

2411. Ohman, T. M. (1978). A descriptive study of the school personnel, school children and community of Redlake High School .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).Field Study (Specialist in Ed. Ad.)--St. Cloud State University. Bibliography: leaves 83-84.

2412. ([undated]). Room 302, 122 W. Franklin Avenue, Minneapolis, MN:
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2413. Ojibwe News. (1988). Ross Swimmer interviewed. Ojibwe News.
Abstract: Transcript of Press Conference with Commissioner of Indian Affairs Ross Swimmer, July 12, 1988, Minneapolis, MN
Swimmer: So, with that, I presume, the press is around the table, and Iím willing to answer, or try to answer, any questions that you might have, and if you donít have any, Iím sure Iíll find something else to say.
Goldenberg: Steven Goldenberg, with First Person Radio, Migizi Communications. Mr. Secretary, it seems kind of a contradiction here, to teach people to be better managers for the B.I.A., in view of your main idea that the B.I.A. should eventually go out of business.Is that a good career track for these people, then, if all that ...
Swimmer: Thatís what I was trying to get across to them earlier.Yes, I think that it does work well, and works to their benefit, especially what I am saying is, if we plan today ... or letís say, letís go backóif we planned n 1975 self-determination was a policy, and enacted into law, for what was going to happen fifteen years from then, for what was going to happen fifteen years from then, I think that everyone at that time would had said that the object is for tribes to take over the functions of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and thatís what began to happen.We contracted out for a lot of the programs.What didnít get said then, was ďwhat will be the role of the Bureau be, then at the end of fifteen years?And as a consequence of that, even though the policy of self-determination was announced, and law was passed, we had a lot of resistance in the field.There were a lot of people of the B.I.A., out at the agency, who said, ďhey, they may think that way in Washington, but donít you come over here. Mr. Tribe, and try to take my program, because thatís my job.And so, you have that built-in resistance there, because really what did happen was, if the Superintendent was successful in contracting out his program, he lost his job.That was never accounted for, and it was almost like, well we put this into effect, but we really donít mean it.What Iím suggesting is that a policy of self-determination, if we carry it forward now, has to have some goal, some probability of success n the future, and that would be that, if we set apart, say in 1995 or in the year 2,000 ... maybe thatís a good year to pick, the turn of the Century, the Bureau of Indian Affairs budget, as it is today, would be approximately a hundred million dollars instead of a billion dollars, whatever they might be.Well, letís say ten percent, and what weíre going to do with that ten percent, is weíre going to be an administrative agency that will be the contact for Indian tribes in Washington, is weíre going to ferry programs and laws to the hill, and weíre years?And as a consequence of that, even though the policy of self-determination was announced, and law was passed, we had a lot of resistance in the field.There were a lot of people of the B.I.A., out at the agency, who said, ďhey, they may think that way in Washington, but donít you come over here. Mr. Tribe, and try to take my program, because thatís my job.And so, you have that built-in resistance there, because really what did happen was, if the Superintendent was successful in contracting out his program, he lost his job.That was never accounted for, and it was almost like, well we put this into effect, but we really donít mean it.What Iím suggesting is that a policy of self-determination, if we carry it forward now, has to have some goal, some probability of success n the future, and that would be that, if we set apart, say in 1995 or in the year 2,000 ... maybe thatís a good year to pick, the turn of the Century, the Bureau of Indian Affairs budget, as it is today, would be approximately a hundred million dollars instead of a billion dollars, whatever they might be.Well, letís say ten percent, and what weíre going to do with that ten percent, is weíre going to be an administrative agency that will be the contact for Indian tribes in Washington, is weíre going to ferry programs and laws to the hill, and weíre going to provide some technical assistance to tribes, but the basic role of the Bureau has really been transferred over to the tribes; tribes have been managing their trusteeship; tribes will be managing this and managing that.But, if we donít say that, what worries me then is that weíll never get there.If we donít make that statement, and what Iím saying to these managers is that we need competent people to carry this into that next phase of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Cook: Yeah, Iím Don Cook of the Ojibwe News, and I have a question on ... as far as your management of millions of dollars going into tribesówhat is your policy as far as accountability to the people that the tribes are representing?We constantly hear self-determination, and the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, self-determination means eleven people.The rest of the peopleówe havenít seen our tribal government since 1979.We go to a council meeting in Red Lake; we are arrested by the Bureau of Indian Affairs police.We go to our election; every polling place on the reservation is supervised by the Bureau of Indian Affairs police.You know, where is the people?Where is the self-determination?
Swimmer: Well, Iím not going to get into local tribal politics any more than I absolutely have to, but thatís ...
Cook: Well, Iíd like to ask you a question about it, though.
Swimmer: Well, let me answer the question as best I can.The federal government, and Congress in particular, decided that this course was what was right, they said that, in effect, tribal government is it.They said, weíre going to accept tribal government, and in fact in may cases Congress is the one that mandated that we will have Tribal Government, because they needed someone on the Reservation, to distribute these dollars.They claimed at that time, that the state and federal governments werenít doing it; that the money wasnít getting to the people.So, the way to do it, would be for the people to organize a tribal government.And then, weíll use those tribal governments as conduits, so that the money, and the programs, can get to the people.Look, weíre going to have Tribal Government.That implies then, that thereís going to be some representation by that tribal government of the people.There is no doubt, in my mind, that has not happened in all cases.I have seen many, many cases... Iím not citing any in particular, but Iíve seen many cases, where the tribal government is not really very representative of the people.I have also seen cases the local and state government is not very representative of the people.They donít feel like the State government listens to them, sometimes either.But, I can tell you, that I donít condone it.I believe that tribes, if they are going to participate in this process, also must have a free and open election, and they must have a process by which the people participate in the tribal government, and participate in the election of those, or the selection of those leaders, however they might do it.
Cook: What is the responsibility that the Bureau of Indian Affairs has for the Constitution of the Tribe?Fore example, our Constitution says that our Tribal Chairman shall live on the Reservation one year prior to running for election.Our tribal chairman hasnít been living on the reservation for the last nine years.
Swimmer: Well, I donít consider that our responsibility, or that of the B.I.A., to ...
Cook: Youíre part of the Constitution.Our constitution would be ...think itís a contract, our constitution is a contract between the federal government and the Tribe.And, before itís recognized, the Secretary has to approve the Constitution.Now, in Red Lake in particular, weíre ... the people are left totally out in left field, our representatives ... they donít know whatís coming up at the meeting until theyíre asked to vote, and itsí that way all across the country ... and in the votes ... the Government is hand-picking their leaders.
Swimmer: What I had hoped to do is, that is this morning at least, is to talk to the press generally about issues that they might have.Youíre making statements, and I canít respond to those, because I donít have the other side here.And I know that there are other people on that reservation, that believe that they do have certain rights.I do know that Red Lake has elections.Now, I donít look at as the Bureau of Indian Affairsí responsibility to get involved in the elections, any more than we absolutely have to.I donít look at it as proper that we should be in your constitution.I believe that people of that reservation should call the shots, and that the people of that reservation should decide what kind of leadership they want, and that they should set up a mechanism to do that.And, itís hard for me to believe that everybody on the reservation is co-optedby one or to or eleven people, and that no one else out there has any rights, or abilities to make any changes.Now if, I said that itís hard for me to believe, Iím not saying that itís not.And, Iím not saying that itís not a way to remedy that, but I do believe that it is a local issue, and that it has got to be resolved.Now, Iím wiling to talk to you-all about a specific issue, but I think that weíre getting off the course as far as what we would like to try to do today, and answer questions a little bit more broader.But, if you want to go ahead and make your statements, Iíll be happy to listen ...
Blake: Mr. Swimmer, Iím Francis Blake, with the Ojibwe News, and what youíre talking about is the press that youíve dealt with is the corporate press.We are not the corporate press.We are printing the truth.And, these are the questions that we are asking you.
Swimmer: Well, I want you to print the truth.Iím not ...
Blake: Weíre not the corporate press.
Swimmer: I mean, if youíre making statements, and youíre not asking questions ... Ifyou want to ask a question, Iíll be more than happy to answer it.
Gordy: Iíve got a question.Iím with the Circle newspaper.My name is Gordon ... You referred earlier to the possibility of the B.I.A. phasing out over time, in the period 1995 to the year 2,000.The possibility, is that then the program thatís being instituted, where the funds are going to the timber of ten tribes.Is that part of that long-term phase-outóis this the trial run?
Swimmer: It wonít be a ... the so-called ten tribes was a ... it could be considered sort-of a first start at that.What I was trying to do, was look at the federal resources, and instead of the federal government planning how the dollars get spent in Indian country, I wanted to reverse the process, so that we could start the planning from the ground up, so that the tribes ... letís say, that Tribe A last year received five million dollars of federal B.I.A. funds for a whole list of different programs that Congress authorized.They have to spend that money for those particular programs.They might not even want those programs, but if they donít operate those programs, they wonít get the money.What I said to Congress was, why donít we tell Tribe A, thereís five million dollars of federal dollars available.Now, you tell us how youíre going to spend it.Youíve told us that you have high unemployment, youíve told us about the alcoholism, youíve told us about poor health, and all this .. how are you going to deal with those problems with this five million dollars?And you develop the program that you want... We then will incorporate it into the B.I.A. budget, this being your budget, in effect, is in addendum to ours, send it to the hill, let them appropriate the money, and your tribe then will be held accountable for whether you were successful.The way it is now, is that because we operate in this programmatic mode, tribes almost have to fail, n order to get re-funded the next year.If they donít show the same need that they had this year, then those programs that theyíre operating that we send to them, they donít need to be there, and so the money will go somewhere else.What I was trying to do was sort of guarantee this level of funding to a tribe, and say, ďweíre going to give you credit for being successful... So, as you begin solving problems, it wouldnít mean that you begin losing money.ĒBecause, as we know, there will be plenty of other things that you can continue doing.Almost revenue-share concept.So, those ten tribes ... what happened was, those ten tribes were at the hearing last December, and congressman Yates suggested that because they were there and had heard, and said, ďwell, now maybe that might be an idea,Ē why donít you ten tribes try to get with Swimmer and develop some tribal specific programming like that, and weíll give you a million dollars a plan.Thatís how those ten tribes... but there are several other tribes, besides those ten, that are interested in it.
Lussier: Uh, Mr. Swimmer, Iím going to stop you.You know, when I go to a meeting, I like something to come.You was asked a question.Whoís responsible for the Constitution that youíve made, I think the question was.Did you answer it?And, Iím going to ask you this: I was on the Chiefís council, and the B.I.A. said that, ďyou donít have no Council.ĒSo, they took it away from us, just like that.The B.I.A. ... and I told the B.I.A. at that time, ďyouíre going to be sued for this some day.ĒMy name is Adolf Lussier, and Iím enrolled on the Red Lake Indian Reservation, and I served on the Council for eight years, so I know exactly what the Council is doing, and I want to thank you, if I said anything hurt your feelings, I hope to Christ it didnít.Thank you.
Swimmer: As far as whoís responsible for the Constitution, itís the Tribe.
Lussier: Eh! YOU are!
Swimmer: No.
Lussier: I helped make the Constitution, and you sent the Secretary of the Interior, signed it, thatís why itís got him in power.
Swimmer: But, itís not our constitution, itís your constitution.
Lussier: OK, you signed it.
Swimmer: ... and you can change that Constitution any time you want...
General comments... Talk about a joke .. it donít work that way.
Other: Question, Red Lake is one of them ten Tribes, right, and would they be held financially accountable for them programs that are instituted?
Swimmer: There are certain ... yes, they would be, if they, if they ... develop a program, but there are also certain requirements, that any of the tribes, before can have this in an actual funding program, that they have to have an accounting, that they have to be able to provide for the Bureau a financial accounting, that has a clean audit opinion, that says that they can track all of their programs, because we wonít do it with any of the tribes that donít have accountability ...
Cook: Right.Can we get a copy of the policy that Mr. Barlow has that we have to get permission from our Tribal Chairman to talk to him.
Swimmer: I donít think that he has ...
Cook: Oh, yes he does!Mr. Barlow, tell the truth, now.
Other: Tell the truth!
Cook: We went to your office, and you had to call Roger for me to talk to you, right?
Other: Yeah!
Other: I was witness at that Press Conference.Donít try to get out of it, because I ...
Swimmer: Virtually every tribe, to some extent or other, is going to have an inside and an outside, and those sides often change.Maybe not as often up in Red Lake as some other tribes.Mr. Barlow and myself are pretty much committed to dealing with elected Tribal leadership, and thatís a policy for my office as well as for him.Now, I have not refused to meet with any Indian people, but I do refuse to meet with people if it involves tribal leadership, that they really are in charge of.I will listen, but I cannot make the changes in your constitution...
Other: Donít make me blush, now...
Swimmer: I cannot make changes in your constitution, I cannot un-elect your tribal leadership, folks, Iíve been there, Iíve been a tribal leader, and every single election was contested ...
Lussier:Yes! Where was you a tribal leaderóRed Lake?I am bothering you now, while you are talking.Were you a tribal leader at Red Lake?
Swimmer: No, sir.I was tribal leader at ...
Lussier: Iím sorry.Red Lake and where you were, is probably like Heaven and Earth.I donít ... but I know Red Lake is what these guys are trying to tell you, and that is what we ant you to answer.Notówhat the heck!You got the taxpayerís money and come out here and give us a bunch of baloney!The first thing that you didnít say wasó638 Money?You donít have any control over that.Thatís the only program I ever heard of in my life, that the Tribe is the one that gets the money from you.You donít have a damn thing to say ... a DAMN thing to sayóthatís the law!1975 or í77, whenever it was made, but thatís the way it is, the Tribe asks for it.You donít have any control over whether they can get it or not.Is that right?
Swimmer: We do have some control, but generally we donít ...
Lussier: You donít have any control over it
Swimmer: We have control of the program, they have to operate it in a certain way ... and we have control of the accountability of it.
Lussier: Well what do you do, then with it?Thatís the point!
Swimmer: Itís what the Tribe does with it.Once the Tribe contracts...
Lussier: The Government gives you the money, contract money, you get it. Contract money, the B.I.A., donít they?
Swimmer: And then we turn it over to the Tribe.
Lussier: To the Tribe!And, youíre supposed to see that they spend it in the way theyíre supposed to.Is that right?
Swimmer: We have a process that we go through, to see that ...
Lussier: Sure, you have a process.Whatís the process?We donít know they do, is what weíre trying to tell you.Thank you, to God, Iím talking too damn much now!
Swimmer: The answer is that the Government ...
Lussier: Iím too damn weak for that ...
Swimmer: The answer is that throughout the Government office ... Yes, maíam.
Star & Tribune: You talk about slowly phasing out the B.I.A.óhas that process been started?When are we talking about that happening?
Swimmer: Weíre not, because it requires not only my talking about it, there requires action by Congress and of course by the Tribes.Congress has not, the process that they have done is proposed, is the direct funding concept that we talked about earlier, would be one of the mechanisms for .. authority at the Tribal level to set Tribal budgets and again the process for self-determination.
Star & Tribune: When do you see this, that it might start?When do you think that it will begin?
Swimmer: Well, I had hoped that we would see some progress on it this year, and that we could see something in enabling legislation this year, as part of the 638 amendments that Congress is proposing, there was a section included in there for the Tribal direct funding concept,, but itís been very controversial on the Hill.There are many people on the Hill that simply donít believe the Tribe is capable, and theyíre not going to give them freedom .. uh, any more freedom than what they have now.So, some of the Indian committees think that the Tribes just canít do it, and that the B.I.A. is going to have to be there, to oversee and manage what goes non out here.I contend that until we back away from that position some, that we wonít be able to see ... Tribes almost arenít allowed to fail when they get in trouble, immediately isóhear, hear! the B.I.A. is called to account.Weíre the ones that are held responsible, even though the people on that reservation are the ones who are responsible for their Tribal Government, and theyíre the ones that have to make those decisions.
Star & Tribune: Are you pessimistic that you donít expect this bill to pass this year?
Swimmer: Well, Iím a little pessimistic about it, on the other hand, they didóthe appropriations committee put another million dollars in to continue the plan.So, Iím ... at one time, theyíre planning, but theyíre not giving the Tribes any authority to do anything, except on the planning, and I find that a little difficult for Congress to speak out of both sides of its mouth.Theyíre willing to give Tribes money, but theyíre not willing to give them the authority, and the authorizing legislation is what we need to give tribes the authority to submit those budgets, and to do a Tribally-designed budget with Federal dollars.But, what Iím saying is, Iím optimistic that theyíll reconcile those to, and thereís one or the other will happen, that they will give them money, or theyíll give us authorizing language to allow that to happen.
Star & Tribune: Your views are not ... based on what Iíve read, they are not necessarily popular with the B.I.A. officials, nor the reservations.Why do this?Do you have backing on the reservations in this matter?
Swimmer: I have some, but I guess I will say that I donít have widespread backing by Tribes at this time.I think that they can try to join this initiative if they are interested in this.They havenít committed themselves either.I think that has been delayed a little because of the money.I did have a Tribe that was very interested in taking over the management of some of its Trust assets, which I think is an enormous ...
Star & Tribune: Which one is that?
Swimmer: This is a Tribe in the state of Oregon that had a forestry program, and the Tribe wanted to manage its own forestry.It would be a process where the forest would be left in trust with the government, but they would manage it.This is a step, again, n that direction that I have advocated, where we remain trustees, but we turn over more management authority to tribes, so that on timber and water and fish and what have you, that they take over more of the responsibilities for managing.But, if they do that, they have to hold us harmless.In other words, if you give them the right to manage their forest, and they go out and clear-cut it, they canít come back to us and say, ďwell, you let us do it, so now youíve got to pay us for the value of our forest.In this case, the Tribe had a really ... an interesting concept, because we manage as a trustee for the median.We canít manage the peaks and valleys.What they were proposing, was by taking over their timber management, and cutting the same amount of timber over five years that we would have cut, but doing it in different cycles, and investing the money, that by the end of thirty years, they would have something like thirty million dollars in the bank, and following our pattern of managing, they would have nothing in the bank, so it is interesting that because they could individualize the management of their forests, the could do so much better.Again, they went to the Hill, and proposed it, and Congress said, ďno.ĒThey said, ďwell, weíre not ready to entertain that idea.We want the B.I.A. to continue being your Trustee, and managing this asset.Ē
Star & Tribune: Is this ... recently weíve also had quite a few stories on the Congressional investigation of B.I.A., where is that now?
Swimmer: Itís in process.I expect it to be a very long process.Iím not sure that theyíve even focussed yet on what theyíre going to investigate.I think that they have pretty well discounted most of what you read in the Arizona Republic and all, because those were highlights of investigations that had already been done by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.There wasnít a lot of new information there, and it covered a span of about fifteen or twenty years.What theyíre really looking for ... what they first started out with, was of course the headline that five million dollars had not been paid by royalty, or something.Thatís not true, and they found that in a hurry, that was not a valid assertion.But there are some difficulties, we know, in oil and gas, there are some in some of the other areas of management, and I suspect that ... what I would hope for is that they do a thorough job, a review and investigation, and that at the end of it, that they come up with some recommendations that make sense, and talk about the real issues: the way that we do business, and the way the tribe does business, and how we relate to one another, and how the economy is, and some recommendations about that.Because we ... I donít think that theyíre going to find a lot of fraud and use ...
Other: Mr. Barlow, this gentleman has had his hand up for a long time ...
Bassett: Mr. Swimmer, Iím Mike Bassett of the Circle. In light of your statement that Tribes bear responsibility for their Tribal government, and constitution, and your statement that the B.I.A. interference should be at a minimum, particularly with the government, and of course in the constitution, could you please explain what authority and what policies are in place when the B.I.A. orders the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe not to enforce the Indian Child Welfare Act if itís under the Constitution, then they have responsibility for it.They donít have the power to have a judicial hearing.
Swimmer: I donít know.Thatís a good question, and itís too broad.You have to break it down into parts.As far as the Indian Civil Rights Act, it provides that, in this instance, that the Tribe be notified in any case that there is a child thatís a member of the tribe ... now, in some cases, thatís where it stops.And, the tribe as a right to intervene, in the State court proceedings.Out of state, the Tribe can send a representative, if theyíd like to intervene the can (inaudible).†† Iím not aware that it carries with it a tribal court activity.Now, if youíre saying, now that we had a tribal court; and we said that you canít [have] child welfare cases in your tribal court, weíre getting into an area that Iím not familiar with, but Iíd be happy to talk about your individual, or that individual situation, b ut I donít know enough about it.
Bassett: But, if the B.I.A. does not have the ... if the Tribe has full responsibility for its Constitution, how could the B.I.A. be telling the Government that they donít have a judicial system that can handle Indian Child Welfare cases?
Swimmer: They canít.
Bassett:They canít tell them that ...
Swimmer: Unless the Tribe doesnít have the authority ...
Bassett: But if you ...
Swimmer: If you put something in your constitution, that you have no authority to do, the Tribe is bound by Federal statutes, and not all tribes have the same level of sovereignty.Some tribes have law enforcement powers; some tribes donít have law enforcement powers.Some have ability to have tribal courts; some donít.Some are located in states where itís been usurped, and some...
Bassett: Do the same restrictions apply to elections, and protection of civil rights for Indians who believe their civil rights are being denied, that their votes arenít being counted?
Swimmer: Generally speaking, the issue of uh, tribal elections and in inter-tribal ... in-tribal matters, are left .. should be left to that Tribal government, and the people on that reservation.
Bassett: So, the B.I.A. has no responsibility for enforcing the Indian Civil Rights Act?
Swimmer: No, we do not.
Bassett: And the B.I.A. has no measures to investigate what you said you could believe was the ... unfair elections?
Swimmer:Generally speaking, no.WE do not get into elections. We, uh... sometimes we are asked by a Tribe to monitor an election, and when we do that, we are observers.We write, and we observe, and we give it to the election board or whoever is in charge of the election.We donít have any ... we shouldnít have, and as far as I know we donít exercise any authority to go in and manipulate or tell someone they can or canít vote, or shut down the precinct, or do anything like that.When we what appears to be someone that is voting that shouldnít be voting, we note it.That is what we should do, and then we go to the election board.Weíd prefer, and Iíd prefer, that we not get involved in elections at all.
Bassett: Well this makes a lot of bureaucratic sense, to the people.Canít you see a sense of unfairness in the Tribe ... the B.I.A. has the power to come in and say, you donít have a judicial system, but they also claim that they donít have the power to come in ... say, ďwe donít have the right to monitor you and make sure that youíre having fair electionsĒ ...
Swimmer: [pause] I donít see the conflict.The Tribe does have a system; maybe it doesnít work, maybe thatís what youíre saying.But, Tribes do have systems, for conducting elections, and Tribes do have a procedure for appeals in those elections.And, those are what have to be followed.And, once theyíre exhausted, thatís it.
Bassett: But the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe has no provision for poll observers, tabulation processes continue to be closed, and the board which the grievances go to is composed of the Tribal Government, which has been in power for over a decade.Is that a process that the is no need to monitor the elections.
Swimmer: It is, under the present circumstances.Iím not saying that I condone it.Iím saying that thatís the way we operate today.We donít have any other authority.Elections, and the enforcement of the Indian Civil Rights Act, are left up to the judicial processes of the Tribes, whatever they might have.
Bassett: You seem to be ...
Swimmer: And, elections are internal to the Tribe, and the election disputes are handled by the election board.If they appoint the ... if the Chairman appoints the Board, and theyíre his people, tatís where the disputes get handled.
Bassett: You were willing to go out on a limb, and call for a new policy that would require 90% reduction over twelve years in the B.I.A., what are policies that say that you have ... for these election processes that you donít condone?
Swimmer: Well, what I call for, and Iím supporting, is what the Justice Department is proposing, now.And, that is a bill to, what we say, strengthen the Indian Civil Rights Act.And, in Title II in the Civil Rights Act, that is, that there are two provisions that are being proposed; one is that the plea of Sovereign Immunity would not be available to Tribal Government; and the second would be that if there is not a Tribal Forum either capable or wiling to hear civil rights cases, due process, equal protection type cases, these would go to Federal Court.
Cook: Would you be in favor of abolishing the Indian Reorganization Act?
Swimmer:Uh, well I donít really have an opinion about that.I donít see that it would really accomplish much.
Cook: Well, in Red Lake we used to have an honest, open government, prior to 1958, when the Indian Reorganization Act was put in fraudulently ... [end of tape 1ócouple of sentences missing] ... and the next thing you know, they have got three people: Robinson, and two other guys, coming to the Reservation, and telling the Chiefs, ďyou donít have no government.ĒAnd, ever since then, we havenít had a government.All across the State of Minnesota, all we have had is a bunch of dictators.We have no government of the people.
Bassett: Mr. Swimmer, in protection of sovereignty, isnít there actions short of the Justice Departmentís proposal to require that tribal governments give up their sovereign immunity.To be able to publicize, and perhaps just merely observe, and investigate inadequacies in the election process that you do not condone?
Swimmer: No, once you get into elections, youíre getting into the very essence of sovereignty.There is nothing that I would condone as far as the B.I.A. meddling in Tribal elections?
Bassett: Well, is there anything short of meddling?Canít you just observe and publicize ... canít you ...
Swimmer: Exactly!And thatís just what weíve been doing.We can provide the information to the Tribal election board, or to the Council.But, to ... weíre not in a position of calling elections bad, because of something that we observe.That has to be up to the governing body of that organization.
Bassett: You call elections all over the world bad.
Other: Mr. Swimmer!
Swimmer: We do, we go in and overturn a governorís election in a state, we go overturn a mayorís election, because ...
Bassett: I didnít say anything about overturnóweíre talking about observing, and watching, and publicizing...
Swimmer: I have suggested that we can do that.
Other: Mr. Swimmer!
Bassett: ... such about tribal elections.
Swimmer: Iím not aware of, uh, that issue, at this point.I donít know what youíre asking.Did some Tribe just have an election that we observed?
Bassett: The Minnesota Chippewa Tribe just had an election, the B.I.A. Refused to observe it.The was an election process which involved no poll observers, no public access to tabulation; finding of burned ballots allegedly; an election board that had already had a previous election overturned, and ...
Swimmer: Was this an election that was conducted under the rules of the Tribe?
Bassett: It ...
Swimmer: Iím not sure Iíd want to observe an election like that.
Bassett: If you do not observe it, and do not publicize it like you said you were willing to do, then how are our people going to have a chance to redress this?
Swimmer: Well, I guess that we have a basic disagreement.But I still see people on the Reservation as being those people who are responsible for their government.If theyíre going to have elections that way, it doesnít do me any good to go out there and, uh, talk to them about it.They should ... they shouldnít have elections that way, and if they want help in developing an election code, or rules of doing it, weíll be happy to furnish that assistance.
Bassett: Until the tribal government that ran these elections asks for your help, youíre not going to make any statement, or observation about whatís going on in the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe?
Swimmer: Generally speaking, no.We look at it as an internal tribal matter, that is up to the Tribes to work out themselves.
Other: Why does the B.I.A. certify these elections, then?
Swimmer: Weíre not certifying an election.We accept the result of the election when they turn over the ... when whoever in charge gives us the knowledge of who gets elected.
Bassett: The B.I.A. officials never swear in officials, or never ask officials ... never de-recognize the Tribal government as being unfairly elected or not?
Swimmer: Generally, no.
Other: Mr. Swimmer!
Other: Mr. Swimmer!
Star & Tribune: The Tribal ...
Beaulieu: Mr. Swimmer!May I get in here?Iíve been ...You know, Iíve had my hand up for about ten minutes here, so please let me ask this question.Accountability.Accountabilityóthat I think it he bottom-line issue in Indian country today.Our Tribal officials are not accountable to the people.You can go to Tribal officials, try and get financial records, financial information which is mandated by the Constitution, yet they refuse to give out that information.Only under the Freedom of Information Act do we get our material.We have audit after audit that shows that Red Lake Housing, for instance, Red Lake Housing Finance Corporation, is composed, the Board of Directors is composed of our eight representatives and three Tribal officials.Eleven men.The Credit Committee: four out if five Credit Committee members are also Tribal Council members.Now, the State of Minnesota gave the Red Lake Tribeógave them money for housing.Now, the Red Lake Tribal officials were paying themselves two hundred and fifty dollars per diem, per meeting, the Board of Directors.The Credit Committee was getting two hundred.They would have multiple meetings per day.You know, two or three meetings, write another check.We have documents to prove that.You know, when we go to the Bureau, what kind of response do we get as you see it?
Swimmer: I would expect us to send you back to the Tribe, and to work that out with your own Tribal Court, and uh...
Beaulieu: So, basically nothing, is that what youíre saying?
Blake: What we have is colonialism, and Congress is condoning this colonialism.
Other: Iím going to go!I canít stand it! [laughter]
Lussier: The question I hadóIím going to talk about Red Lake, where do we go if weíre not satisfied.We canít go to our court, we canít go to our Council, they canít come to me because I donít have any power, so where do we go?You [represent] the Secretary of the Interior, and you still signed our Constitution.If you signed it, my friend, is my question.
Swimmer: [silence]
Other: Mr. Swimmer?
Lussier: But, thank you.And I hope that you answer, I hope that you tell these people because I canít wait there ...
Swimmer: [almost inaudible] No.
Manypenny: These people are trying to communicate something to you.There is something amiss here in this government, you know, managed by Mr. Barlow.When they take the Minnesota Chippewa Tribeís Constitutionówhen they take these oaths of office, not only to our Constitution, the Minnesota Chippewa Tribeís Constitution, but to the United States Constitution.Now, you talk about a Trustee relationship that you haveóyouíre the Trustee of our affairs here.Mr. Barlow, I guess I want to ask you, what did you do about the White Earth Land Settlement Act?When you let one man, and he violated, in the Constitution of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, it has a mandate that those leaders are supposed to protect the land, not let it be sold, or dealt with in any manner.Now, one person, Darrell ďChipĒ Wadena, the President of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, in fact helped this bill through Congress.And, he did it against the resolutions passed by the Minnesota chippewa Tribe, and the White Earth Reservation Tribal Council.Thatís a violation of the Constitution, and you people are doing nothing about it.Now, you want to talk about a trust relationship!How do you protect these people here, who are asking you, as the top person in the United States Government, that thereís wrong-doing done here, and you guys are ... .it makes no difference to you.You let it go.Answer that question!
Swimmer: Well, you probably wouldnít like my answer, because I supported the White Earth Land Settlement [almost inaudible].
General: Oooh! Now!
Manypenny: Sure!I understand that. But, what about the people here?You have no right to do that.Like, making decisions for me, who has land involved here.You didnít come and ask me.You asked this man who knows nothing about it.And, he gave you a consent.What happened to this thing about a Federal policy, a Federal policy, a mandate, that says the courts will not deal with these kinds of things, with recognized title.Isnít White Earth a recognized title?You know, that you canít go without the consent of the people?Why is this vacillating, back and forth here?You change in the middle of the stream to accommodate ...
Swimmer: You make it a very simple issue, and itís not a simple issue as you well know.Itís a very complex issue on a land settlement.
Manypenny: Well, what weíre asking about, is we have leadership where who overstepped their authority and this man is still in office.So, the Constitution of the United States and the Minnesota ...
Swimmer: Well, you people have a right to take him out of office.
Manypenny: Oh, yeah? ... tell us how.Tell us how.Because we asked those officials up there, and nobody tells us nothing, including Mr. Barlow.
Swimmer: Well, you have a process through your tribe to do that, and I canít relate that policy.
Manypenny: No, there is isnít.There is no process.
Swimmer: There isnít available to you that you canít yourself.
Woman: Why didnít you come and ask the White Earth people, ask us the White Earth enrollees and the White Earth people about the land ... about the White Earth land ...
Swimmer: We had many, many comments on that bill, from White Earth people, and a lot of other people ...
Woman: Why didnít you hold a public meeting?
Swimmer: Well, the Congress held hearings on it.There were hearings held ...
Woman: Why didnít you hold a public meeting, is what Iím asking.Iím not asking about Congress, I know that ...
Swimmer: I know that when the bill ...
Cook: With 90% unemployment on every reservation, how can the average person possibly get to Congressional hearings?The only ones that can get there is your paid political puppets, thatís your average government that ...
Woman: Why didnít you hold a public meeting?Iím from White Earth and Iím still waiting for my answer?
Swimmer: I donít know how many meetings were held, but I know that there were discussions held up here, and since that time ...
Woman: IN White Earth, on the Reservation, why didnít the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, hold meetings on the reservation of White Earth?
Swimmer: Iím not saying that we did or we didnít, and Iím really not going to get into the issue.Iím going [to] say tat the ... to settle an issue that we felt was fair ...
Other: You felt!
Swimmer: Thatís right, and as trustees we have that responsibility.And, I have very few types of cases, especially claims cases, that get settled, or even get finicky, that are satisfactory to everybody on the reservation.So, I wouldnít expect everyone to be satisfied.But, I do believe that there were an awful lot of people that were satisfied with the legislation that was passed.
[General chorus of dissent.]
Swimmer: Well, ...
Manypenny: For the bar owners, for the store owners, for all the White people?Oh no! Not the Indian people.You satisfied the White people, and the politicians, but you did not satisfy the Indian people.
Swimmer: Well ...
Manypenny: And thatís your job, right?To protect usóand you have not done it.As well as Mr. Barlow.
Swimmer: And suppose that we had gone the other way, and we had them defeat the legislation, and you had lost subsequently in court?Then, you would be out the settlement, the land, the money, and you would be sitting on the other side of the table, saying youíre trustee ...
Several people: Weíre out anyway!
Manypenny: We lost anyway!
Swimmer: Well, I donít think you did, but thatís a matter of opinion.
Woman: Do you think that money can buy everything, buy your soul?You sold your soul.
Manypenny: In the last tribal election, the enrolled members of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe voted in a Constitutional convention, in which we were to bring amendments to the Constitution.If the B.I.A. then oversees it, then thatís OK, as they did in 1934 when they put in the Indian Reorganization Act.Is there any way that you can ensure that this Constitution, this convention will be represented by Indian people, and I mean all of the people with all concerns?Or, will then again be appointed, or chosen by the elected Tribal officials or your own staff?
Swimmer: I donít know what the process is, the area weíll use for that.
Other: But, if youíve got to OK the election, or the Constitution, or whatever, if it gets changed and all that, wouldnít you have to ensure that process, too?
Swimmer: Well, we are ... Fortunately, youíre right.In some cases, we have to approve provisions of the Constitution. Weíd rather not do that, and the only thing that we look for is if thereís a provision put there that is strictly illegal.In other words, something that the Tribe is proposing to do, that Federal law prohibits.Beyond that, we expect the Tribe to adopt the Constitution it wants.Weíre not going to mandate that youput something in there; weíre not going to mandate that you take it out.Weíll advise you if itís illegal, and itís not going to be enforceable.Weíre moving right now, to send a bill to Congress, that would take us out of the constitutional process entirely, because it is not our business to be involved in Tribal Constitutions.That is, it is the business of the people on the reservation, to adopt the constitution and the form of government that they want, and I think that there has been a very paternalistic attitude in the past, both by Congress and by the administration, since 1934, that we would oversee those kinds of things.And, if we move into greater self-determination there is nothing in my mind that is more important than an Indian tribe determining its own governmentóhow it operates and how that constitution is drafted and how it holds its elections.We startedóif we continue to try to play a role in tat, you donít have a Tribal government.You have a B.I.A.-managed government, and thatís wrong.
Other: Thatís what we have.
Beaulieu: Do you mean that you wonít have to approve any of the changes?
Swimmer: We have limited, uh, review responsibility of the changes, as I said weíre attempting to get out of those, for any tribe, not just this one.But, we have to go through the review under certain laws that weíre obligated now, we have to review constitutions.
Other: But none of them have to deal with seeing that all sides are represented at the Convention?
Other: Itís after the fact, but ...
Swimmer: Again, we would recommend that to any tribe that is reviewing its constitution.I would hope that they have enough sense to do that.You know, we expect that if there is going to be a constitutional convention, that people be notified of the meetings and he hearings, and things like that.We canít go out to the reservations and force that.We can not.The thing that ...
Barlow: Ross Swimmer, just a minute!What we object to, nowóthe amendment that wa adopted, it was a very simple amendment up there.What it says is, ďshall the constitution be amended, yes or no.ĒThere is no mention of the process.Now the Tribe has to go back and determine if there has to be a constitutional convention or what.But thatís their decision.Just to get back to White Earth, Ross, I can emphasize with their frustration.When this legislation was proposed, it was kind of an either-oróeither the legislative route to resolve this, or the judicial, which would have been very expensive.The initial bill that was proposed, the area office did not support.And, we fed that in, and after it went through the political process, the decision was made by the Congress.Thatís the way the political process works, and Iím not saying that itís good or bad, but it has to come to a resolution somehow.
Swimmer: We oftentimes get into an either-or situation, and there was very little choice in this case, because Congress was determined that they were going to pass this bill.And, we tried to get some amendmentsówe did get some.And, I think that over all, that we did the best we could.
Beaulieu: A comment on ... a question on your Ten Tribes project. Red Lake basically gets a blank check.Roger Jourdain gets a blank check from the Federal Government, and from the State Government.
Swimmer: Oh no, ...
Beaulieu: Yes he does.Yes he does.
Swimmer: He might get it from the State, but he doesnít get it from us.
Swimmer: He might get it from the State, but he doesnít get it from us.
Beaulieu: Yes, he does.
Swimmer: No, he doesnít.
Beaulieu: Yes, he does.We have audits, on file,where it shows.Like, in one particular audit, there was $420,000 in question,$366,000 were disallowed.$173,878,78 were spent on per diems, bonus ... You know, and there is no accountability.You contacted Roger, the B.I.A. contacted Roger Jourdain, Red Lake Tribal Council, saying that this money was mis-spent, you have to pay it back.So what they do, is that they drag out the old General Fund checkbook, and write a check. Thatís our money. You know, who is accountable to us, the rank and file Indian.
Swimmer: And, thatís right.If we go in and audit a disallowed cost, the Tribe has to pay it back.
Beaulieu: But, it comes out of the General Fund.You know, and itís mandated by law that itís not supposed to come out of the General Fund.That overpayment, where they paid themselves per diem, in that housing situation there, that was done with a tribal check.I have a copy of the check.You know, I have copies of these audits.†† And, itís very clear that there is very little trust responsibility occurring in Indian country, from the top, on down.
Cook: Sir, I have a question.Where, in your mind, in the next fifteen years, do the Indian people stand.You gave us a lot of rhetoric before, on planning on getting out of tribal governmentówhen weíve been out of tribal government since 1958.Weíve been under dictatorship form of government in this so-called democracy, where they want to manage the world and they canít even take care of their own backyard.You donít have to live under that situation.We have 90% unemployment on our reservation.Our chairman is sitting off the reservation, with our tribal checkbook, living it up like a king, and the people are going hungry.
Swimmer: How many people voted in the last election?
Cook: In the Red Lake district, I only know that, thereís three hundred and twenty-three people voted, out of approximately 2,300.
Swimmer: Well.
Cook: What good does it do?
Swimmer: Meaning that if you couldnít get the other two thousand to vote, it wouldnít change?
Other: No. No.
Cook: Theyíll just put another thousand votes in the box.You know, the people that run the tribal elections is generally the tribal staff.Thatís who runs the elections.For your elected official, we ... we could swear on a stack of Bibles that our elected officials are hand-picked, paid by the Federal Government to mis-represent the people of the Red lake Band of Chippewa Indians.And, Iíd like to ask another question.Maybe Barlow could answer it.Is Roger Jourdain selling any of our ceded lands, at this point?
Barlow: Wait a minute.
Cook: Where are getting the thirteen hundred dollars for the payment that heís telling everybody that weíre getting, when weíre flat broke?
Swimmer: [silence]
Barlow: [long silence, no comment]
Beaulieu: In the 1986 general election, we got from the printer who printed the ballotsówe have approximately four thousand voters, rightóeligible voters.The tribal council hadprinted up, 10,550 ballots, ten different kinds.We couldnít see the ballots, they wouldnít let us see the proofs.But, we did [see] a copy of the bid sheet.Now, why is the need for so many ballots?Ten thousand, five hundred and fifty ballots for four thousand voters.
Swimmer: [silence]
Barlow: [silence]
Star & Tribune: Are you meeting with Tribal leaders, on this trip are you?
Swimmer: Yes.
Star & Tribune: You are?
Swimmer: Red Lake, I think we met with non-tribal leaders.I do have a meeting this afternoon with some of the other ...
Star & Tribune: Are there some of the other things on the agenda that perhaps you would like to talk about, or is it an open event?
Swimmer: Iím just here at their convenience, as far as ...
Cook: Are we allowed into ... say if weíre from Red Lake are we allowed to listen in on what our problems are?
Swimmer: [silence]
Cook: We canít go to our government.Last council meeting I went to, I was arrested by the B.I.A. police for going to a council meeting.Thatís right, I was charged with disorderly conduct for walking into a council meeting, by Barlowís police.
[General laughter]
Bassett: You were talking on the level of tribal government.But, you need a strong tribal government in order to dismantle the B.I.A.Do you have any comprehensive plans to strengthen the one, so that you can dismantle the other?
Swimmer: The only way that I can respond is that the pole of the reservation have to decide if they are going to have a tribal government or not.Red Lake or other tribes that have people that donít like the government, we have several of these.But, we have 310 tribes altogether ... youíre virtually going to have differences in any tribe, to some extent.Because, whoever doesnít get elected gets upset because they didnít get elected, and whoever gets elected, gives the appearance of [inaudible], so I donít expect ... I mean, this ...
Bassett: But, if youíre dependent on populism and grassroots support for building these governments.Have you not ... with that?How can you go on with your overall plan to dismantle the B.I.A.?
Swimmer: I think that the word dismantle is wrong.Itís a phase-out, as tribes assume that authority and responsibility, that the functions be transferred, as was intended in self-determination.To being a change in the roles, so to speak, as we get out of the way, Tribes take over more.I donít expect every tribal government to run smoothly, even after fifteen years I wouldnít expect that.There will still be problems, and there will still be [people who donít believe that they have a voice in their tribal government.But, I still say that itís left to those very people to change that tribal government, not us, the federal government or the B.I.A. to step in there and try to make something right.Because, you just end up with the other side claiming the same abuses.It has to beóif we donít have that, I contend that if we donít have it, if we donít have tribal government, then we ought to stop this business about talking tribal government.If weíre not capable people in Indian country ... what i hear these people saying is thatóno tribal government is better than the one we have.If thatís what they want, dissolve the tribal government, do something else, but I contend that tribal government can be capable of doing it, and if the people in Indian country want a government, they ought to have the kind that they want.It canít be a B.I.A. imposed government.
McArthur: Thatís a racket, thatís the word that you didnít say.In other words, what you are saying, is you are reinforcing the fact that our leaders are telling us.OK, youíre saying, when we come in and we protest, such as several of us in this room who went through the election process on the reservation, OK you say, youíre telling this man right here, youíre telling all of us right hereóbecause weíre all just a bunch of soreheads because we lost an election.In essence, thatís what youíre saying.In essence, thatís what the tribal leadership tells us.OK, so what do we do?OK, we come down here, and we ask questions, we say, OK, we find burnt ballots from this past election.Weíve got people who will testify to election boards who were carrying out bags and bags of ballots, not counted, to keep the incumbents in.We come down here, we ask you, what should be done.I canít do nothing.Then, you sit there and call us a bunch of soreheads.OK, I ask you, we make a personal request today, weíll ask you right nowówhat would you do if we asked you to come in and investigate the election held on White Earth?Youíd say no, right.Iíll answer it for you, ďno.Ē
Swimmer: Thatís right, Iíd say, go back to your tribal process.
McArthur: OK, hold on a minute.My next question.OK, we have a tribal council member who was elected, in this last election, who puts in a request to the Bureau of Indian Affairs for an investigation of the election board.Now, OK, what would you say to that, then?
Swimmer: I would say that if there is fraud and criminal activity that you suspect involved in that, you can turn it over to the U.S. Attorneyís office, and it could be investigated.If itís an election malfeasance or misfeasance, we donít have any authority over it.You have an election process to take care of that in your tribal constitution, in your tribal government.
McArthur: OK, you heard what we all said today, about...
Swimmer: If someone is violating civil rights, thatís where the issue really has been.In many cases you have not had an adequate forum to address that, what we are trying to do is what I mentioned earlier, to get legislation passed that will give you an optional forum.
McArthur: OK, Mr. Barlow what do you say to that?What if a request comes to your desk, if say from a tribal council member requesting a ...
Barlow: Iíve got to decline.We called the press conference with the assistant secretary.Incidentally, he does have some appointments starting at one p.m., and we have to get him a lunch, so heíll be reconvening at one p.m.
McArthur: A request did come from a tribal council member to monitor the elections, and that request was denied by the Bureau.And, that was from a tribal council member, an incumbent.
Other: Yeah, right ...

2414. Olson, C. M., 1948- . (1986). Nutritional and developmental status of Native American Head Start children in Wisconsin . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin--Madison, Photocopy. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms International, 1986. 20 cm.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)

2415. Olson, C. M. (1975). Nutritional and developmental status of Native American Head Start children in Wisconsin. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Wisconsin--Madison.

2416. Olson, R. (1995). A community gathering: selecting the symbols of stewardship in the Ojibwe and farming communities of northern Wisconsin. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Abstract: This study, based in northern Wisconsin, examines the combined efforts of a group of Native Americans, farmers and environmental activists within issues of resource stewardship, in an attempt to determine if this coalition can be described as a community. The study centers on the symbolic expression of community displayed in several different instances: the presentation of a mixed blood land surveyor who acts as a symbol of local unity; boat landing confrontations between spearfishers and demonstrators during the reinstatement of Ojibwe treaty rights; mining protests in Rusk County; and finally, an annual gathering which evolved from the mutual concerns of these socially active individuals. Taped interviews, observation of events, and scrutiny of published and orated statements were employed to discover central metaphors and actions that the group used to describe itself. The study concludes that different elements of a community can temporarily agree on the meaning of such notions as stewardship, but that those notions and the symbols used to express them are under constant negotiation. Because symbols cluster meanings, they effectively unify diverse groups without achieving absolute consensus. Individual engagement and the maintenance of social boundaries are seen as more important factors in the definition of community than is a list of descriptive factors.

2417. Omi, M. (1986). Racial formation in the United States: from the 1960s to the 1980s. New York: Routeledge and Kegan Paul.
Notes: Source: Midť bibliography compiled by SŠra Kaiser (1997)

2418. Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin. (1937). Constitution and by-laws for the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin approved December 21, 1936. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October, 1999 search).At head of title: United States, Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs.

2419. Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin. (1937). Corporate charter of the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin of the Oneida Reservation ratified May 1, 1937. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October, 1999 search).At head of title: United States, Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs.

2420. . (1918). in Ontario Provincial MuseumThirtieth annual archaeological report 1918 being part of Appendix to the report of the Minister of Education, Ontario(pp. 74-110). Toronto: A. T. Wilgress.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:59)

2421. . (1920). in Ontario Provincial MuseumThirty-second annual archaeological report 1920 being part of Appendix to the report of the Minister of Education, Ontario(pp. 66-85). Toronto: A. T. Wilgress.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:59)

2422. . (1924). in Ontario Provincial MuseumThirty-sixth annual archaeological report 1924 being part of Appendix to the report of the Minister of Education, Ontario(pp. 34-80). Toronto: A. T. Wilgress.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:59)

2423. . (1921). in Ontario Provincial MuseumThirty-third annual archaeological report 1921 being part of Appendix to the report of the Minister of Education, Ontario(pp. 84-99). Toronto: A. T. Wilgress.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:59)

2424. . (1916). in Ontario Provincial MuseumTwenty-eighth annual archaeological report 1916 being part of Appendix to the report of the Minister of Education, Ontario(pp. 84-92). Toronto: A. T. Wilgress.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:59)

2425. . (1914). Ontario Provincial MuseumTwenty-sixth annual archaeological report 1914 being part of Appendix to the report of the Minister of Education, Ontario(pp. 77-79). Toronto: A. T. Wilgress.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:59)

2426. Orfield, G. ([undated]). A study of the termination policy.National Congress of American Indians.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:56)

2427. Osoinach, H. K. (1976). Indian politics and culture in rural northern Michigan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Michigan.

2428. Otway, H. E. (1982). 10 years of Indian advocacy . Detroit Lakes, MN : Lakes Pub. Co..
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 9497104. Other: United Church of Christ. Minnesota Conference. Indian Concerns Committee. Ten years of Indian advocacy.

2429. Ourada, P. K. (1979). The Menominee Drums: A History.University of Oklahoma Press.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2430. Ovsak, C. M. (1994). Reaffirming the Guarantee: Indian Treaty Rights to Hunt and Fish Off-Reservation in Minnesota. William Mitchell Law Review, 20(4), 1177.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2431. Provisional geological map of part of the Chippeway sand district of Wisconsin with part of Iowa & of Minnesota Terratory [sic] to illustrate the report of a geological reconnoissance make in 1847 . (1847). Washington, D.C.C. B. Graham Lithog.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search).Hand colored. Shows area north and west of Wisconsin River and south and east of Saint Louis and upper Mississippi Rivers.

2432. Owl, F. M. (1952). Seven chiefs rule the Red Lake Band . American Indian, 6(3), 3-12 ; 20 cm.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 30996497. Title from caption.
Source: PALS online catalog (October 1999 search)

2433. Oxendine, L. E. (1993). Tribally operated museums: a reinterpretation of indigenous collections. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Abstract: This study examines the representation of American Indian culture and history through the medium of tribally owned and operated Indian museums. Information gathered from the Indian Pueblo Culture Center in Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Makah Cultural and Research Center in Neah Bay, Washington and the Oneida Nation Museum in Oneida, Wisconsin focuses on how American Indian tribes, through the establishment of tribal museums, present their own history and cultural traditions. Major issues defined and addressed in the three case studies are: (1) redefining the image of the American Indian through the development of tribal museums which can portray tribal histories and traditions in a more accurate and sensitive manner; (2) gaining and maintaining control of sacred or ceremonial objects, and when appropriate, using the tribal museum as the receiver or the repository for these items, and (3) creating and fostering a sense of tribal ownership of the museum and its collections, thereby assuring that the museum becomes an integral part of the community. Questions constituting the basis of the research include does the factor of tribal control affect the way traditions of a tribal community are portrayed for both the members of the tribe and the outside public, and how does a tribal museum, which traditionally is not a part of Indian culture, become one of the transmitters of tribal knowledge, and in doing so, how does it become an integral part of the Indian community?

2434. . (1981). S. OxleyThe Anishinabe : Red Cliff : a unit on the history of the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Ojibway Indians.Rhinelander, WI : School District of Rhinelander.
Notes: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 13160656.Other: Wisconsin Woodland Indian Project.Rhinelander School District. Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council. Wisconsin. Dept. of Public Instruction. Red Cliff. ... accession: 17526851:"Written by Shelley Oxley for the Wisconsin Woodland Indian Project, Rhinelander, in 1981." Bibliography: p. 25.
Abstract: Cover title. "This unit was written by Shelley Oxley for the Wisconsin Woodland Indian Project, Rhinelander, WI, 1981."--Leaf 23. "This curriculum unit has been developed through a grant from the Title IV-C, Elementary Secondary Education Act and the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction 1979-1982 with assistance from The Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council, Inc. and Wisconsin Indian Tribes."--Leaf 24. "The Wisconsin Woodland Indian Project in The School District of Rhinelander was a 3 year project funded for the purpose of developing curriculum materials on the history and culture of the six major Indian Tribes in the State of Wisconsin."--Leaf 24. Bibliography: leaf 23.

2435. Oyen, J. J. (1937). The Lacquiparle [sic] Indian mission. Archive/Manuscript Control.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 25473057. Title from caption. Typescript.

2436. Paap, H. D. (1986). The Ojibwe Midewiwin: a structural analysis (religion, Chippewa, North American Indians). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.

2437. Painter, C. C. address. Lake Mohonk Conference .
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2438. Palliser, J., 1807-1887. (1859). Exploration--British North America. London: Printed by G.E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 32150409
Abstract: "Progress of the British North American Exploring Expedition" (267-314 p. fold. map) detached from the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, v. 30, 1860, laid in. [v. 1] Papers relative to the exploration of that portion of British North America which lies between the northern branch of the River Saskatchewan and the frontier of the United States; and between the Red River and Rocky Mountina. 64 p.-- [v. 2] Further papers relative to the exploration by the expedition under Captain Palliser of that portion of British North America which lies between the northern branch of the River Saskatchewan and the frontier of the United States; and between the Red River and the Rocky Mountains, and thence to the Pacific Ocean. 75 p.--[v. 3] The journals, detailed reports, and observations relative to the exploration between the boundary line and the watershed of the Northern or Frozen Ocean, and between the western shore of Lake Superior and the Pacific Ocean, during the years 1857-1860. 325 p.--[v. 4] Index and maps to Captain Palliser's reports. 3 p.

2439. Palmer, E. E., Sorensen, P. W., & Adelman, I. R. (1995). A Histological Study Of Seasonal Ovarian Development In Freshwater Drum In The Red Lakes, Minnesota. Journal of Fish Biology (London), 47(2), 199-210.
Notes: Source: Fish & Fisheries Worldwide databases: Fisheries Review, FishLit [University of Minnesota onlinedatabases], August 29, 1999 search

2440. Palmer, R. (1995). Exxon vs. Wisconsin's Chippewa. Earth Island Journal, 11(1), 23.
Notes: Source: UnCover
Abstract: Rose Palmer examines a conflict between corporate mining and Indigenous culture.

2441. Palmer, R. (1995). Exxon vs. Wisconsin's Chippewa. Earth Island Journal, 11(1), 23 (1).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [review]
Abstract: Wisconsin's Sokaogon Chippewa tribe has long opposed the plan of Exxon Minerals Co. of Texas to build a zinc and copper mine near the Chippewa Mole Lake Reservation. Members of the state's smallest Native American tribe insist that such a mine would pollute the land and water on which they depend for their very survival. Environmentalists also fear that mining operations could adversely affect the state's water supply.

2442. Panitz, E. (1976). American Indians and Minnesota's private colleges : an evaluation of the Minnesota Private College Research Foundation's Indian Education Project, 1971-72-1974-75 .Minnesota Private College Research Foundation.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 4264011. Cover title.

2443. Pannabecker, R. K. (1986). Ribbonwork of the Great Lakes Indians: the material of acculturation (ethnohistory, trade, applique, gift, Metis). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University.
Abstract: Ribbonwork is a unique decorative art found on clothing and personal accessories and is a material manifestation of culture contact and change. Emerging among Great Lakes Indians in the late eighteenth century, ribbonwork utilized non-native textile goods (imported silk ribbon) and European needlework techniques in distinctly non-European designs and forms. Today, ribbonwork garments signify tradition or 'Indianness' to native Americans with a ribbonworking heritage. In the absence of in-depth investigation and contextual analysis of ribbonwork as a manifestation of acculturation, the author investigated the origin, diffusion, and persistence of ribbonwork. Ethnohistorical data on ribbon and ribbonwork were collected from historical documents (traders' accounts, colonial government records, travelers' journals), historical photographs, ethnographies, museum artifacts, and through interviews with contemporary American Indian ribbonworkers in Oklahoma. Ribbon was found to be available to Great Lakes Indians during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries through both trade and diplomatic gift and to be a preferred item of exchange. Linkage between ribbonwork and traditional decorative arts was demonstrated through the combination of ribbonwork and indigenous decorative materials on a garment piece, as well as design parallels of ribbonwork to other traditional decorative arts. From the findings on the origin of ribbonwork it was hypothesized that ribbonwork was a manifestation of Indian preferences, it represented the adaptation of Great Lakes Indians to changing economic conditions, and was a unique innovative and yet conservative aesthetic response by Great Lakes Indian women to culture change. The diffusion of ribbonwork through the Great Lakes region was hypothesized to be a reflection of cultural homogeneity brought about by acculturation and intertribal contact fostered by the furtrade and that trading posts and metis traders were primary agents in the spread of ribbonwork. The persistence of ribbonwork into the twentieth century was related to the integration of ribbon and ribbonwork into Great Lakes Indian cultures. Thus, inquiry into ribbonwork contributed to understanding cultural contact and change among Great Lakes Indians and also to a clarification of the role of material culture in acculturation.

2444. Paproski, C. M. (1992). The opinions of Native and non-Native Edmonton High School students on factors influencing career decision-making (Canada). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alberta (Canada).
Abstract: This investigation endeavoured to determine, by means of a questionnaire-survey method, the opinions of urban Native and non-Native high school students attending Edmonton Public and Separate (Catholic) schools regarding questions pertaining to cultural values and factors influencing career decision making. The instruments administered in this research included: (1) The newly developed Cultural Value Inventory (CVI), used to measure Native and Anglo cultural values developed from Richardson's (1981) listing of 37 pairs of Native and Anglo value statements, (2) A modified version of the Career Factor Checklist (CFC) introduced by O'Neil and his associates (1978, 1980 a & b) to measure opinions regarding the influence of six major factors considered to affect career decision making; familial, societal, individual, socioeconomic, situational and psychosocial-emotional, (3) A background information questionnaire to obtain data from respondents on variables such as: grade, parental occupation, Native status and living experiences on an Indian reserve or Metis settlement. The sample providing usable data included 137 Native and 148 randomly sampled non-Native students attending grade 10, 11 or 12 classes in one of ten Edmonton Public or Separate high schools. These data were treated statistically to determine the presence of significant differences. Some of the conclusions were: (1) There are no significant differences between opinions of Native and non-Native Edmonton high school students on Native and Anglo cultural value statements obtained from the CVI. (2) There are no significant differences between opinions of Edmonton (a) Native and non-Native students, (b) Native and non-Native male students, (c) Native and non-Native female students, (d) Native students who had or had not lived on a reserve or Metis settlement, and (e) Indian and Metis students on the importance of the 6 CFC factors influencing career decision making. Both Native and non-Native students emphasised the importance of the Individual major factor and deemphasised the impact of external, environmental factors. Native and non-Native students agreed on the three highest 'no effect' subfactors but the Native sample was more aware of the importance of various Socioeconomic and Psychosocial-Emotional subfactors influencing their career decision making. Those assisting Native and non-Native students in their career development are provided with recommendations as well as suggestions for additional research.

2445. Paquin, R., & Doherty, R. (1992). Not First in Nobody's Heart: The Life Story of a Contemporary Chippewa .Iowa State University Press.
Notes: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999
Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [review]

2446. Paredes, J. A., & et al. (1973). On James' 'Continuity and emergence in Indian poverty culture'. Current Anthropologist, 14(1-2), 158-167.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XIX (1975:251)

2447. Paredes, J. A. (The setting and the research)Anishinabe(pp. 1-30). Tallahassee, FL: University Presses of Florida.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2448. Paredes, J. A.Anishinabe, a people. Anishinabe(pp. 397-410). Tallahassee, FL: University Presses of Florida.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2449. Paredes, J. A. (1980). Anishinabe: six studies of modern Chippewa. Tallahassee: University Presses of Florida.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXVI (1983:190]
Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999
Source: Library Of Congress Online Catalog [Library of Congress, 101 Independence Ave., SE, Washington, DC 20540] (November 1999 search)--LC Control Number: 79020091. "A Florida State University book." Includes index. Bibliography: 411-426.

2450. Paredes, J. A. (1972). A case study of "normal" Windigo. Anthropologica, 14(2), 97-116.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2451. Paredes, J. A.Chippewa townspeople. Anishinabe(pp. 324-396). Tallahassee, FL: University Presses of Florida.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2452. Paredes, J. A. (1970). Chippewa Townsmen: a study in small-scale urban adaptation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of New Mexico.

2453. Paredes, J. A. (1971). Toward a reconceptualization of American Indian urbanization: a Chippewa case. Anthropological Quarterly, 44(4), 256-271.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XVII (1973:193)

2454. Parker, G., 1862-1932. (1898). An adventurer of the North; being a continuation of the histories of "Pierre and his people," and the latest existing records of Pretty Pierre ... New York, London: The Macmillan Company.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search)
Abstract: Across the jumping sandhills.--A lovely bully.--The filibuster.--The gift of the simple king.-- Malachi.--The lake of the Great Slave.--The Red Patrol.--The going of the white swan.--At Bamber's Boom.--The Bridge House.--The epaulettes.--The finding of Fingall.

2455. Parker, J. (1972). The fur trade and the Chipewayan Indian. Western Canadian Journal of Anthropology, 3(1), 43-57.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XVIII (1974:45)

2456. Parker, S. (1962). Motives in Eskimo and Ojibwa mythology. Ethnology, I(4), 516-523.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. VIII (1963:69)

2457. Parker, S. (1960). The wiitiko psychosis in the context of Ojibwa personality. American Anthropologist, 64(2), 602-623.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. VI (1962:4514)
Abstract: "Mental disorder involving obsessive cannibalism; Canada"

2458. Parthun, P. (1978). Conceptualization of traditional music among the Ojibwe of Manitoba and Minnesota. Anthropological Journal of Canada, 16(3), 27-32.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2459. Parthun, P. R. (1976). Ojibwe Music in Minnesota. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.

2460. Passow, A. H., Goldberg, M., & Tannenbaum, A. (1967). Education of the disadvantaged.Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:103), "Bibliography"

2461. Patterson, M. (1997). Native music in Canada: through the Seven Fires. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Carleton University (Canada).
Abstract: Natives in Canada have maintained their value systems throughout colonization. Today a strong movement toward self-determination has begun in this country. Tools brought by the Europeans and others are being used by Natives peoples to allow them to break the constraints of imposed marginalization colonization policy. One of the strongest of these tools is music. At first European colonizers imposed their own music and worldview in an attempt to assimilate Native people and their expressions. For many years Natives kept their instruments and songs to themselves and learned Western musical culture. The drum and teachings related to the land and spirituality remained, hidden or cloaked in new expressions. Today Native people in Canada are speaking out through their music. As Natives begin to answer the process of colonization and redefine their role in Canada, they are reflecting traditional teachings. These include Cree and Hopi teachings of the 'purification,' the Seven Generations Prophecy (Iroquois) and the Seventh Fire Prophecy(Ojibwe). These teachings are related to concerns about the killing of mother earth along with her medicines, trees, fish and animal life (environmental degradation), and also with the social and economic crises in this and other countries. Today we are living in the age of the Seventh Fire. This thesis explores how a new music combining the spirit of the drum and technology from the popular music world is helping to bring Native songs, perspectives and prophecies to the centre of the world stage.

2462. . (1991). M. Q. Patton (editor), Family sexual abuse : frontline research and evaluation . Newbury Park : Sage Publications.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22544233
Abstract: Includes bibliographical references. Context : development of family sexual abuse research and practice -- Child sexual abuse : looking backward and forward / Jon R. Conte -- The Minnesota Family Sexual Abuse Project / Margaret J. Bringewatt -- Understanding family sexual abuse and its effects -- Families after sexual abuse : what helps? What is needed? / Carolyn J. Levitt, Greg Owen, and Jeanette Truchsess -- Effects of probable sexual abuse on preschool children / S. K. Hewitt and W. N. Friedrich -- Taking sibling incest seriously / Michael J. O'Brien -- Resilience and the intergenerational transmission of child sexual abuse / Jane F. Gilgun -- Intrafamilial sexual abuse in American Indian families / Irl Carter and Lawrence J. Parker -- Evaluating treatments and interventions -- Evaluation of a multiple- family incest treatment program / Deborah L. Woodworth. Family effects of offender removal from the home / Sara Wright -- Effects of reunification on sexually abusive families / Jane Kinder Matthews, Jodie Raymaker, and Kathleen Speltz -- An evaluation protocol for incest family functioning / James W. Maddock, Pamela R. Larson, and Catherine F. Lally -- Incest offenders after treatment / Greg Owen and Nancy M. Steele -- Female sexual offenders : a typology / Jane Kinder Mattheews, Ruth Mathews, and Kathleen Speltz -- Patterns, themes, and lessons / Michael Quinn Patton.

2463. Paul Bunyan Rural Telephone Cooperative. (9999). Telephone directory serving Becida, Inger- Wirt, Kelliher, Laporte-Guthrie, Northome, Ponemah, Puposky, Red Lake, Solway, Squaw Lake, Turtle River. [Bemidji, Minn.]: Paul Bunyan Rural Telephone Cooperative.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).Include also Bemidji, Blackduck, Cass Lake, Deer River, Walker.

2464. Paul, S., & Perkinson, R. (1995). Winona LaDuke.(Native American ecological activist)(Interview). The Progressive, 59(10), 36 (4).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [full text available]
Abstract: LaDuke is an Ojibwe who grew up in Los Angeles and graduated from Harvard. She is a leader of the Indigenous Women's Network, and represented it at the United Nations Conference on Women. She wishes the US would give tribes as much environmental protection power as it does gaming parlor rights.

2465. Payne, C. H., 1942- . (1988). The Waterhen Project the introduction of the endangered wood bison to the Interlake Region of Manitoba and its role in the economic development of the Waterhen Band of Saulteaux Indians . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Manitoba, Ottawa. National Library of Canada. Canadian theses = Theses canadiennes.ISBN: 0315371986.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search)

2466. Peacock, R. B., Day, P. A., & Peacock, T. D. (1999). Adolescent Gambling on a Great Lakes Indian Reservation. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environm, 2(1/2), 5.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2467. Peacock, T. D. (1990). Internal tribal disputes in the age of self-determination (Indians). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University.
Abstract: This thesis is a qualitative study of the contemporary reasons for and effects of internal tribal disputes on two Indian reservations, the Fond du Lac Chippewa of Minnesota, and the Red Cliff Chippewa of Wisconsin. The research methodology is based upon Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory and includes unstructured interviews, follow-up interviews and focused group interviews with critics and supporters of tribal leaders from each site. The findings indicate the reasons, nature of and effects of criticism fit three general theoretical models. The traditional/moral model asserts that some Indians whoconsider themselves more traditional criticize the actions of their tribal governments because they desire a return to a traditional, egalitarian leadership style which focuses on the use of consensus in decisionmaking and the sharing of material wealth. The political model purports that tribal governments use the programs and services available under the current self-determination policy to reward their supporters and to punish their detractors. The third theory, a sense of community model, specifically fits the Red Cliff site. A strong sense of community limits the negative impact of reservation politics on individuals. This sense of community is typified by the reservation's small population, a tribal council whose elections are held on an annual basis, and the fact many of the residents are related to each other. The study indicates that tribal politics, which is often typified by internal disputes, is a strange blend of Indian tradition and American politics, and that each reservation in the study has its own peculiar way of approaching and dealing with internal criticism. The study may be useful to persons working in or considering research in Indian country, since internal tribal disputes not only influence the programs serving reservation communities, they often directly effect the lives of many reservation residents.

2468. Peake, E. (Composer). (1980). Indian politics and power [Recording].Minneapolis Public Library and Information Center.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 6784026
Abstract: Talks given as part of the National Endowment for the Humanities Learning Library Program at Minneapolis Public Library and Information Center, September to November, 1980. no. 1. Quie, A. The Governor who trusts the people.--no. 2. Fraser, D. The view from city hall.--no. 3. O'Connor, Patrick J. Minneapolis / Washington D.C. connection.--no. 4. Sutton, Vern. Ballads for ballots: the music of politics.--no. 5. Olkon, Nancy. County government: politics, people & participation.--no. 6 Peake, Emily. Indian politics and power.--no. 7. Cohen, Dan. and D.J. Leary. The Presidential election: an irreverent commentary.--no. 8. Josiah Snelling, Colonel beyond the frontier and Private Gravelin, Fort musician, presented by St. Paul History Theatre.--no. 9. Anderson, Wendell, LeVander, Harold & Naftalin, Arthur. Minnesota in the 80s: where we've been / where we're going.-- no. 10. Graham, Fred. Television and presidential politics.
Quie, Albert Harold, 1928- The Governor who trusts the people. Sound recording Fraser, Donald MacKay, 1924- The view from city hall. Sound recording Anderson, Wendell Gaylord, 1921- Minnesota in the 80s, where we've been / where we're going Sound recording Cohen, Dan. The Presidential election, an irreverent commentary. Sound recording Leary, D. J. LeVander, Harold, 1910- Naftalin, Arthur. O'Connor, Patrick J. Minneapolis / Washington D.C. connection, Sound recording Olkon, Nancy. County government: politics, people and participation. Sound recording Peake, Emily. Indian politics and power. Sound recording Sutton, Vern. Ballads for ballots: the music of politics. Sound recording Graham, Fred P. Television and presidential politics. Sound recording Minneapolis Public Library and Information Center. National Endowment for the Humanities Learning Library Program. St. Paul History Theatre. Josiah Snelling, Colonel beyond the frontier. Sound recording

2469. Peake, F. A. (1972). Fur traders and missionaries: some reflections on the attitudes of the Hudson's Bay Company toward missionary work among the Indians. Western Canadian Journal of Anthropology, 3(1), 72-93.

2470. Peers, L. (1994). The Ojibwa of Western Canada, 1780 to 1870.Minnesota Historical Society Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

2471. Pehler, J. (1973). [Audiovisual]. J. Smith (director). St. Cloud, Minn.Television Services, St. Cloud State College.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 3849793
Abstract: Life on the Red Lake Indian Reservation. Includes information on history, industry, schools and government programs.

2472. Pelletier, J. M. (1994). Factors contributing to graduation rates of Indian and Metis high school students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Regina (Canada).
Abstract: This study described the perceptions of Indian and Metis students who graduated in 1991 or were likely to graduate in 1992 from a high school within the Regina, Saskatchewan public school system. The purpose of the study was to identify those factors which Indian and Metis students perceived as influencing the completion of their high school education. Information for the study was obtained by means of a three-section questionnaire and follow-up interview of selected participants. Questionnaires were distributed to 90 senior students and graduates and follow-up interviews were conducted with three respondents. Data analysis consisted of creating demographic profiles with information obtained from the questionnaire. Responses were clustered and analyzed for themes and categories and tabulated in terms of frequencies and percentages. It was found that successful students rated themselves as the most important factor in their success, both as a source of support and as an obstacle to overcome. Family was rated second most important in terms of support and was less important as an obstacle. Obstacles students encountered from friends were the third most important, with help from friends rated a less important supportive factor. The majority of students viewed the community as being neutral or non-supportive. The most frequently mentioned positive school experience was involvement with extra curricular activities. Some students reported having to deal with negative attitudes of other students as a part of their school experiences.

2473. Peltier, S. M. (1996). Are there cultural differences in the self-report of symptoms of PMS in adolescents?A comparison study of Chippewa Native Americans and Caucasian Americans. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of North Dakota.
Abstract: Subjects completed a series of questionnaires as a eans to obtain symptoms experienced across three phases of the cycle (menstrual, premenstrual and intermenstrual).The questionnaires completed included the Demographic Data Questionnaire, the Moos' Menstrual Distress Questionnaire, the Depression Adjective Check List (Forms A and D), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Forms Y-1 and Y-2), and Index Cards for two consecutive months. There were ninety-nine (99) subjects: forty-seven (47) Caucasian American adolescents and fifty-two (52) Chippewa Native American adolescents. Two subjects were dropped from this study, one from each group, due to the exclusion criteria established prior to data collection, leaving forty-six (46) and fifty-one (51) subjects per group respectively. Comparisons of the self-reported anxiety, depression, menstrual symptoms, and demographics between thetwo groups were conducted to determine if differences existed between the two groups. More specifically, comparisons were made to determine if differences during premenstrual phase per se or any other symptoms reported existed between the two groups of adolescents studied. Analyses compared the two groups in terms of demographic data differences and/or symptom differences. It was hypothesized that no differences would exist in terms of types and severity of symptoms as a function of the phase of cycle for the two groups studied. Results indicated that, in general, the Chippewa Native American group reported more anxiety, depression, waterretention, negative affect, autonomic reaction, control, andbehavioral change symptoms with the majority of the symptoms occurring in the intermenstrual phase of the cycle. In terms of demographic data, the Chippewa Native American group was significantly younger, regulated menstrual cycles at a younger age, and were more likely to use condoms as a contraceptive method.The Caucasian American group was more likely to medicate symptoms via non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as Advil, were more educated about the menstrual cycle via films, more likely to utilize a health professional as a source of information, and had longer cycles than the Chippewa Native American group.Differences between the two groups were also found for self-reported anxiety and depression, with both types of symptoms occurring primarily in the menstrual phase of the cycle. Exploratory regression analyses suggest some significant predictors of symptoms as well. The data overall suggest differences between the two groups in regard to menstrual cycle symptoms. However, the lack of consistency of the same symptoms to be existent across at least two cycles did not appear to meet criteria for PMS.

2474. Penfield, A. (1864). Memorial to Congress for a supply of water from reservoirs of small lakes in the upper Mississippi River for a medium stage for navigation throughout the drouths of summer : and for a canal from Lake Superior to Red River of the North; using for a portion of the distance, the channel of the Mississippi . Washington, D.C.H. Polkinhorn, printer.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 19679491 ... accession: 35650772

2475. Pengelly, J. W., Tinkler, K. J., Parkins, W. G., & et al. (1997). 12600 years of lake level changes, changing sills, ephemeral lakes and Niagara gorge erosion in the Niagara peninsula and eastern Lake Erie basin. J PALEOLIMNOL , 17(4), 377-402.
Notes: Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999

2476. Pentland, D. H. (1984). New modes in Old Ojibwa. Algonquian and Iroquoian Linguistics [Winnipeg], 9(2), 11-17.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2477. (1998). (Report No. MN F-026-R/Study 647). Minnesota Dept. Nat. Res..
Notes: Source: Fish & Fisheries Worldwide database, Fish & Wildlife Reference Service [University of Minnesota onlinedatabases], August 29, 1999 search

2478. Pereira, D. L., Cohen, Y., & Spangler, G. R. (1992). Dynamics And Species Interactions In The Commercial Fishery Of The Red Lakes, Minnesota. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 49(2), 293-302.
Notes: Source: Fish & Fisheries Worldwide databases: Composite Record | Fisheries Review | Fishlit [University of Minnesota onlinedatabases], August 29, 1999 search

2479. Pereira, D. L. (1992). Dynamics And Biochronology Of Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus Grunniens) In The Red Lakes, Minnesota. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Diss. Abstr. Int. B Sci. Eng. 53(7):3270. 1993. Order No. DA9236967. FR 38(2).
Notes: Source: Fish & Fisheries Worldwide databases: Fisheries Review[University of Minnesota onlinedatabases], August 29, 1999 search

2480. Perreault, J. (1993). Chippewa Child Life and Its Cultural Background - Hilger,Mi. Canadian Review of American Studies, 23(3), 251-254.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

2481. Perry, W. S. (1885). The history of the American Episcopal Church, 1587-1883. Boston: James Osgood & Co.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2482. Peschken, C. A., & Esdaile, J. M. (1999). Rheumatic diseases in North America's indigenous peoples. SEMIN ARTHRITIS RHEU , 28(6), 368-391.
Notes: Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999

2483. Petch, V. P. (1992). The salt-makers of Manitoba: a study of the use of the natural saline deposits. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Manitoba (Canada).
Abstract: The objective of study in archaeology was to examine the saline springs and salt flats within the Manitoba Lowlands Saline Waterbelt as a resource for salt production. Field and archival data identified four groups of people who used the saline springs to make salt: the prehistoric Natives; the early fur traders and explorers; the Metis and the early industrialists. Although archaeological evidence for prehistoric salt-making was weak, the historic record demonstrates knowledge and use of salt.

2484. Peters, B. C. (1994). Johnston,John 1822 Description of the Lake-Superior Chippewa. Michigan Historical Review, 20(2), 25-46.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

2485. Peters, B. C. (1992). Hypocrisy on the Great Lakes Frontier: The Use of Whiskey by the Michigan Department of Indian Affairs. The Michigan Historical Review, 18(2), 1.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2486. Peters, B. C. (1994). John Johnston's 1822 Description of the Lake Superior Chippewa. The Michigan Historical Review, 20(2), 25.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2487. Peters, B. C. (1989). Wa-bish-kee-pe-nas and the Chippewa Reverence for Copper. The Michigan Historical Review., 15(2), 47.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2488. (1972). [Audiovisual]. M. L. Petersen (Photographer). St. Cloud, Minn.St. Cloud State College.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 3946703
Abstract: St. Cloud State College students participating in puppetry activities at Vineland.

2489. Petersen, W. J. (1900). Trailmaking on the frontier .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 4142422. Binders title. Title page missing.

2490. Peterson. Ojibwe, Basic.Audio-Forum.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

2491. Peterson, D. A. (1971). Lumbering on the Chippewa: the Eau Claire area 1845-1885. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.

2492. Peterson, D. E., Kanarek, M. S., Kuykendall, M. A., Diedrich, J. M., Anderson, H. A., Remington, P. L., & Sheffy, T. B. (1994). Fish Consumption Patterns and Blood Mercury Levels in Wisconsin Chippewa Indians. Archives of Environmental Health, 49(1), 53-58, bibl., il.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: University of Minnesota Biological & Agricultural Index [electronic database], Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Methylmercury is a known neurotoxin at high blood levels (> 400 mu g/l) and is thought to cause neurologic symptoms at substantially lower levels in susceptible adults and infants. Given that levels of methylmercury in fish in northern Wisconsin lakes can be high (> 1 ppm, FDA standard) and Chippewa Indians take large amounts of fish from these lakes, the extent of their exposure to methylmercury was investigated. Using tribal-maintained registries, 465 Chippewa adults living on reservation were selected randomly and were invited to participate; 175 (38%) participated in the study. In an effort to characterize nonrespondents, 75 nonrespondents were selected randomly and were followed up aggressively. An additional 152 volunteers who were selected nonrandomly also participated in the study. Subjects completed a questionnaire about fish consumption patterns and had blood drawn for mercury determination. Sixty-four persons (20%) had blood mercury levels in excess of 5 mu g/l (i.e., upper limit of normal in nonexposed populations); the highest level found was 33 mu g/l. Fish consumption was higher in males and the unemployed. Blood mercury levels were highly associated with recent walleye consumption (p =.001). Methylmercury levels in some Wisconsin Chippewa were found to be elevated, but were below the levels associated with adverse health effects. We recommend a continuation of efforts to limit exposures in this high-risk population. [References: 22]

2493. Peterson, D. E., Peterson, D. E., Kanarek, M. S., & Kuykendall, M. A. (1994). Fish Consumption Patterns and Blood Mercury Levels in Wisconsin Chippewa Indians. Archives of Environmental Health, 49(1), 53.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2494. Peterson, D. E., Remington, P. L., Kuykendall, M. A., Kanarek, M. S., Diedrich, J. M., & Anderson, H. A. (1994). Behavioral Risk Factors of Chippewa Indians Living on Wisconsin Reservations. Public Health Reports, 109(6), 820-823.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: Behavioral risk factors and chronic disease death rates vary markedly among the numerous American Indian tribes. Local data on prevalence of risk factors are important in determining effective community-based interventions. The authors conducted an in-person survey to ascertain the prevalence of behavioral risk factors among members of the Chippewa tribe living on reservations in Wisconsin. A total of 465 Chippewa adults were randomly selected from tribal registries and invited to participate in the study. Of these, 175 (38 percent) participated. To characterize nonrespondents, 75 nonrespondents were randomly selected and aggressively followed up. The authors compared their results with data from the 1989 Wisconsin Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Chippewa respondents reported high levels of obesity and tobacco use. No significant differences existed between the original survey and followback of nonrespondents. Compared with respondents who had telephones, those without telephones were significantly more likely to be unemployed, to be a current smoker or drinker, and to report nonuse of seatbelts. Compared with the general Wisconsin population, Chippewa adults appear to have higher prevalences of several chronic disease and injury risk factors. The original survey methodology, despite the low response rate, appeared to give a more accurate (less biased) estimate of risk factor prevalences than would have been achieved by a telephone survey.(Abstract by: Author)

2495. Peterson, J. L. (1981). The people in between: Indian-White marriage and the genesis of a Metis society and culture in the Great Lakes region, 1680-1830. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago.
Abstract: The particular characteristics of the seventeenth century colonization of French Canada--pitifully small numbers, dispersed frontier settlement, an inhospitable climate, persistent warfare with the Iroquois and their English allies, weak institutional controls, and a dependence upon the fur trade as the primary livelihood--had produced by century's end a distinctive occupational group, the voyageur-trader, whose mores and culture had been considerably modified by Indian influences. Such men had been in the vanguard of French penetration of the interior of North America prior to 1700. After 1714, in partnership with the exceptional Indian women they took as wives, they were to form the basis for a Great Lakes French-Indian trade alliance and for the growth of a flourishing network of commercial emporia, towns, and villages, far in advance of supposed White settlement. These towns, which numbered several dozen by 1800, were visually and ethnically distinct from both neighboring Indian towns and French communities along the St. Lawrence. Devoted almost exclusively to the Indian trade, such towns were laid out as string settlements along the water road, their residents paying little attention to written titles and less to agriculture. The residents were, as it happens, increasingly a people of mixed race, of Indian and White ancestry--Metis. Historically neglected, these members of a 'fur trade society' were far from insignificant. By 1830, Great Lakes Metis probably numbered upwards of 15,000 persons, eclipsing in size most of the Great Lakes Indian tribes. The material culture, occupational roles, and marriage patterns of these Great Lakes people increasingly set them apart and laid the groundwork for the nascence of a separate ethnic identity. In at least three areas--architecture, language, and artistic design, Great Lakes Metis innovatively produced or influenced new cultural forms born of the hybridization of Euro-American and Indian traits. Marriages which linked the dominant Metis lineages of the various towns with a dozen tribes produced an expansionistic, region-wide commercial and kinship network. The most significant key to the emergence of Metis identity was the ability of these folk to exploit the middle ground between Indian and White. In trade, Metis monopolized the middle rungs of the occupational ladder, serving as conduits for the exchange of goods, information, and services. Similarly, Metis amplified upon their symbolic role as a 'people in between' by serving as mail carriers, interpreters, ferry tenders, teachers, and guides. They also functioned as buffers between potentially antagonistic groups, and behind which the ethnicities of Indian and White remained secure. Fur trade society was to prove a fragile construction, although for a time it denied that mediation was impossible and that the cultures of Indian and EuroAmerican societies were irreconcilable. By 1830, this experiment in racial amalgamation within the continental United States was being snuffed out. The English and later American ascendancies, the growth of monopoly fur trade companies, the forced land cessions and removal of the Great Lakes tribes, the spread of agricultural settlement and land speculation across the middle West, and the hardening of racial attitudes by the White majority, all contributed to the disfranchisement of the Metis middlemen. Forced to seek new identities, Great Lakes Metis passed White, Indian, or sought their kinsmen at Red River, Manitoba, where a Metis identity continues to sustain itself.

2496. Peterson, J. M. (1980). Motivational and academic differences between Ojibwa Indian and White high school students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison.

2497. Peterson, L. D., Peterson, L. D., Hohman-Caine, C. A., & Goltz, G. E. (1998). City of Bemidji American Indian cemetery records research project / prepared by Leslie D. Peterson, Christy A. Hohman-Caine, Grant E. Goltz [City of Bemidji cemetery records research project]. Red Lake, MN : Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, Tribal Roads Program.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).Authors names are in different order on cover. "April 7, 1998." Includes bibliographical references.

2498. Peterson, M. Q. (1964). The estimation of relationship and biological distance between selected Minnesota prehistoric Indian groups. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 19383564

2499. Petoskey, J. F. (1997). Doing Business with Michigan Indian Tribes. The Michigan Bar Journal, 76(5), 440.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2500. (1987). J. Pettit (Director), & I. Bogen. (Producer)University of Minnesota, University Media Resources.
Notes: Source: Womenís Resources International [University of Minnesota online database--Women, Race & Ethnicity Database], August 29, 1999 search
Abstract: Based on the book of the same title by Ignatia Broker (Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1983), this short videotape is a dramatized account of the lives of several generations of Ojibway Indians

2501. Pfaff, T. (1993). Paths of the People: The Ojibwe in the Chippewa Valley.Chippewa Valley Museum.
Notes: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

2502. Pfefferbaum, B., Pfefferbaum, R. L., Strickland, R. J., & Brandt, E. N., Jr. (1999). Juvenile Delinquency in American Indian Youths: Historical and Cultural Factors. Journal - Oklahoma State Medical Association, 92(3), 121-125.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: This paper addresses health aspects of juvenile delinquency in American Indian youths. Comorbid conditions such as substance abuse and depression often complicate diagnosis and treatment. A survey of the literature and an examination of cultural, family, and school issues that influence the presentation and management of conduct problems in Native American youths are included. Cases are presented to emphasize the importance of cultural sensitivity in clinical assessment and intervention.(Abstract by: Author)

2503. Pflug, M. A. (1992). Politics of Great Lakes Indian Religion. The Michigan Historical Review, 18(2), 15.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2504. Pflug, M. A. (1990). Contemporary revitalization movements among the northern Great Lakes Ottawa (Odawa) Indians: motives and accomplishments. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University.
Abstract: The primary research objective has been to illustrate the context of two current socio-religious movements among the Odawa Indians in Emmet County, Michigan which are functioning as a means of advancing ethnic identity: one approach is a conservative attempt to revitalize traditional tribal identity and culture; the other involves attempts to incorporate a broader pan-Indian identity. A second objective has been to understand what the motives are for involvement in one or the other of the socio-religious movements and also, what it is that the Odawa see as being accomplished by them. My hypothesis has been that the revitalization phenomenon have resulted from a perceived crisis, particularly experienced by women and young people, that serves to solidify tribal identity, while the pan-Indian phenomenon (also the result of a perceived crisis)serves to solidify a more broadly-based ethnic identity. One segment of the population participates in the conservative revitalization movement as a result of a desire to maintain an unified tribal identity (as Odawa); another segment does not participate(and indeed is combating it) either as a result of a desire to become increasingly assimilated in the mainstream society or, a desire to become part of a broader pan-Indian identity. Regardless of the approach to achieving a greater sense of ethnic identity, both strategies are the focus of social activism. The research was conducted while residing full-time in Emmet County, Michigan for two years, although I have spent time there for the last 35 years.Data came from long conversations with primary consultants, from responses to structured questionnaires from a larger number of respondants, from formal observations and participation, all of which were recorded as field-notes, photographs and in a final video. Data and interview materials were periodically summarized and indexed on P.C. for analysis, direct reporting and relation to existing information. The project has been significant because: (a)the Odawa see a need to have their history documented; (b) the contemporary social life (and religion) of the Odawa has been little studied, and; (c) this particular group is not part of a reservation population and has therefore experienced different acculturative pressures than groups that have been reserved or, that have federally recognized tribal status.

2505. Phelan, C. (1994). Sootface: An Ojibwa Cinderella Story (book reviews). Booklist, 91(4), 433 (1).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: In this Ojibwa tale, Sootface is a young woman who does all the cooking, mending, and fire tending for her father and her two mean and lazy older sisters. When the mysterious invisible warrior announces through his sister that he will take for his bride a woman with a kind and honest heart, only Sootface proves worthy. The tale has been told before, even in picture-book format, but the San Souci version reads aloud well, and the watercolor artwork illustrates the story with quiet grace. A satisfying picture book for reading aloud or alone, and a good choice for classes studying Native Americans or comparative folklore.
Full Text COPYRIGHT American Library Association 1994

2506. Phelen, C. (1994 January). Star Tribune, p. 7.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
The January 17, 1994 Minneapolis Star Tribune, page 7Ex, reprinted an article by Craig Phelen of the San Antonio, Texas Express-News, who explained the Indian I.D. cards with regard to a $300 fine assessed by Alex Hasychak of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, for possession of a red-tail hawk feather of religious significance by Tomas Ramirez.Certain American Indians may obtain permits [from the U.S. Government] to have such feathers for religious purposes, but they must be registered with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and issued an identification card.Ramirez has no permit to possess such feathers.And as far as Hasychak is concerned, that makes the case against him clear cut.Ramirez said Hasychak told him that if he doesn't have an Indian identification card, he isn't an Indian.Hasychak said he is sensitive to an individual's First Amendment rights, but for enforcement services, 'we have to defer to the Bureau of Indian Affairs.'

2507. Philbrick, R. R. (1991). Integration of Title V Indian Education supplemental services into regular education programs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of South Dakota.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the desirability of integrating supplemental services provided to Indian students under Title V of P. L. 100-297 into the regular education program offered to all students. Other purposes for the study were to compare similarities and differences in the perceptions of school superintendents and Indian education coordinators concerning supplemental services which could be integrated into the regular education program and to establish a framework for an integration model. A four-part survey instrument addressed the research questions. The first part ranked the degree of importance of ten supplemental services on a six point Likert Scale with one being low importance and six being high importance. The second part ranked the desirability of integration of ten supplemental services on a six point Likert Scale. The third part determined the integration of ten supplemental services into four select service areas of the regular education program. The fourth part requested school enrollments from school superintendents and expenditures for each supplemental service from Indian education coordinators. The survey instruments were mailed to 127 school superintendents and 127 Indian education coordinators in Iowa, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming. Survey and follow-up procedures resulted in a return of 170 survey instruments for a return rate of 65.0 percent. Fifteen returns were not usable. Thus, the analysis of data was based on 61.0 percent of the return responses. Perceptions from the combined groups indicated that the importance of the ten supplemental services, in descending order were as follows: Tutoring, Home School Coordinator, Relations, Counseling, Personal/Social Development, Indian Culture, Parent/Staff Development, Administration/Supervision, Parental Costs, and Summer School. As a result of the analysis of data from both groups, supplemental services were integrated into selected service areas of the regular education programs as follows Administration/Supervision into Administration, Indian Culture into Instructional, Parent/Relations into Administration, Tutoring into Instructional, Summer School into Instructional, Home-School Coordinator into Support, Counseling into Student, Parental Costs into Support, Parent/Staff Development into Administration, and Personal/Social Development into Student.

2508. Phillips, M. J. (1996). Excess Zinc Associated With Severe Progressive Cholestasis in Cree and Ojibwa-Cree Children. Lancet, 347(9017), 866, 1776.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

2509. Phillips, M. J., Ackerley. C. A., Superina, R. A., Roberts, E. A., Filler, R. M., & Levy, G. A. (1996). Excess Zinc Associated With Severe Progressive Cholestasis in Cree and Ojibwa-Cree Children. Lancet (North American Edition) , 347(9005), 866-868.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Abstract: Background: High hepatic copper concentrations have been reported in several liver disorders. We report six Native Canadian children with severe chronic cholestatic liver disease, who had excess hepatic copper and zinc. Methods: The children, aged 22 months to 8 years, came from northern Ontario, Canada. All were referred for possible liver transplantation because of end-stage liver disease. We examined explanted liver samples (or liver biopsy material in one case) by scanning transmission electronmicroscopic (STEM) X-ray elemental microanalysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Samples from four controls (two with no liver pathology, one with biliary atresia, and one with Wilson's disease) were also analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Findings: The explanted livers showed similar distinctive signs of advanced biliary cirrhosis, and on electron-microscopy there were dense deposits in enlarged lysosomes and in cytoplasm. Hepatic copper concentrations were many times higher in the five patients with measurements (47.6-56.9 mu-g/g dry weight) than in two samples of normal control liver tissue (2.3 and 2.9 mu-g/g). Similarly, hepatic zinc concentrations were many times higher in the patients than in controls (104-128 vs 1.9-3.2 mu-g/g dry weight). Interpretation: The excess copper may be due to chronic cholestasis but the excess zinc is unexplained. Since three of the patients are related (shared grandparents), a genetic disorder of metal metabolism is possible, but we cannot exclude environmental factors.

2510. Phillips, R. B. (1984). Zigzag and spiral: geometric motifs in Great Lakes Indian costume. Papers of the Algonquian Conference, 15, 409-424, ill.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2511. Pichardo, M. (1998). Amerind Taxonomy and Testable Hypotheses. [Review] [90 Refs]. Anthropologischer Anzeiger, 56(2), 97-116.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: The acceptance of a 30,000 yr B.P. age for Valsequillo sets new parameters for hypotheses of Paleoindian entry into America. A review of Amerind taxonomy defines the early groups as Otamid-Sundadonts. Isolation in America led to an adaptive radiation that has implications for the origin and dispersal of Pithecanthropus.(90 Refs)(Abstract by: Author)

2512. Pichette, E. F. (1995). Community-based rehabilitaiton needs of American Indian people living on a rural reservation (Oneida, Native American). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Wisconsin--Madison.
Abstract: Perceived community-based rehabilitation needs were assessed using the Concerns Report Method. In addition to describing needs, the influence of experience with disability and cultural identification on perceived rehabilitation needs was also investigated. A significant feature of this study was the involvement of local constituencies throughout the research process, promoting a sense of ownership of the data generated on the part of the community--Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin. The information generated was intended to be useful to the Oneida community in developing their own culturally appropriate programming and follow-up. Participants who completed the survey were enrolled Oneida tribal members who were recruited at the reservation health center, and 156 individuals provided complete responses. Analysis of variance was used to examine the influence of experience with disability and cultural identification on perceptions of rehabilitation needs, with needs defined in four different ways. No significant differences were found on mean importance ratings across all concerns, the number of 'priority' needs, or the number of 'high priority' needs. However, significant differences were found on mean satisfaction with community response to concerns, with participants having personal experience with disabilities showing greater satisfaction than those who did not, and participants with American Indian cultural identification showing less satisfaction than those with bicultural or the anomic identification. Significant to the community needs and the Concerns Report Method is the need to return the results of the study to the community in 'town hall' meetings, so that the Oneida people can use the information to establish their own unique agendas to meet the needs of people with disabilities. The researcher will continue to work with the community in sharing the results of the study and facilitating the use of the information.

2513. Pickens, I. R. (1983). A cross-cultural study examining the effects of cultural schemata on the reading comprehension of average sixth grade readers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Wisconsin--Madison.
Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between cultural schemata and reading comprehension. Three cultural diverse groups of children, namely, Chicano/Hispanic--Texas; Navaho/Native American--New Mexico, and Anglo/American--Wisconsin, average sixth grade students read a total of nine folktales. Three of the passages had a Mexican cultural overview, three a Native American, and three an American. After reading each passage, the subjects completed a 20-item probed recall test. The mean scores on the comprehension tasks revealed that the culture-specific passages were comprehended significantly better than the non-culture-specific passages. The evidence indicates that cultural schemata profoundly influences how reading texts are comprehended. In addition to the reading comprehension task, the students were timed on the reading speed among the nine passages. The findings showed that there were no differences in the reading speed among the culture-specific and non-culture-specific passages by the Chicano and Navaho students. The Anglo students read all the passages significantly faster than the two other groups of students. A final finding of this study revealed that there were no significant differences in passage comprehension on the culture-specific selections between the male and female students do better in reading comprehension irrespective of schemata embodying knowledge of the content of discourse. The results of the study were discussed in light of the basic premise that schemata embodying the background knowledge of a person provides the framework for understanding the texts he/she reads. The evidence indicates that cultural background is the underlying framework which interacts with the text to produce comprehension. Such research findings on cultural schemata and its implications to reading comprehension were discussed in view of an attempt to get reading programs to include reading materials that are more closely related to the minority children's cultural background. The present research represents an attempt to better meet the reading needs of minority children in education.

2514. Pienkowski, T. P. (1985). The diatom flora in association with the Red Lake Peatland, Minnesota . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Central Michigan University, Typescript. Also published on microfiche: Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms. Thesis (M.S.) -- Central Michigan University, 1985.
Notes: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 13304364

2515. Pierce, D. (1995). Red Earth, White Lies - a new book by Vine Deloria, Jr. Winds of Change : a Magazine for American Indian ..., 10(4), 56.
Notes: Source: UnCover database (Aug 1999)
Abstract: Providing alternative hypotheses about the prehistory of this continent, Deloria asks if accepted theories are "facts," or "White lies" undermining Native sovereignty.

2516. Pierce, E. W. (1981). The relationship of test anxiety and selected background factors to reading achievement and attitude of intermediate grade Menominee Indian children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Wisconsin--Madison.
Abstract: This study investigated relationships between selected background factors and the reading achievement and attitude of Menominee Indian intermediate grade children. Those aspects of reading examined were vocabulary knowledge, comprehension, attitude toward reading, and written vocabulary represented by pupils' written tokens and types derived from a uniform stimulus composition. The background factors selected for study were test anxiety, intelligence, school attendance, pupil opinion, and socioeconomic status. The subjects for this study were all of the fourth, fifth, and sixth grade Menominee Indian pupils in the four schools in Menominee County, Wisconsin. In an antecedent vocabulary development study subjects in Treatment A received an infusion of high frequency vocabulary presented in culturally relevant Menominee stories. Subjects in Treatment B received the identical vocabulary but were exposed to conventional approaches and materials. The groups were roughly equal in number, but were found to be significantly different in intelligence and socioeconomic status. Class means on the reading variables were accepted from posttest measures in the vocabulary study. Two instruments were administered at the posttest period, Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale for Children and a brief original opinionnaire designed for this study which assessed pupils' affective response to selected aspects of the antecedent study. The other background data regarding intelligence, absence, and socioeconomic status were obtained from pupils' school records. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were computed between the five reading variables and the five background variables within each of the treatment groups, and levels of significance were determined for each of these relationships. All pairs of factors attaining significance, within groups, were then compared for between-group difference using Fisher's r to z transformation procedure and tested for significance. Principal findings of this investigation were as follows: (1)Nine significant correlations were found in Treatment Group A: Test Anxiety, Intelligence, and Socioeconomic Status, each with Vocabulary and with Comprehension; Intelligence and Socioeconomic Status, each with Attitude; and, Pupil Opinion with Attitude. (2)Six significant correlations were found in Treatment Group B: Intelligence with each, Vocabulary, Comprehension, Attitude, Tokens, and Types; and, Pupil Opinion with Attitude. (3)Four significant between-group differences were found for Written Tokens with Intelligence, and for Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Attitude, each with Socioeconomic Status, in the latter three cases the correlations of greater magnitude occurring in Treatment Group A. (4)Absence, contrary to expectation based upon research and field observation, was not significantly related to the reading variables in either Treatment Group. While no causal relationship may be inferred from these results regarding use of the special cultural materials, the comparisons made in Treatment Group A support the educational validity of such materials. While this correlational study utilizing non-randomized intact groups precludes generalization to other populations, it may be concluded these variables are of sufficient interest to warrant further investigation.

2517. Pierce, K. M., & Short, K. G. (1995-1996). Shannon - an Ojibway Dancer - King,S. Reading Teacher., 48(4), 340-348.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

2518. . (1983). G. L. Piggott, & A. GrafsteinAn Ojibwa lexicon . Ottawa: National Museum of Man.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXX (1987:24)

2519. Piggott, G. L. (1989). Argument structure and the morphology of the Ojibwa verb. Theoretical Perspectives on Native American Languages(pp. 176-208). Albany: State University of New York Press.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2520. Pinckney, R. (1994). Old Bug's Necklace. American History, 29(5), 40.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Abstract: The last pitched battle of the Indian Wars was fought, not at Wounded Knee in 1890, but nearly a decade later at --of all places--Leech Lake, Minnesota.

2521. Pine, T. S. (1957). The Indians Knew. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:92), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "Tells how the Indians of America used numerous concepts which are basic in many of man's recent scientific and technological accomplishments.Has a simple experiment for young children.Grades 2-5."

2522. Pinkely, R. (1994). The Riddle of the Runes. Minnesota Calls, 10.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
a dicussion of Vikings in Alexandria, Minnesota in 1362

2523. Pinkney, & Madison, J. (1958). James Madison's notes on the debates, Constitutional Convention, Monday, June 15, 1787, June 26, 1787. W. Solberg (editor), The Federal Convention and the Formation of the American States .Bobbs-Merrill.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2524. Pio, F. J. (1997). The creation and development of a program of study derived from Ojibwe philosophy for a proposed center of learning and research for the arts (Manitoulin Island, Ontario). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University.
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to create a proposal for a center of learning and research in the arts derived from the philosophy of the Ojibwe of Manitoulin Island. This center would promote and perserve cultural activities of living traditions concerned with art in an environment conducive to this goal, where students could continue to learn from the masters of these traditions. As an artist-researcher I participated in tribal rituals of the Ojibwe of Manitoulin Island, over a two year period, in order to determine whether their traditional values and beliefs constitute a philosophy that employs reason and argument in search for truth and knowledge. A central issue for investigation was the question of whether there is an Ojibwe aesthetic. I took a hermeneutic phenomenological approach in order to understand the modalities of interpretation, that were presented to me. This proposed center was based, in part, on Black Mountain College which was founded in 1933 on the democratic principles of the philosopher and educator John Dewey. Black Mountain encouraged students to be curious, critical and experimental in the pursuit of their education. It concerned itself with putting art at the center of education. It encouraged exploration and experimentation in art. Education at Black Mountain College took place at all times, and not merely in classrooms. Thus the proposed center would combine non-Native educational philosophies, and artistic tenets of the Ojibwe philosophy. The center's program is designed specifically for college and university art students, interested community members of the nearby reservations, and the small communities on the island. While the curriculum reflects Western thought, the foundation for the curriculum was dervied from the Ojibwe culture's particular system or set of beliefs that constitute their worldview. The center's four-program would offer a BFA and/or B.Ed. degrees, in association with three universities in Ontario Canada: University of Toronto, Laurentian University, and Nipissing University.

2525. Pipestone Indian Shrine Association. (1932). The Pipestone Indian Shrine, Pipestone, Minnesota : Indian legends and historical facts regarding the Red Pipestone Quarry, Winnewissa Falls and the "Twin Maidens" . Pipestone, Minn.Pipestone Leader.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 7956741

2526. Plato. (1991). The Republic: the complete and unabridged Jowett translation . New York : Vintage Books.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
Includes bibliographical references
translator: Jowett, Benjamin, 1817-1893.

2527. Plut, L. J. (1965). A historical study of Indian education in the Minnesota River area from, 1834 to 1862. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northern State College, Department of Education [Aberdeen, SD].
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 7683069

2528. Pluth, E. J. (1963). Account of Winnebago Indian affairs at Long Prairie, Minnesota Territory : 1848-1855. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, St. Cloud State College.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 7831126

2529. Poelzer, G. M. (1997). Toward a theory of Native self-government: Canada and Russia in comparative perspective. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alberta (Canada).
Abstract: This study undertakes a comparative analysis of the efforts by indigenous peoples in Canada and Russia to become self-governing, with the intent of producing a theory which explains the origins and outcomes of the contemporary struggle for aboriginal self-government. It is argued that the struggle for self-government is a consequence of the social conflict between two disparate societies--indigenous and modern-state. Through an analysis of the sociopolitical histories of the aboriginal peoples in Canada and Russia, the study argues that it is modern state buildingnot colonialism--that is the decisive historic factor which irrevocably shapes the political development of indigenous political communities, leading eventually to their quest for self-government. One of the most revealing findings of this study is that, despite the profound differences between Canada (liberal-democratic, capitalist) and Russia (authoritarian, state-socialist), the policies pursued by the state and the pattern of relations between the state and aboriginal peoples are strikingly similar. The study makes three contributions to the scholarship on aboriginal politics: Theoretically, it advances a comprehensive explanation of the efforts by indigenous people to accomplish self-government--origins and outcomes. At present, such a theoretical account does not exist and is urgently needed. Methodologically, it presents a comparative study of aboriginal politics within two very different societies--a capitalist, liberal democracy (Canada) and a non-capitalist, authoritarian state(Russia). This study represents one of the first efforts to go beyond comparative studies among liberal democracies and, as a result, holds the promise of meaningfully contributing to our understanding of aboriginal politics. Substantively, this study offers a comparative study of the views of aboriginal people in Canada and Russia. In addition to interviewing community elders and political elites, extensive interviews were conducted among 'ordinary' community members in the Evenk settlement of Tyanya (Siberia) and in the Metis settlement of Gift Lake (Alberta) on issues related to their communities and self-government.

2530. Pohrt, R. A. (1986). Nineteenth century Michigan Chippewa costume: [the] photographs of David Shoppenagons. American Indian Art, 11(3), 44-53, ill.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXXII (1990:104)
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2531. Point Foundation. (1986). The Essential Whole Earth Catalog.Doubleday.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2532. Pollard, J. T. (1992). The making of the Metis in the Pacific Northwewst fur trade children: race, class and gender. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of British Columbia (Canada).
Abstract: If the psychiatrist's belief that childhood determines adult behaviour is true, then historians should be able to ascertain much about the fabric of past cultures by examining the way in which children were raised. Indeed, it may be argued that the roots of new cultures are to be found in the growing up experiences of the first generation. Such is the premise adopted in this thesis, which explores the emergence of the Metis in the Pacific Northwest by tracing the lives of fur trade youngsters from childbirth to old age. Specifically, the study focuses on the children at Fort Vancouver, the Hudson's Bay Company headquarters for the region, during the first half of the nineteenth century--a period of rapid social change. While breaking new ground in childhood history, the thesis also provides a social history of fur trade society west of the Rocky Mountains. Central to the study is the conviction that the fur trade constituted a viable culture. While the parents in this culture came from a wide variety of ethnic backgrounds, their mixed-blood youngsters were raised in the 'wilderness' of Oregon in a fusion of fur trade capitalism, Euro-American ideology and native values--a milieu which forged and shaped their identities. This thesis advances the interpretation that, despite much variation in the children's growing up experience, most fur trade youngsters' lives were conditioned and contoured by the persistent and sometimes contrary forces of race, class and gender. In large measure, the interplay of these forces denoted much about the children's roles as adults. Rather than making them victims of 'higher civilization,' however, the education of fur trade children allowed them access to both native and white communities. Only a few were 'marginalized'. The majority eventually became members of the dominant culture, while a few consciously rejected the white experience in favour of native lifestyles.

2533. Pomedli, M. M. (1996). Ojibwa Influences on Virgil Michel. Worship, 70(6), 531.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2534. Pompey, S. L. (1965). Civil War veteran burial listings. Long Beach: Southern California Genealogical Society.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 6708008
Abstract: v. 1. Covering men in regiments from Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington Territory.--v. 2. Covering men in regiments from California.-- v. 3. Covering men in regiments from Colorado.--v. 4. Covering men in regiments of the Cherokee Indians (Confederate States), Dakotas, Nebraska, and Texas.--v. 5. Kansas Indian hone guards.--v. 6. Covering men in regiments from Iowa.--v. 7. Covering men in the Missouri Cavalry.--v. 8. Covering men in Missouri regiments.--v. 9. Covering men in the Missouri Infantry.--v. 10. Covering men in regiments from Minnesota.--v. 11. Covering men in regiments from Arkansas and Louisiana.--v. 12. Covering Confederate soldiers, state and regiment unknown and Confederate soldiers state unknown but regiment known.

2535. Pond, S. W. (Samuel William) . (1880). Indian warfare in Minnesota . Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society, 3, [129] - 138.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 11903048
Abstract: "A brief account of the battles fought between the Dakotas of the Mississippi and Minnesota and their enemies ... in the course of ten years, commencing in 1835."

2536. (1972). Ponemah Singers. Phoenix, AZ: Canyon Records.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:39)

2537. Map of the lake region of Minnesota : red boundary lines indicate compromise site for national park. (1907). United States : Poole Bros., engr's.).
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).Shows Indian reservations at Leech Lake and Lake Winnibigoshish.

2538. Pope, W. R. (1988). Tracing your ancestors in Minnesota, a guide to the sources
Volume 7, North Central Minnesota
. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Family Trees, 718 Sims Avenue, St. Paul, MN.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
Includes bibliographies and index.

2539. Popke Ryan, S. L. (1997). The effect of student ethnicity on the development of interventions by school psychologists (racism, prejudice). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
Abstract: Psychological and educational literature has discussed how the ethnicity of clients and students effects the development of interventions and ways to improve the cultural awareness of mental health professionals. This dissertation study examined (1) the development of interventions by 368 Wisconsin school psychologists for American Indian, American Asian, African American, and white European American students and their families through a state-wide administered questionnaire, and (2) the training in intervention development, specifically for minority students, provided by school psychology training programs in Wisconsin. Results indicated that most study respondents did not consider student ethnicity as important when developing their interventions. Respondents who did directly consider student ethnicity usually did so for American Indian students. The types and/or frequency of interventions varied depending on the school psychologist's age, gender, number of students in their school district, ethnicity, expressed attitudes, and training. When examining respondent training, most respondents reported limited intervention training through their university programs. Respondents supplemented their training as needed through other means such as workshops or professional reading. When they had received intervention training, it was usually for working with individual students and seldom for working with families or minorities. A total of 63% of respondents felt their training had been inadequate for working with minorities. The examination of school psychologist training programs in Wisconsin indicated a wide variation among programs in the type and amount of training offered in interventions with minorities. The results of this study suggest that school psychologists who are from predominantly white middle-class traditional American backgrounds often fail to recognize how their cultural background affects the way they perform as a school psychologist and do not realize that the success of their interventions is decreased if they do not consider ethnic factors.

2540. Porter, F. W. 3. (1996). The Chipewyan-Subarctic.Chelsea House Publishers.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

2541. Porter, R. B. (1998). A Proposal to the Hanodaganyas to Decolonize Federal Indian Control Law. University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform, 31(4), 899.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2542. Poston, S. (1946). The literature of the Red Lake Chippewa Indians . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Dakota.
Notes: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 15492824

2543. Potthoff, S. J., Bearinger, L. H., Skay, C. L., Cassuto, N., Blum, R. W., & Resnick M. D. (1998). Dimensions of Risk Behaviors Among American Indian Youth. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 152(2), 157-163.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To explore the covariation of risk behaviors in a national sample of American Indian reservation-based youth using listwise principal components factor analysis and to determine how these risk behaviors may vary by age and sex. DESIGN: Analysis of data from the National Indian Adolescent Health Survey, a validated anonymous self-report questionnaire of 162 items addressing various health domains. SETTING: The survey was administered nationally in more than 200 reservation-based schools. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen thousand nine hundred twenty-three reservation-based American Indian or Alaska Native students in grade 7 through 12 representing more than 50 tribes. The listwise factor analysis sample included 7687 respondents with complete data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Item loading and factor correlations by age and sex for 30 risk behaviors across various health domains. RESULTS: Three risk behavior factors were fairly stable across sex and age: (1) the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs; (2) risky sexual behavior, and (3) suicidal behaviors. Correlations between these and other factors suggested different strengths of relationships by sex and age. Other factors, including violence, truancy, and delinquency, showed differences in item loading on factors and correlations between factors. The use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs was most frequently associated with other risk behavior factors, and suicidal behaviors showed the next highest frequency of intercorrelations. CONCLUSIONS: There are sex and age differences in the covariation of risk behaviors, and suicidal behaviors should be further investigated to determine of our findings are unique to American Indian youth. Health interventions that focus categorically on 1 risk dimension should also emphasize substance use prevention and intervention. To prevent substance abuse among American Indian youth, research efforts need to focus on effective strategies for coping with social and psychological stressors.(Abstract by: Author)

2544. Poupart, L. M. (1997). Silenced voices: patriarchy, cultural imperialism and marginalized others (Native American, Ojibway). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University.
Abstract: Knowledge is always produced by individuals who occupy particular material bodies and social positions. While all knowledge formations are culturally constructed, these constructions are attached to material bodies which are located in particular contexts. Knowledge is produced by individuals based upon experiences and individual social situations. Under a patriarchal social structure, although all knowledge claims are socially situated, only those of the dominant group are universalized as the beliefs of all members of society. Thus, patriarchy systematically excludes and silences the experiences of marginalized groups such as women, people of color, children, Lesbians and Gays, and the poor. It is argued that 'truth,' as constructed by social scientists, is neither objective, nor universal, but, rather, reflects and perpetuates the social and economic systems that benefit those who produce it. The valorization of 'scientific' knowledge in modern western culture plays a crucial role in excluding the knowledges offered by women, people of color, and others. The author discusses the challenges that marginalized groups pose to the patriarchy when individuals break silence and voice their truths as Other. An historical analysis (deconstruction) of federal Indian policy in the United States is provided, exploring how western paternalism led to the colonization and genocide of American Indian Nations, as well as contemporary tribal dependency on the federal government. The internalized oppression of American Indian people is explored. Throughout these sections, the author reveals her own personal experiences of loss of culture, family violence, mixed-blood identity, and self-hatred as they relate to the continuing genocide of Indian Nations. In the final chapter of this dissertation, the author explores violence against American Indian women and children as experiences of the patriarchal power structure. Drawing upon feminist critiques, she examines power relationships in western patriarchy that create and foster violence against the disempowered. The silence shrouding domestic violence and childhood sexual abuse in Indian communities is examined as a fluid example of exclusion, or private and public subordination The assertions in this section are further illuminated by the author, using poetry describing her experiences of victimization within society and within the patriarchal family structure.

2545. Powell, J. W. [Letter to Morgan, T. J.].

2546. Powell, R. J. (1987). Papers, 1843, 1896-1938. Minnesota Historical Society Microfilm M 455. microfilm, roll 14.Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, MN.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2547. Pradel, F. G., Hartzema, A. G., Hanson, E. C., & Mutran, E. (1995). Physician's Over the Counter Drug Prescribing Pattern. Apha Annual Meeting, 142, 92.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: This study assessed the importance of over the counter (OTC) drugs in physician drug mentions as captured in the 1990 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. The first objective was to provide overall national estimates of OTC drug mentions with regard to physician, patient and drug characteristics. The second objective was to identify physician and patient variables related to OTC drug mentions in relevant drug therapeutic classes. Sample physicians prescribed or recommended 40,582 drugs which are referred to as drug mentions. The dependent variable as the ratio OTC to prescription (Rx) drug mentions (OTC/Rx). Results for the first objective showed that at the national level, 9.7% of drug mentions were for OTC drugs, representing a ratio OTC/Rx of .11. Primary care specialties (general and family practice, internal medicine), women between 16 and 34 years, Asian/American-Indian, and patients with Rx drug coverage experienced high OTC drug recommendations (OTC/Rx>=.11). For the second objective, logistic regressions identified that physician's variables associated with increased OTC drug mentions were primary care specialties in each drug therapeutic class considered except the skin and mucous membrane class. Specialized physicians, in the drug therapeutic class related to their specialty, were either associated with decreased OTC drug mentions or were not selected. Exceptions were endocrinology in the hormone and hormonal mechanism class, and otolaryngology in the respiratory tract class. These two specialties were associated with increased OTC drug mentions. Patient drug coverage status was not significant. Physician type and location of practice, patient gender, race, and age were significant variables but their selection differed in each drug therapeutic class. The study concludes that physician's OTC drug mentions are substantial and that primary care specialties should be considered by those interested in OTC drug utilization in ambulatory care practice.

2548. Prairie Island Indian Community in the State of Minnesota, & United States. Office of Indian Affairs. (1936). Constitution and bylaws of the Prairie Island Indian Community in Minnesota, approved June 20, 1936. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession:: 23679050. At head of title: United States. Department of the Interior. Office of Indian Affairs.

2549. Prarie Island Indian Community, & United States. Office of Indian Affairs. (1938). Corporate charter of the Prarie Island Indian Community in the State of Minnesota, ratified July 23, 1937. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 23681764.At head of title: United States. Department of the Interior. Office of Indian Affairs.

2550. (1842). J. Prat. Paris: Lith. rue Salle au Comte.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search).Print from: Vues et souvenirs de l'Amerique du Nord / par Francis de Castelnau. -- Paris : Bertrand, 1842. -- Plate 15. Donor: 1771.Other: Castelnau, Francis, comte de, 1812- 1880

2551. Prater, S. L. (1997). The effects of a perinatal intervention program on pregnancy outcomes for urban Native American mothers and infants. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Florida State University.
Abstract: Medical and social work professionals have known for several decades of the high rate of infant mortality that plagues Native Americans. Furthermore, the State of Wisconsin reports one of the highest rates of Native American infant mortality in the U.S. This research examines a Perinatal Intervention Program for urban Native American mothers in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The goal of my research is to identify predictors for healthy pregnancies that produce healthy babies. Results of the study were mixed. Consistent with medical and social work literature, prenatal care was found to be a successful predictor of healthy babies, that is, the more visits a mother made to the obstetrical specialist, the healthier her baby. Additionally, the more contacts she had with Perinatal Staff during her pregnancy, the healthier her baby. However, more prenatal care did not mean healthier pregnancies; the more prenatal visits a mother made, the more complications she experienced during pregnancy and at labor and delivery. Smoking during pregnancy produced smaller babies with more complications at birth; however, this effect became insignificant when prenatal visits and contacts with Staff during pregnancy were considered. Mothers who had a history of drug and/or alcohol use produced babies who were more likely to suffer complications at birth. Contradictory to predictions, overweight and obese mothers had healthy babies, although obese mothers did experience more complications at labor and delivery. Mothers who had suffered a previous reproductive loss had larger babies than mothers who had suffered no losses. Married women fared better than single women with regard to complications during pregnancy and at labor and delivery. However, women who had not completed high school did better than women who had completed high school at labor and delivery, an unexpected finding. Mothers who identified with tribes outside Wisconsin also suffered fewer complications at labor and delivery than did mothers who identified with Wisconsin tribes. Mothers who took classes offered by the Perinatal Staff experienced more complications than did mothers who took fewer classes. These mixed results indicate a need for further research on the pregnancy behaviors of urban Native American mothers.

2552. . (1994). G. S. PrentzasTribal law . Vero Beach, Fla.Rourke Publications.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 29876883. Includes bibliographical references (p. 59) and index.

2553. Preston, R. J. (1983). Algonquian people and energy development in the subarctic. Papers of the Algonquian Conference, (14), 169-179.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2554. Preuss, N. L. (1988). A survey of the prevalence of childhood sexual victimization among eighteen -- twenty-one-year-old college students and its relationship to alcohol abuse and bulimia. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado.
Abstract: This study assessed the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse within a cohort of 18 to 21 year old male and female college students. It also investigated the relationship between childhood sexual victimization and current alcohol abuse and between childhood sexual abuse and current bulimic eating behaviors. The research was conducted at Chadron State College (Nebraska), the University of Northern Colorado, and the University of New Mexico. Volunteer subjects for this project were students enrolled in introductory social science classes at these institutions. A modified version of a sexual history questionnaire developed by Finkelhor (1979), the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, and questions developed to assess bulimia were completed by 690 students who met the age criteria.Ethnicity of the 690 students was: Caucasian, 71.2%, Hispanic, 19.0%, Native American, 4.7%, Black, 1.8%, Asian, 1.3%, and Other, 2.0%.The level of significance for rejection of six null hypotheses was set at.05. Males and females were compared on the categories of: (a) prevalence of sexual abuse by relatives and nonrelatives, (b) relationship of sexual abuse to alcohol abuse, and (c) relationship of sexual abuse to bulimia. It was found that a substantially greater number of females were sexually abused, both by relatives and nonrelatives. Alcohol abuse was found to be related to sexual abuse for males but not for females. A relationship was found between bulimia and childhood sexual victimization for males but not for females when the DSM III criteria for bulimia were used. When the stringent DSM III criteria for bulimia were lowered to include only binging and purging and/or binging and excessive laxative use, a significant relationship was found for females between sex abuse and bulimic behaviors. No difference was found in these behaviors between abused and non-abused males. A relationship was also found between alcohol abuse and bulimic behaviors for females, using the less stringent criteria for bulimia.

2555. Price (Ex-Commissioner)5th Lake Mohonk conference .
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2556. Price, D. L. (1995). An ecological study of the composition, structure and disturbance regimes of the pre-European settlement forests of western Chippewa County, Michigan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.
Abstract: To successfully implement ecosystem management an understanding must be achieved regarding how different forest communities and ecosystems function and interrelate at the landscape level. This study explores the composition, structure and disturbance patterns of the pre-European settlement forests of eastern upper Michigan, by reconstruction of the forests from General Land Office Survey notes. Results suggest that the pre-European settlement landscape was a vast array of irregular patches, composed of different successional stages and forest associations of different age and size classes. The composition and structure of the forest was driven by fire, windthrow, insect related mortality and beaver (Castor canadensis) floodings. Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) was a dominant species in the landscape. The results of the study provide a foundation for understanding how today's forests differ from those that dominated the landscape before Europeans began to harvesttimber.

2557. Prindeville, D. M., & Gomez, T. B. (1999). American Indian Women Leaders, Public Policy, and the Importance of Gender and Ethnic Identity. Women & Politics, 20(2), 17-32.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: American Indian women are playing an increasingly important role as policymakers in state, local, and tribal politics. Despite their activity and impact, however, few studies examine their political agendas or public policy preferences. One exception is Melanie McCoy's 1992 study of female tribal leaders published in Women & Politics. Like McCoy, we explore the research questions: What are the public policy agendas of American Indian women leaders? What do they wish to accomplish? What motivates them? Does their gender and/or ethnic identity have an influence on their political participation?

2558. Pritchard, B. E. (1999). Case study: Bob Boyer the artist (Metis, painting, photography, drawing, printmaking). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Manitoba (Canada).
Abstract: This thesis explores the artistic imagery and history of the Metis Artist Bob Boyer from 1971 to the present. The background research examines his visual artistic connection of the contemporary and traditional cultural imagery. Many written, oral and visual examples were used for this research. The purpose of this research is to identify and compare Boyer's use of traditional symbols expressed in a contemporary form and my own artistic methods including painting, photography, drawing and print making. Recommendations for future research include: a methodical comparison of other artists and media styles and an exploration of Native Peoples' symbols used beyond their traditional heritage.

2559. Project Preserve. Red Lake (Minn.). Board of Education. (1989). To walk the red road : memories of the Red Lake Ojibwe people . [Red Lake, Minn.] : Red Lake Board of Education.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 20398957
Source: PALS online catalog (October 1999 search)

2560. Project Preserve. Red Lake (Minn.). Board of Education. (1991). We choose to remember : more memories of the Red Lake Ojibwe people . [Red Lake, MN] : Red Lake Board of Education.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 24706733

2561. Prucha, F. (1975). Documents of United States Indian Policy.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2562. Pycha, R. L. (1955). Some aspects of the early life history of the yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill) in Lower Red Lake, Minnesota. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 19386566

2563. Quattrin, D. W. (1989). A preliminary report of investigations at the Kline 1 Site (20SJ29), St. Joseph County, Michigan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Western Michigan University.
Abstract:The Kline 1 site, located in Mendon Township, St. Joseph County,Michigan, is a multi-component site situated on the eastern shore of Portage Lake. While the projectile points recovered during surface collecting suggest intermittent presence on this site from late Paleo-Indian to Late Woodland times, the occupation offering the most substantial cultural and subsistence data is attributed to the Late Woodland period. Radiocarbon assays received on two features gave dates of 830 - 70 B.P. and 810 - 50 B.P. calibrated to be A.D. 1215 and A.D. 1223 respectively. The importance of this site relates to its spatially intermediate position between the better described Moccasin Bluff site in southwest Michigan and the many Younge Tradition sites to the east.Application of the microcomputer program Statgraphics to the problem of distribution of the lithic debris was undertaken. Based on the resulting analysis several micro- and macro-activity areas are proposed for the site. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.)

2564. Quimby, G. I. (1958). New evidence links Chippewa to prehistoric cultures. Chicago Natural History Museum, Bulletin, 29(4), 7-8.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. V (1961:724)

2565. Quimby, G. I. (1963). A maple sugar camp 200 years ago. Chicago Natural History Museum. Bulletin, 34(3), 6-7, illus.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2566. Quinlan, K. P., Wallace, L. J., Furner, S. E., Brewer, R. D., Bolen, J., & Schieber, R. A. (1998). Motor Vehicle Related Injuries Among American Indian and Alaskan Native Youth, 1981-92: Analysis of a National Hospital Discharge Database. Injury Prevention, 4(4), 276-279.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe national trends in hospitalizations for motor vehicle related injuries among children and youth (0-24 years) of the United States Indian Health Service (IHS) from 1981-92. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiologic study of the E coded national hospital discharge database of the IHS. RESULTS: From 1981 to 1992, the age standardized annual incidence of motor vehicle related injury hospitalizations (per 100,000 population) among American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) youth decreased more than 65% from 269 to 93. Substantial declines in hospitalization rates for all age and sex groups, all IHS areas, and most injury types were seen over this time. Injuries to vehicle occupants accounted for 78% of all motor vehicle related injury hospitalizations. The annual incidence of hospitalization (per 100,000 population) ranged from 291 in the Billings (Wyoming/Montana) and Aberdeen (the Dakotas) areas to 38 in the Portland area (Pacific Northwest). CONCLUSIONS: National motor vehicle related injury hospitalization rates of AI/AN children and youth decreased significantly from 1981-92. This may be due to a reduction in the incidence of severe motor vehicle related trauma, changing patterns of medical practice, and changes in the use of services. Additional measures, such as passage and enforcement of tribal laws requiring the use of occupant restraints and stronger laws to prevent alcohol impaired driving, might further reduce the incidence of serious motor vehicle related injuries in this high risk population.(Abstract by: Author)

2567. Rabkin, S. W., Corbett, B. N., & Benediktsson, H. (1976). Marfan Syndrome With Coronary Artery Lesions in a North American Indian. Cmaj., 115(7), 651-653.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Marfan syndrome has not been well documented in North American Indians. A 19-year old Ojibwa man had evidence of this syndrome -- specifically, tall stature, long, thin extremities (particularly, fingers and toes), increased urinary excretion of hydroxyproline, aortic aneurysm, aortic regurgitation and pathologic evidence of aortic rupture and alastic tissue fragmentation. Intimal hyperplasia was present in the extramural coronary arteries, while the intramural arteries, usually thought to be involved, were normal.(Abstract by: Author)

2568. Racette, D. J. (1989). Snow sampling survey in the vicinity of two mineral assay laboratories in the Red Lake area, 1988 : report . [Toronto] : Environment Ontario.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 35472139.Other: Griffin, H. D. Ontario. Ministry of the Environment.

2569. Radin, P. (1916). The Winnebago tribe. Washington, D.C.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)
Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

2570. Radin, P. A. (1920). The autobiography of a Winnebago Indian. California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, 16(7).
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)

2571. Radin, P. A. (1920). Autobiography of a Winnebago Indian.Dover Publications, Incorporated.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

2572. Radin, P. A. (1991). The Road of Life & Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians.Princeton University Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

2573. Radin, P. A. (1969). The Trickster: A Study in American Indian Mythology.Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

2574. . (1979). D. Raincloud, & K. SalterReminiscences of Dan Raincloud, Red Lake band of Chippewa, Minnesota .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22906378

2575. Rainwater, C. (1997). North Spirit - Travels Among the Cree and Ojibway Nations and Their Star Maps - Jiles, P. Canadian Literature, (152-153), 241-242.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999

2576. Map of northern Minnesota : showing Red Lake Indian Reservation . (1896). [United States] : G.A. Ralph.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 9519882
Abstract: Includes notes on Red Lake Reservation.

2577. Ralph, G. A. (1896). The Red Lake Indian Reservation : opened up to settlement May 1st, 1896. Crookston? Minn: Geo. A. Ralph.
Notes: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 16149793.Title from cover.

2578. Ramsey, A., & Morrill, A. C. (Indian Agent)Journal of the proceedings connected with the negotiation of a treaty with the Red Lake and Pembina bands of Chippewas, concluded at the Old Crossing of the Red Lake River on the second of October, 1863.
Notes: cited by Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2579. Rand, K. R. L., & Light, S. A. (1998). Do "Fish and Chips" Mix? The Politics of Indian Gaming in Wisconsin . Gaming Law Review, 2(2), 129.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2580. Randoja, T. K., 1960- . (1990). The phonology and morphology of Halfway River Beaver . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ottawa, Photocopy. Ann Arbor, Mich. : UMI Disseratation Services, 1993. 29 cm., also National Library of Canada = Bibliotheque nationale du Canada.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

2581. Rapoport, A. (1962). What is Semantics. in S. I. S. I. HayakawaThe Use and Misuse of Language . Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2582. Rapoport, A. 1. (1958). General semantics; its place in science. Chicago, IL: International Society for General Semantics.
Notes:Souvenir: International Conference on General Semantics, held under the auspices of Mexico City College.

2583. Rapoport, A. 1. (1986). General systems theory. Tunbridge Wells: Abacus.

2584. . (1975). A. 1. RapoportSemantics . New York: Crowell .
Notes: Includes bibliographical references

2585. Rappaport, S., & Wright, H. (1967). Anthropology. New York: Washington Square Press.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2586. Rashid, R. (1993). Ojibwa take back Canadian army base (Stoney Point on Lake Huron). The Fifth Estate, 28(3), 6.
Notes: Source: Alternative Press Index, black studies database [University of Minnesota onlinedatabase], August 29, 1999 search, record 254wf106, Illustration(s)

2587. Rasmussen, C. O. (1998). Where the River Is Wide: Pahquahwong & the Chippewa Flowage.Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

2588. Rasmussen, M. (1995). Red Lake's newest author spotted in the Big Apple. Native American Press/Ojibwe News.
Abstract: Francis Blake, of Red Lake, MN, was recently sighted in New York City by PRESS staff.Blake was asked about his presence there and why he was running away from the Ďrez.í
Blake laughed and told the PRESS that he was in town to promote his book and meet with his publisher.Part of the promotional tour included interviews with local radio and newspaper writers.
By the time the PRESS had reached Blake he indicated he was tired of the interviews and was seeking some time to tour the city.Considering the plight of this Red Lake elder, the PRESS volunteered its services and escorted him on a quick tour.
The first stop for Blake was the American Indian Community House in NewYork City.Francis met office staff and then proceeded on to a ďpower lunchĒ with administrators.
Community House personnel were happy to meet Blake but none reacted like former Bemidji resident Nadema Smith Agar.Nadema had not been told of the arrival of some of her hometown friends and reacted with awe in seeing that she had been traced down in the ďBig Apple.ĒHer expression was worth a thousand words.
After lunch, Blake entered the ďIron WormĒ and proceeded underground to the National Museum of the American Indian.He met with members of the museumís resource center and talked to other relocated Anishinabe from Minnesota.
From the resource center it was on to a tour of the exhibit.Blake indicated he was very happy to see a museum of this type in existence.He said it was time this country learn about our rich heritage and contributions to culture.
As the sun set on the ďBattery,Ē Blake seemed to take on a stylish, almost cosmopolitan air.Sipping his house special coffee, he stopped and watched rush hour come and go and the financial district emptying its three-piecers into the streets.
Then it was time for the suave and debonair Blake to experience New Yorkís nightlife.The place was a local watering hole for New York writers, poets and newspaper personnel.Here, he met with several reporters to critique their reviews and meet them face to face.The PRESS must report that Blake was poised and unflappable in the face of these society piranhas.
The day rounded out with a late dinner at the home of his publisher and Blake was on the next plane out, back to Minnesota and more publicity gigs in the ďLittle AppleĒ (Minneapolis).

2589. Ray, A. J. (1996). The Ojibwa Western Canada, 1780-1870 - Peers, L. [book review]. Pacific Historical Review, 65(1), 135-136.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: In the Ojibwa of Western Canada, Laura Peers seeks to explain how and why these people, whose ancestral roots lay in the northern Great Lakes area, emerged as a distinctive group living in the woodlands, parklands, and grasslands of western Canada. Her basic premise is that the Western Ojibwa forged an identity for themselves by dealing creatively with the dynamic tensions that existed between their desire to maintain continuity with their ancestral ways and the mounting pressures for change. She offers us a richly detailed account of that struggle.
The fur trade was, of course, one of the paramount catalysts for change. Peers's treatment of it is problematic and contradictory, however. In her opening chapter she subscribes to the outdated notion that aboriginal people's reasons for participating in the trade were fundamentally different from those of their European counterparts. In particular, Peers suggests that native people considered the creation and sustenance of alliances through trade as a goal of equal importance to that of obtaining commodities. She adds that the practice of maintaining kinship relations through the tradition of sharing also encouraged aboriginal people to participate. By contrast, says Peers, the "European concept of trading as an economic exchange is a much narrower one" (p. 9). Of course, this is a false dichotomy. In the minds of Europeans, trade and politics were not divorced. Imperial and colonial histories worldwide attest to this fact. Were it otherwise, the English and the French would not have been so quick to appreciate and take advantage of this dimension of native life.
More to the point, in later chapters Peers offers' abundant examples that show economic considerations often were paramount to the Western Ojibwa. In fact, she concludes her book with the observation: "based on this reading of the documents, I feel that the Ojibwas' decisions were intended, in part, to bring economic benefits, to allow them to obtain the most food and trade goods possible with the least risk" (p. 208). In other words, the Western Ojibwa sought to maximize their returns. And, it seems, many of them did so mostly for personal gain. By the end of the eighteenth century, for example, Peers says the Western Ojibwa had become wealthy people. She adds that the "descriptions of their clothing and lavish jewelry" point to the presence of an "individualized wealth complex." (p. 59).
In chapter one Peers also begins her book by raising the important issue of economic dependence. She suggests that most previous scholars have overstated the extent to which aboriginal people, and the Western Ojibwa in particular, came to rely on European traders and goods. She asserts that the technological superiority of European goods - even firearms compared to the bow-and-arrow - is overrated. Peers further declares: "true dependence came with the reserve era, when the loss of land and resources, personal freedom, political autonomy and cultural self-determination compounded the changes that participation in the fur trade had wrought in Native societies" (p. 14). Yet, in subsequent chapters she cites countless instances that point to opposite conclusions. The most notable of these was the Western Ojibwa receptivity to the Shawnee prophet Tenskwatawa's teachings during the first decade of the nineteenth century. Peers explains that the prophet's message was so appealing, in part, because he admonished groups "not to use items believed to be of European manufacture or import." And this, the author claims, offered the Ojibwa the "means of asserting some feeling of control over an increasingly chaotic fur trade in which they had less power." (pp. 86-87). She adds that "when adherence to The Prophet's strict rules failed to produce any changes in their lives, their appeal faded, and within a few years they were abandoned." (p. 87). In other words, the Western Ojibwa were aware of the economic trap (a staples trap) they had fallen into and made an effort (albeit abortive) to correct it by altering their religious beliefs and practices. This and other episodes also illustrate that it is dubious to define (inter)dependency solely in terms of the exchange of subsistence technologies. The Western Ojibwa turned to European traders for life style and status goods.
Throughout Peers focuses on economic questions, but it is unsettling that she makes almost no use of the records that speak most directly to them - the trading company account books. These sources provide a crucial cross-check for the fur trader's narrative, which she relies on very heavily, and would have enabled her to sketch a less impressionistic picture of the Western Ojibwa as producers and consumer. Peers tells us that it is important to move beyond the band level in order to gain a better understanding of the varied trading practices of individual Ojibwa. An examination of some of the surviving debt books would have been an excellent way to have done so.
ARTHUR J. RAY University of British Columbia
Full Text COPYRIGHT American Historical Association, Pacific Coast Branch 1996

2590. Reagan, A. B., 1871-1936. (1900). Birds of the Bois Fort Indian Reservation and adjacent territory in Minnesota. in A. B. Reagan, 1871-1936The Shoshoni-Goship Indians . [Topeka] : Kansas Academy of Science.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 4103113. Includes author's, "Birds of the Bois Fort Indian Reservation and adjacent territory in Minnesota." Reprint from Kansas Academy of Science.

2591. Reagan, A. B., 1871-1936. (1910). The Boise Forte Indian Reservation in Minnesota. Indianapolis.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 25472697. Title from cover. "Reprinted from the Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science, 1910."

2592. J. Reary, 1842- Sketch of the life of John Reary . New York : Garland Pub.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 4493102. Reprint of the 1871 ed. printed at the Journal & Republican Book and Job Office, Lowville, N.Y. Issued with the reprint of the 1872 ed. of Barbara, M. The true narrative of five years' suffering & perilous adventures. New York, 1978. The reprint of the 1864 ed. of Mrs. Huggins, the Minnesota captive. New York, 1978. The reprint of the 1874 ed. of One more chapter of Indian barbarities. New York, 1978. The reprint of the 1876 ed. of Our great Indian war. New York, 1978.Other: Hews, P. B., Mrs.

2593. Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. (1983). Red Cliff children's code. Bayfield, WI: Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Red Cliff Legal Dept.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 10826703.Caption title. Photocopy.

2594. Red Cliff Tribal Council. (1981). Code of laws of the Red Cliff Band of the Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, effective July 15, 1981 . Wisconsin: Red Cliff Tribal Council?].
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search). Cover title.

2595. Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians. 1958 Base Rolls.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
[manuscript a gift from Virginia Rogers, genealogist at the White Earth Land Settlement Act office, Cass Lake, MN]

2596. Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians. (1970). Code of laws of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians. Minnesota : Red Lake Band?
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 9408424.Cover title. Photocopy.

2597. . (1986). Red Lake Band of Chippewa IndiansHome of the Red Lake Indians . Red Lake, MN : Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 17514577.Cover title.

2598. Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians. (1989). Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians tribal self-governance report : first-phase planning grant [Tribal self-governance report]. [Red Lake, Minn.] : Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 36483440. Title from cover. "March 31, 1989."

2599. (1996).[Recording]. Saskatoon, SK : Turtle Island Music.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).
Abstract: Credits in English on container insert. Various performers. Indian Nations (Eyabay) (5:02) -- Straight (Battle River) (2:46) -- Intertribal (Rose Hill) (3:43) -- Intertribal (Meskwaki Nation) (4:05) -- Intertribal (Dakota Nation) (2:42) -- Intertribal (Eyabay) (4:49) -- Intertribal (Battle River) (3:50) -- Straight (Dakota Nation) (3:18) -- Intertribal (Meskwaki Nation) (4:07) -- Men's fancy (Rose Hill) (2:30).
MUSIC NO: TIM 10003; Turtle Island Music
SUBJECT: Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians -- Anniversaries, etc. Indians of North America -- Great Plains -- Music. Ojibwa Indians -- Music. Dakota Indians -- Music. Fox Indians -- Music

2600. Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians. (1958). Revised constitution and bylaws of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, Minnesota [Revised constitution].
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search) ... accession: 19439757, accession: 30468001.
Abstract: Caption title. "Submitted for ratification to the adult members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians in Minnesota, and was on October 14, 1958, ratified"--Certification of adoption, Oct. 15, 1958. Supplemented by: Ordinance no. 1-68, Election of district representatives, May 28, 1968; Resolution no. 78-78, enacted June 6, 1978, approved Feb. 7, 1979; Ordinance no. 1-59, Enrollment, approved Dec. 28, 1959; Ordinance no. 2-64, Enrollment, approved Aug. 13, 1964; Ordinance no. 1-65, Adoption, approved Mar. 18, 1965; Resolution no. 15-59, enacted upon Jan. 23, 1959; Resolution no. 62-74, enacted upon June 11, 1974; Amendment II, approved Feb. 7, 1979

2601. (1985). Washington, D.C.: G.P.O. [Federal Register Announcement].
Notes: Source: Discretionary Grants database [University of Minnesota onlinedatabase], August 29, 1999 search:
Federal Region: Region V [IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI]
Grant Information: Fiscal Year: 1986. Start/End Dates: 04/01/1986 To 08/31/1987. Award Number: 90CA1197.
Federal Register Announcement Date: June 21, 1985
Abstract: PURPOSE: To initiate a child abuse and neglect prevention and intervention program for Indian families living on a reservation through a community educator who will increase public awareness, promote the use of available resources, and clarify reporting responsibilities.
ABSTRACT: An intensive program of child abuse prevention and intervention will be initiated for Red Lake Reservation. The program design would include a child protection worker and a child abuse and neglect community education program. The child protection worker would be used to resolve the problems occurring from the lack of a central reporting agency and also to coordinate the reservation-based child protection team and support groups. The community educator would be responsible for designing programs that essentially serve three functions: 1) increase the awareness of the community regarding physical, sexual abuse, and neglect; 2) promote available prevention, intervention, and treatment resources; and 3) clarify the responsibilities of professionals and citizenry on reporting, and inform them where and to whom abuse/neglect should be reported.

2602. Red Lake Band of Ojibwa Indians . (1955). Before the Indian Claims Commission, Red Lake, Pembina, and White Earth Bands, et al., plaintiffs, v. the United States of America, defendant, docket no. 18A. Duluth .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 31036217
Abstract: Plaintiffs' proposed findings of fact on the issue of title [i.e. liability] -- Footnotes -- Value findings -- Value footnotes.

2603. Red Lake Band of Ojibwa Indians. (1958). Red Lake Band, et al., petitioners, v. The United States of America, defendant, docket no. 18E ; and, Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan, et al., petitioners, v. The United States of America, defendant, docket no. 58 . Escanaba, Mich.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 31036237
Abstract: Titles from cover. At head of title: Indian Claims Commission. James R. Fitzharris, attorney of record. Plaintiffs' brief -- Plaintiffs' proposed findings.

2604. Red Lake Chippewa Tribe. (1934). Constitution and bylaws of the Red Lake Chippewa Tribe, Minnesota. [Minnesota] : Red Lake Chippewa Tribe.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 37539679. Title from caption.

2605. Red Lake Education Task Force, & Cloud, D. (1975). Fact sheet on Indian education [A presentation, addressed to Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, of the Task Force's concerns and recommendations relating to educational self-determination on the Red Lake Indian Reservation, Minnesota]. Red Lake, Minn.Red Lake Education Task Force.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 25492947

2606. Red Lake High School (Minn.). (1982). Red Lake High School, program of studies curriculum manual, 1982-83. [Red Lake, Minn.?] : Red Lake High School.
Notes: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 14152836. Indexed as: Program of studies : Red Lake High School.

2607. Neighborhood Centers Newsletter Red Lake, Minn.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).

2608. Red Lake Indian Reservation, Minn. (1963). Visit...tour...Red Lake Indian Reservation. Red Lake, Minn: Red Lake Indian Reservation.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search)
Source: PALS online catalog (October 1999 search)

2609. Red Lake Indian Reservation Tribal Council. Red Lake Community Action Program (Ed.). (1966). Red Lake Reservation News (Vols. Vol. 1, no. 1 (Aug. 5, 1966)-v. 3, no. 32 (Mar. 28, 1969)). Red Lake, Minn.Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, Tribal Council.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 32173877.No more published? Masthead title in Vol. 1, no. 1: Red Lake news. Co-published by Red Lake Community Action Program (CAP), Aug. 5, 1966-Mar. 22, 1968.Alt Title: Redlake Reservation news Red Lake news Aug. 5, 1966 Redlake Reservation Neighborhood Centers newsletter
Source: PALS online catalog (October 1999 search)

2610. Red Lake Peoples Council, & Swimmer, R. (1988). Swimmer meets with Red Lake Peoples Council [part I]. Ojibwe News.
Abstract: Meeting with [Ross] Swimmer and [Earl] Barlow, July 12, 1988ó1:00 p.m., Minneapolis, Minnesota
Barlow: Mr. Swimmer again, will take this spot and answer.
Swimmer: I spent an hour with you-all already, so now you just get thirty more minutes.
Lawrence: We came somewhat prepared, Mr. Swimmer.Weíve got a little agenda, but actually thereís mainly one issue that we want to discuss.I think some of the things we discussed this morning already, regarding our constitution, the tribal constitutions, and what status we have with the BIA; and what the Bureau can do to enforce through the constitutions, enforce the tribal council in this regard.And, thereís some important issues involved in civil rights, and we understand that form what we heard this morning that you have little to do to enforce the tribe to comply with the constitution.Is that what we heard this morning?
Swimmer: Thatís right.Compliance with the tribal constitution is within the authority of the tribal government, and the process that you have available.That constitution does not bind the federal government, it binds the people to the tribe.And, whatever process there is, whether itís court, uh, administrative process, or wherever you go, to get a resolution out of this, within that constitution.It should provide you with a direction, to go back to the court, to go back to the tribal government, to go someplace else.
Lawrence: Well, we tried that already.It doesnít work on our reservation.Youíre probably aware of that.
Swimmer: I know youíve tried and did not get satisfaction.I donít know that it doesnít work.
Lawrence: I have a question of information on the tribal government.Weíve questioned the BIA, weíve sued in federal court, weíve got denied tribal ... [sound of paper rustling] transfer payments from the general fund ...
Swimmer: Is there a process in your constitution for recall?
Lawrence: Yes, there is, but weíve already went through recall, and had the petition denied by the BIA.We had thirteen or fourteen hundred signatures, so I think that weíve tried every measure that there was available to us.
Barlow: Iíll have to have my memory refreshed.When was that?
Cook: Hereís one that we got from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, saying that we had a valid petition, and then it was never acted upon, it was thrown in the wastepaper basket.
Barlow: Youíve got to get him in there.
Cook: I already asked him.And hereís what happened to our head Hereditary Chief: once he ran against Roger, he was fired.Hereditary Chief, imagine that.
[Long silence]
Lawrence: I guess Iíd like to know, Mr. Secretary, on what basis do you recognize Indian tribes, then.I guess is what youíve got me confused.Is it a contractual basis, is it a contract, the constitution that is signed by the Assistant Secretary.
Barlow: No.
Swimmer: No! No.No contractual basis.Indian tribes are recognized primarily through the treaties that were signed, and through acts of Congress that have come down, and through court decisions.They are freestanding, self-governing entities.Uh, that is, state or federal laws.They are subject only to the laws of the federal government, generally speaking, and they retain the same powers and authorities that they have had from time immemorial.They are not set up by us, they are not organized by us...
Cook: What!
Swimmer: We donít have any responsibility for them.
Lussier: That gets me mad, that thing.
Lawrence: The Indian Reorganization Act wasnít imposed on the tribes?
Swimmer: The Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) was a method of organizing tribal government.About a third of the tribes were organized under IRSís, and the rest of themóare not.
Barlow: But the Bureau personnel put the constitutions together.I was a superintendent before the ...
Swimmer: Bureau personnel, uh, provided drafts of constitutions, provided drafts of, uh, provisions in those constitutions, and at one time I think played a very big role in how those constitutions would come about.And thatís a role which I disavow today, and I think that we should be out of it.I would like to take us completely out of having anything to do with tribal constitutions.
Cook: Could we give you background on our tribal constitution?
Swimmer: Well, I think you just did.
Cook: WE ... I think I told you this morning that our constitution was placed on the reservation by fraud, by the federal government, think we have a letter from the Commissioner to the Secretary of the Interior stating that the people are fierce in Red Lake against organizing under the Indian Reorganization Act (IRA), ... they told them, ďdare not let the people know that they are approving this document.ĒHereís a copy of the actual vote to accept the IRA, 434 people.And then, when we ask to even amend our constitution, this is what we get!The government lied to the people saying that they were revising our Chiefís council when in fact they were doing away with the Chiefs Council and putting an Indian Reorganization Act constitution on our reservation by fraud!The people had no input other than Robinson, and two other people came to the reservation, walked into the Chiefís meeting, and said, ďyou have no more government.ĒAnd since that day, we have had nothing but a dictatorship form of government on the Reservation by Roger Jourdainóhand-picked by the Bureau to do us in.
Barlow: According to this, you had 456 people cast ballots, 443 voted in favor of the constitution.
Cook: And then, we have a thousand and thirty-six signatures asking to amend the constitution, and it was thrown in the wastepaper basket.
Swimmer: Well, I donít know.What do you want?
[Inaudible]
... other than remedy in the courts ...
Cook: What can the Department of the Interior do for the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indiansówe have no government.
Swimmer: Well, we donít see it that way.
Cook: Well, youíre recognizing eleven people that are not representing anybody but themselves.
Swimmer: They wouldnít be recognized if they werenít elected, duly elected ...
Cook: By fraud!
Swimmer: Well, I know.
Lawrence: How were they elected pursuant to what?If we donít recognize their constitution as having efficacy.
Swimmer: It does.The constitution is your constitution.
Lawrence: And, they can violate it whenever they choose, the council ...
Swimmer: Youíve got provisions in the constitution, that ...
Lawrence: What is the process for amending the constitution?
[Silence]
Lussier: Superintendent?
Swimmer: By referendum and recall.
Lawrence: And they can violate it whenever they choose, the council and Jourdain.
Swimmer: Well, itís in there.
Cook: Is it?Where is it?All it says, ďthere shall be a, uh, deal for referendum and recall,Ē but they havenít done thatóthere ainít no tribal ordinance allowing that.
Swimmer: Upon receipt of a petition with twenty-five percent of the eligible voters.
Cook: Well, there it is.
Swimmer: ... and the affirmative vote of eight members of the tribal council, any enacted or proposed resolution or ordinance shall be submitted to a referendum of the eligible voters.
Cook: Well, there it isówe had one thousand thirty-six signatures, and they signatures were validated by [the] FBI.Morris Babbey sent a letter to Roger saying he was mandated by the constitution to hold this electionówhere is it?What do we do?Were do we go?To Rogerís appointed court officials, where if they hear our case, they would be fired the next day?
Swimmer: Well, at this time that is the only place that you have to go.
Lussier: Well, Iím only going to say one thing.I ainít going to say very much, now.My opinion is, my friend, that you are letting me down.Look at the names on that constitution.
(Continued next week)

2611. Red Lake Peoples Council, & Swimmer, R. (1988). Swimmer meets with Red Lake Peoples Council [part II]. Ojibwe News.
Abstract: Transcript of Meeting with Swimmer and Barlow continued from last week. July 12, 1988--1:00 p.m. --Minneapolis, Minnesota
Swimmer: I donít run your tribal government, and Iím not going to run your tribal government.
Lussier: That isnít the point.
Swimmer: And, Iím not going to implement your constitution.You have to implement your constitution.
Lawrence: We did!
Swimmer: Now, you tell me that you donít want to go to court, or when you do something on your constitution, they ignore it.
Lawrence: What court do we go to?Where do we go?Itís just as simple as that.
Cook: What court?Weíll go to court.Which court?
Swimmer: Well, I presume that the C.F.R. Court, unless you have other ...
Lawrence: You know, you just contracted it out to Roger.In spite of all these violations of civil rights, thatís the tribal court.
Swimmer: Yes, itís tribal court.
Lawrence: So, where do we take it?
Swimmer: Tribal court.
Lawrence: But, the tribal court said, ďyou donít bring it in here.Ē
Cook: That they have no authority over our constitution.We got that in writing.Where do we go?
Swimmer: Thatís it.Those are your remedies.You donít have any remedies, is what youíre saying to me.
[Laughter]
Lawrence: OK.
Swimmer: Thatís right.
Lawrence: So, we can do nothing about it.
Swimmer: Thatís right.
Lawrence: So, what was the purpose of the Constitution that was signed by the Superintendent, or Area Director, or whoever ...
Swimmer: Simply acknowledging that the Tribe has a constitution.
Cook: Where would you go to authorize to overthrow our government, that is not working?
Swimmer: Where would I go?
Cook: Yeah, what would you do?
Swimmer: If you engage in civil disobedience, youíd go to FBI, or the tribal court, or to, uh, whoeverís the police on the reservation.
Lawrence: Well, OK, I guess weíve been through the process.But, if you canít do anything, why donít you support us, and introduce some legislation in the Congress so that something can be done.We have a resolution here.
Swimmer: You have the absolute right to introduce, to go to Congress to do whatever you want to do.
Lawrence: Well, why donít you support us?
Swimmer: No.
Cook: Why not?
Swimmer: I will not support one side against the other.
Cook: Thatís what youíre doing, now.
Swimmer: No. Youíre telling me that the present government was elected by an overwhelming majority of the people, and youíre asking me to disavow that ...
Cook: Roger was elected byóhe won by ten votes.
Swimmer: Well, then by ten votes.Well, youíre asking me to ignore those ten people, and support you ten people.
Lawrence: OK, but, we have a compact, or a contract with the tribal government.Weíre saying, hereís the authorities we give you in this constitution.Theyíre ignoring many of them.They donít release financial statements.They donít release minutes of the meeting.They wonít let us attend meetings. They donít ...
Swimmer: So, what would you propose that I could do?
Cook: Where would we take the constitution?
Lawrence: Either tell the tribe to comply with the constitution, or donít contract with them.
Cook: Withdraw recognition ...
Lussier: You donít even need to do that.All you need to do is say, ďwe donít want to contract with you until you do [comply with the constitution].Until you do, weíll deliver the services ourselves.You have the delivery system.This is what this resolution talks about, and weíre going to try ...
Swimmer: We have an act of Congress that says that this is not grounds for, uh, disapproving a constitution.
Cook: Where would we take you and the Secretary of the Interior to court?
Swimmer: The secretary does not provide grounds ...
Lawrence: So, thereís procedures in there that, youíve got to comply with community support, and we can show a lot of community support for the provision of services ...
Swimmer: All that means is that we have to let them know that theyíre not complying with it, but that doesnít give us grounds to withdraw contracts.
Lawrence: In view of the fact that they have denied civil rights, and you still went ahead and approved contracts with them, and
Swimmer: I donít know that they denied civil rights.
Lawrence: We have said things, and there have been court cases, and all kinds of things that ...
Swimmer: Iím not a judge, and Iím not hearing the other side of this.You know, you donít have Roger sitting at the table here, telling me all of the good things that he has done.
Lawrence: He could have come down.We didnít exclude him.
Swimmer: Well, Iím just telling you that Iím not in a position to be a hearing officer, to determine whether youíre right, or heís right.Iím saying that you have a process to go through, to do that.
Lawrence: OK, you are saying that you will not support us on this legislation.Are you going to go against ...
Swimmer: I donít know.I havenít seen the legislation, I donít know what youíre politicking.If this is legislation against your current tribal government, no!
Lawrence: This is legislation not to contract with them on F.Y.í89 until they comply with the constitution.
Swimmer: No, I wonít support that, any more than I would support ...
Lussier: Stop all the money, stop all the money, boys!No pay ...
Swimmer: But, thatís just a backing away of the bureau.And then when you take over, Iíd stop all of the money from you.
Lawrence: No, because we will comply with the constitution.
Swimmer: But, why would we want to do that?
Lawrence: Because all we want is someone to enforce the constitution.We canít enforce it.
Swimmer: So, you want me to enforce the constitution by trying to cut off the right of the tribe to contract with the Bureau.
Cook: Yeah.
Swimmer: Well, what happens in the next election?Do you want me to do the same thing to the next people?
Lawrence: Well, if they violate the constitution, yeah.
Swimmer: So, every time the constitution gets violated, I withdraw the money.
Lawrence: So, we have some means of having it enforced.
Swimmer: But, I get to determine whether itís been violated, or do you get to determine ...
Lawrence: No, the court will do it, but give us a ...
Swimmer: So, but you say, the courtís no goodóyou donít want to use the court.
Lawrence: The Tribal Courtís no good ...
Swimmer: Well, what court would be good?
Lawrence: Weíll go to Federal curt.
Swimmer: As long as you get the right decisionóit would be a good court?
Lawrence: You havenít given us a right decision.You havenít even given us access to Federal court, except for habeas corpus ...
Swimmer: Well, thatís exactly what weíre attempting to do, and thatís the only remedy that we can offer to you, and Iím not sure that congress will go along with that remedy.
Lawrence: Well, weíre going to try it, whether you help us or not.
Swimmer: Thatís fine. Our position is, that you should have a forum, to be able to go to, and to redress a grievance on civil rights.And if the tribal court is unable to provide that forum, we are proposing legislation to allow you to go to federal court.
Cook: Well, in the meantime, ...
Swimmer: And, I donít think that you can ask for more than that.
Cook: In the meantime, what do we do?
Swimmer: In the meantime, there isnít a thing that you can ask for.In the meantime, you do what every other tribe does, and thatís just wait.
Lussier: Wait, wait forever, is that it?
Swimmer: Thatís right.We donít have any other tools available to us, to intervene in this tribe, and make anybody do anything.
Lussier: But two million dollars is coming into Red Lake through the BIA, and thenóyou donít have control of the money that they get?
Cook: How did Robinson and an three-man team come in and do away with our Chiefs council, tell me that.
Swimmer: I donít know.
Cook: WellóI mean, how?You should know.
Blake: What youíre saying, then, is Congress is responsible for this whole mess, the United States Congress.
Swimmer: What mess?
Blake: This mess that weíve got here.
Swimmer: Red Lakeís mess?
Blake: This 90% unemployment ...
Swimmer: Red Lake is responsible for your mess
.

2612. Red Lake Public Schools (Red Lake, Minn.). (1937). Activities of the Red Lake Public Schools, Red Lake Indian Reservation, Minnesota : dedication, December 1937. Red Lake, Minn.?.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 28652189. Title from cover.

2613. Red Lake Watershed District. (1972). Overall plan, Red Lake Watershed District : Red Lake County and in parts of Beltrami, Clearwater, Itasca, Koochiching, Mahnomen, Marshall, Pennington, Polk, and Roseau Counties. St. Paul : Minnesota Water Resources Board.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).Cover title. Errata sheet inserted. "Prescribed by Minnesota Water Resources Board, November 1972." Bibliography: leaves 102-103.

2614. Red Lake Watershed District. (1994). Red Lake Watershed District annual report, 1994. Thief River Falls, MN : Red Lake Watershed District.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 32372122. Cover title.

2615. Red Lake Watershed District. (1995). Red Lake Watershed District annual report, 1995. Thief River Falls, MN : Red Lake Watershed District.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 34884988.Title from cover.

2616. Red Lake Watershed District (Minn.). (Ed.). (9999). Red Lake Watershed District (Minn.). Annual Report Thief River Falls, Minn.
Notes: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 17365746.Description based on: 1986.

2617. Reed, N. (1997). Thunderbird Gold.Bob Jones University Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

2618. Reed, T. E., Kalant, H., Gibbins, R. J., Kapur, B. M., & Rankin, J. G. (1976). Alcohol and Acetaldehyde Metabolism in Caucasians, Chinese and Amerinds. Cmaj.115(9), 851-855.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Ethanol (0.4 to 0.8 g/kg in 30 minutes) was given by mouth to 102 healthy young volunteers (37 Caucasian men, 21 Caucasian women, 20 Chinese men and 24 Ojibwa men). Venous blood concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes after the end of drinking were measured by gas chromatography. The calculated rates of ethanol metabolism in the Caucasian men and women did not differ, but the overall group means for subgroups of Caucasians (103.6 mg/kg-h), Chinese (136.6 mg/kg-h) and Ojibwa (182.7 mg/kg-h) with decreasing postabsorption values differed significantly from each other. Mean acetaldehyde values paralleled the rates of ethanol metabolism: Ojibwa, 14.6 mug/ml; Chinese, 10.0 mug/ml; and Caucasians, 9.4 mug/ml. The high rate of ethanol metabolism in Amerind subjects differs from previous findings. Habitual level of alcohol consumption, proportion of body fat and genetic factors appear to account for most of the group differences.(Abstract by: Author)

2619. Reid, C. S. P. (1995). 'Sacredness'of carved stone pipes in the Ojibwa-Cree area of the northern mid-continent: a spatial and temporal dilemma. Wisconsin Archeologist, 76(3-4), 399-422.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2620. Reid, D. M. (1963). Tales of Nanabozho. New York: H. Z. Walck.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. IX (1964:173)

2621. Reid, D. M. (1979). Tales of Nanabozho. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXV (1982:281)

2622. Reifel, B. Cultural Facets in Social Adjustment. Northern Montana Work Conference on Indian Education .
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:56)

2623. Reining, P. C. (1965). An aspect of linguistic change in Ojibwa. Minnesota Academy of Science. Journal, 32(3), 157-169.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2624. . (1983). P. A. Renard, S. R. Hanson, & J. W. EnblomBiological survey of the Red Lake River . [St. Paul, Minn.] : Ecological Services Section, Minnesota Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 9891746.Title from cover. "June 1, 1983." ... accession: 29948885.

2625. Renville, M. B. (1863). A thrilling narrative of Indian captivity. Minneapolis.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 13551986

2626. Reserved Water Rights Compact Commission . (1997). Compact with the Chippewa Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Reservation: Montana Reserved Water Rights Compact Commission ["Commission Staff Technical Report"].
Notes: Source: cited by Cosens, Barbara A.(Winter 1998:footnote 4)

2627. Ressler, T. (1957). Treasury of American Indian tales. New York: Association Press.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:94), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "Fifty-four short stories of twenty Indian tribes, describing their life and character.Grades 3-6."

2628. Restoule, B. M. M. (1995). Cultural identity of Ojibwa youth: the relationship of acculturation, discrimination, and multiculturalism to physical and mental health. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Queens University at Kingston (Canada).
Abstract: The predictions between preferred acculturation strategies, the discrepancy between actual and desired acculturation strategies, perceived discrimination and multicultural ideology with mental and physical health proposed that each of these predictor variables would be independently associated with the two criterion variables. Fifty-five Ojibwa youth from northern Ontario participated in the following study. The fundamental hypothesis that the Integration strategy would be positively related to physical and mental health status while the Assimilation, Separation and Marginalization strategies would be negatively related to the criterion variables was partly supported, though not always in the direction predicted, for mental health status only. The second hypothesis that the discrepancy score between actual and desired acculturation strategies would be negatively associated with physical and mental health was not tested due to limited range restriction of the predictor variable. The third hypothesis that perceived discrimination would be negatively related to mental and physical health status was supported for mental health status only. The fourth hypothesis that multicultural ideology would be positively related to mental and physical health status was not supported. The physical health status scale was found to have poor internal consistency resulting in it being eliminated from all further analyses. Interpretations of the findings for all hypotheses are presented, as are limitations to the present study and directions for future research.

2629. [reviews of medical research]. Anthelminthic drugs for treating worms in children - effects on growth and cognitive performance.
Notes: Source: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [electronic database], Fall 1999 search, Search term: (AMERICAN and INDIAN)

2630. [reviews of medical research]. Chlorpromazine versus placebo for schizophrenia.
Notes: Source: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [electronic database], Fall 1999 search, Search term: (AMERICAN and INDIAN)

2631. [reviews of medical research]. Drugs for treating giardiasis.
Notes: Source: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [electronic database], Fall 1999 search, Search term: (AMERICAN and INDIAN)

2632. [reviews of medical research]. Electroconvulsive therapy for schizophrenia.
Notes: Source: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [electronic database], Fall 1999 search, Search term: (AMERICAN and INDIAN)

2633. [reviews of medical research]. Interventions for encouraging sexual lifestyles and behaviours intended to prevent cervical cancer.
Notes: Source: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [electronic database], Fall 1999 search, Search term: (AMERICAN and INDIAN)

2634. [reviews of medical research]. Interventions for promoting adherence to tuberculosis treatment.
Notes: Source: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [electronic database], Fall 1999 search, Search term: (AMERICAN and INDIAN)

2635. [reviews of medical research]. Interventions for treating oral lichen planus.
Notes: Source: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [electronic database], Fall 1999 search, Search term: (AMERICAN and INDIAN)

2636. [reviews of medical research]. Interventions for treating scabies.
Notes: Source: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [electronic database], Fall 1999 search, Search term: (AMERICAN and INDIAN)

2637. [reviews of medical research]. Intravenous or enteral loop diuretics in preterm infants with (or developing) chronic lung disease.
Notes: Source: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [electronic database], Fall 1999 search, Search term: (AMERICAN and INDIAN)

2638. [reviews of medical research]. Lobeline for smoking cessation.
Notes: Source: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [electronic database], Fall 1999 search, Search term: (AMERICAN and INDIAN)

2639. [reviews of medical research]. Magnesium sulfate treatment for acute asthmatic exacerbations treated in the emergency department .
Notes: Source: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [electronic database], Fall 1999 search, Search term: (AMERICAN and INDIAN)

2640. [reviews of medical research]. Telemedicine versus face-to-face consultations: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes.
Notes: Source: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews -- protocols [electronic database], Fall 1999 search, Search term: (AMERICAN and INDIAN)

2641. [reviews of medical research]. Vaccines for preventing cholera.
Notes: Source: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [electronic database], Fall 1999 search, Search term: (AMERICAN and INDIAN)

2642. [reviews of medical research]. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold.
Notes: Source: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [electronic database], Fall 1999 search, Search term: (AMERICAN and INDIAN)

2643. [reviews of medical research]. Zinc supplementation in pregnancy.
Notes: Source: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [electronic database], Fall 1999 search, Search term: (AMERICAN and INDIAN)

2644. Reynolds, C. L. The Nature of Health Promotion Within an Ojibwe Culture: an Ethnographic Study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University.
Notes: Source: Biomed (Cinahl) electronic database, Fall 1999 search.
Abstract: The purpose of this ethnographic study was to describe, from the perspective of the Ojibwe people of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, the nature of health promotion. The ethnographic methods of participant-observation and in-depth interviewing were employed to accomplish the purpose. Eleven key informants and twenty-seven general informants contributed data for this study. An eleven-question inquiry guide was used to structure the interviews. Data were collected over a three-year period between April 1990 and August 1993. The study was conceptualized within the health-world view framework developed by this researcher. A health-world view was defined as the cognitive orientation or way the culture looks at health and well-being, illness and aspects of death. Data were analyzed using Leininger's phases of analysis for qualitative data. Six major themes were abstracted from the data. They were: (1) Health is promoted through balance of all aspects of being. (2) Health is promoted by 'Living the Good Life.' (3) Health is promoted by 'Living the Indian Way.' (4) Health is promoted by 'Doing things the right way.' (5) Health is influenced by the behavior of others. (6) The health of human beings is promoted as the health of the earth is promoted. These findings indicate that the health-world view of the Ojibwe people reflected the belief that health promotion was a dynamic concept and that individual movement within the context of total life pattern was a determinant of health promotion outcomes.

2645. Reynolds, C. L. (1994). The nature of health promotion within an Ojibwe culture: an ethnographic study (Michigan). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University.
Abstract: The purpose of this ethnographic study was to describe, from the perspective of the Ojibwe people of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, the nature of health promotion. The ethnographic methods of participant-observation and in-depth interviewing were employed to accomplish the purpose. Eleven key informants and twenty-seven general informants contributed data for this study. An eleven-question inquiry guide was used to structure the interviews. Data were collected over a three-year period between April 1990 and August 1993. The study was conceptualized within the health-world view framework developed by this researcher. A health-world view was defined as the cognitive orientation or way the culture looks at health and well-being, illness and aspects of death. Data were analyzed using Leininger's phases of analysis for qualitative data. Six major themes were abstracted from the data. They were: (1) Health is promoted through balance of all aspects of being. (2) Health is promoted by 'Living the Good Life.' (3) Health is promoted by 'Living the Indian Way.' (4) Health is promoted by 'Doing things the right way.' (5) Health is influenced by the behavior of others. (6) The health of human beings is promoted as the health of the earth is promoted. These findings indicate that the health-world view of the Ojibwe people reflected the belief that health promotion was a dynamic concept and that individual movement within the context of total life pattern was a determinant of health promotion outcomes.

2646. Reynolds, C. G. (1963). The Civil and Indian War diaries of Eugene Marshall, Minnesota volunteer. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Duke University, Microfilm. [Saint Paul] : Minnesota Historical Society, 1974. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 10318673

2647. Reynolds, G. V. (1952). The history of Pipestone Indian School . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of South Dakota.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 11314003

2648. Reynolds, J. K. (1993). Native conceptions of giftedness. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Lakehead University (Canada).
Abstract: This study seeks to determine the relevance of 'giftedness' in an isolated north-western Ontario Ojibway community and school. Specifically, Renzulli's (1986) model of 'giftedness' is examined. This study begins with the community as the central element in its design. Qualitative research methods are used and include participant-observation, informally structured interviews, and document analysis. Elders, parents, teachers, and students, represent the participants. Data-collection took place during two, two-week visits to the site. Data analysis and interpretation was ongoing throughout the research process. The findings suggest that 'giftedness' is a Euro-Western construct which is irrelevant and even in conflict with the norms of Sweetgrass community and school. This study does not recommend the use of the Renzulli (1986) model for 'giftedness' in Sweetgrass, or in any focus for Native education which reflects the beliefs and perceptions of the participants in this community. Instead, culturally relevant enrichment strategies need to be developed and integrated throughout all aspects of curricula.

2649. Reynolds, J. W. (1999). Carey Mission: Protestant missionaries and Native Americans on the Indiana-Michigan frontier. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University.
Abstract: This study examines the interaction of Native Americans and Protestant missionaries at Carey Mission on the Indiana-Michigan frontier. It utilizes letters, diaries and reports of Baptist and Catholic missionaries, traders, government officials, white settlers, mission board members, Indian Agents, and others. More importantly, since we cannot appreciate and understand Native Americans'motivations and actions without giving them aďvoice,Ē letters and articles written by former Carey students are utilized to present a fuller account of Carey Mission.This study shows that Baptist missionaries experienced difficulties in attempting to ďcivilizeĒ the Native American with whom they interacted. In particular, the Baptists attempted to have Indians cross the gulf between ďsavageryĒ and ďcivilizationĒ by becoming settled farmers, with a few becoming constables, magistrates, teachers and missionaries to other Native Americans. Financial, labor, political and social problems plagued the mission throughout its ten-year history. Significantly, many Native Americans remembered the work ofJesuit missionaries, and this circumstance made it difficult for Baptist missionaries to ďconvertĒ those who favored the ďblack robes.Ē However, some students and neighboring Native Americans accepted the Baptist path to acculturation and Christianity. The careers of former students who went to Kansas are examined to help understand the results of the mission's educational and religious program. The study reveals that some former Indian students used their experience at Carey Mission to prosper in Kansas. Some used their education to start businesses and even enter the white culture's land speculation craze. Others continued to preach Christianity to other Native Americans and work for the federal government. Although Carey Mission functioned for only ten years, it did change the lives of both teachers and many of the students who were associated or enrolled at the institution.

2650. Rhodes, R. (1984). Baseball et l'emprunt culturel chez les Ojibwťs= Ojibwa baseball and cultural borrowing. Recherches Am'Erindiennes Au Quťbec, 14(4), 9-16, ill.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2651. Rhodes, R. (1984). Baseball, hot dogs, apple pie, and Chevrolets. Papers of the Algonquian Conference, 15, 373-388.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2652. Rhodes, R. (1976). A preliminary report on the dialects of eastern Ojibwa-Odawa. Papers of the Algonquian Conference. 1975, 7th, 129-156.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2653. Rhodes, R. (1986). Semantics of the Ojibwa verbs of speaking. International Journal of American Linguistics, 52(1), 1-19.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2654. Rhodes, R. (1983). Some comments on Ojibwa ethnobotany. Papers of the Algonquian Conference, 14, 307-320.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2655. Rhodes, R. A. (1985). Metaphor and extension in Ojibwa. Papers, Algonquian Conference, (16), 161-169.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2656. Rhodes, R. A. (1988). Ojibwa politeness and social structure. Papers, Algonquian Conference, (19), 165-174.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2657. Rhodes, R. A. (1991). On the passive in Ojibwa. Papers, Algonquian Conference, 22, 307-319.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2658. Rhodes, R. A. (1976). The morphosyntax of the central Ojibwa verb. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Michigan.

2659. . (1997). E. R. RicciutiThe Menominee . Vero Beach, Fla.Rourke Publications.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October, 1999 search)
Abstract: Includes index. Examines the history, traditional lifestyle, and current situation of the Woodland Indians known as the Menominee.

2660. Ricciuti, E. R. (1997). The Menominee.Rourke Publications, Incorporated.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2661. Rice's township and rail road map of Minnesota. (1875). St. Paul : G.J. Rice.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 8025979.Map of Red Lake Falls. Bottineau's Colony.
Abstract: Lake and Cook counties not shown. Inset: Map of Red Lake Falls, or Bottineau's Colony, Polk County, Minn. Includes explanation of plat of Red Lake Falls by J.P. Knight, Civil Engineer.

2662. Richards, E. L. A. (1952). Schoolgirl of the Indian frontier. Minnesota History, 33, 105-111, illus.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 19404844

2663. Richards, I. A. I. A. (1943). Basic English and its Uses. New York//London: W.W. Norton & Co.//K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
"First published, 1943." Bibliography: p. [121]-123.

2664. Richardson, J. D. A compilation of the messages and papers of the presidents.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

2665. Ridington, R. (1978). Swan people : a study of the Dunne-za prophet dance . Ottawa: National Museums of Canada.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
Summary also in French. Bibliography: p. 123

2666. Ridington, R., 1939- . (1991). Freedom and authority : teachings of the hunters .
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
First annual William & Edith Ridington Lecture, Western Maryland College, September 26, 1991. Typescript.

2667. Ridington, R., 1939- . (1990). Little bit know something : stories in a language of anthropology . Vancouver : Douglas & McIntyre.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

2668. Ridington, R., 1939- . (1988). Trail to heaven : knowledge and narrative in a northern native community. Vancouver//Iowa City: Douglas & McIntyre//University of Iowa Press.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

2669. Ridington, W. R. (1968). The environmental context of Beaver Indian behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Microfilm. [Cambridge, Mass.] : Harvard University Library, Microreproduction Dept., [19--] 1 reel ; 35 mm.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

2670. Riley, J. (1995). Her Mother Before Her: Winnebago Women's Stories of Their Mothers & Grandmothers: A Resource Guide.Her Own Words.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

2671. Riley, J. (1995). Winnebago Songs & Stories: A Resource Guide.Her Own Words.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

2672. Riley, P. (1991). Ojibway Music in Minnesota: A Century of Song for Voice and Drum! Oshkaabewis Native Journal, 1(3), 203.
Notes: Source: UnCover database (Aug 1999)

2673. Riley, T. G. (1999). It's alive? Grammatical animacy in Russian, Polish and Czech. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Washington.
Abstract: In all Slavic languages which retain nominal inflection, animacy is expressed in -stem masculine singular nouns by means of a syncretism between the ACC and GEN cases, the so-called GEN-ACC case. However, in these languages there are nouns which take the GEN-ACC case although they denote nonliving objects. While this is a small, nonproductive class of nouns in Russian, in the West Slavic languages, especially Polish and Czech, this is a much larger, productive class. This phenomenon will be referred to as grammatical animacy, based on the term grammatical gender, which likewise is mostly unpredictable from extralinguistic features. The spread of the GEN-ACC case to semantically inanimate nouns is slowly causing the demise of animacy as a natural subgender-based on transparent extralinguistic features--to a grammatical gender where animacy is becoming less predictable. In Polish grammatically animatenouns fall into seemingly unrelated categories, such as certain types of fruit and vegetables, mushrooms, playing cards and chess pieces, games, dances, monetary units, car models, tobacco and alcohol products, physical contact, body parts, dreaded diseases, skin afflictions, nursery language, certain set expressions, reified mental states, brand-name articles and appliances, etc. (Oscar Swan 1988). Although most research on this phenomenon has been conducted for Polish, my research (1996-98) exhibits a remarkably similar situation in all the West Slavic languages, especially in Czech. I found and tested for actual usage over 400 grammatically animatenouns in Polish and over 200 such nouns in Czech. The categories of grammatically animatenouns in Czech are very similar to those of Polish. A similar phenomenon exists in some Native American languages, especially those of the Algonquian family, such as Ojibwa. Grammatical animacy is a relatively new phenomenon whose origins are not entirely clear because it is most prevalent in the spoken language and rarely mentioned in grammars and dictionaries. The scant attention paid to this linguistic change has consisted primarily of fairly conservative word lists with little or no attempt to explain its origin, its present range, or its future. I attempt to uncover the origins of grammatical animacy through both historical and synchronic investigation. The best synchronic analysis to date for this phenomenon is provided by Laura Janda (1996). Based on Mark Johnson's (1987) FIGURE/GROUND distinction, Janda defines grammatically animate nouns as belonging to the category of FIGURE. However, not all FIGURES are predictably grammatically animateso Janda's analysis must be constrained. Based on Stanislaw Westfal (1956), Johnson, and Janda, I have developed a cognitive analysis which explains and unites almost all categories of grammatically animate nouns and predicts with a reasonable degree of accuracy which FIGURES take a GEN-ACC. The term Personal Space Nouns will be introduced. Personal Space Nouns represent concrete, three-dimensional objects(FIGURES) which are often directly in front of, or come in direct contact with our faces or bodies. Such nouns tend to be grammatically animate, especially when they exhibit a heightened degree of salience or when they are perceived as possessing some element of power or organic quality. The term Personal Space Nouns unites most of the categories listed above. Exceptions are accounted for primarily on the basis of androzoocentrism. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

2674. Rinfret, A., 1756-1814. (1799). Pour le st. jour de Paques sur lemystere du jour [Pour le saint jour de Paques sur lemystere du jour].
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
T.p. contains two lines of text in Mohawk,and years in which sermon was delivered: 1799, 1800, 1810. Some parts of the Mohawk text are interlined with Frenchequivalents. Last leaf is blank. Pilling's bibliography of the Iroquian languages of 1888indicates that he owned the ms. at that time. Forms part of the Edward E. Ayer Manuscript Collection(Newberry Library) Sermon in Mohawk for Easter Sunday, explaining thesignificance and celebration of that holy day, composed bymissionary Antoine Rinfret and first delivered in Caughnawagain 1799.
Pilling, James Constantine, 1846-1895,former owner. Edward E. Ayer Manuscript Collection (Newberry Library) Newberry Library. Manuscript. Ayer MS 1632.

2675. Ring, A. A. (1972). Real Estate principles and practices. Englewood Cliffs, CA: Prentice-Hall.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
First-3d editions, 1922-47, by P. A. Benson and N. L. North; 4th ed., 1954, by P. A. Benson, N. L. North and A. A. Ring; 5th and 6th editions, 1960-67, by N. L. North and A. A. Ring. Includes bibliographies.

2676. Rith-Najarian, S. J., Ness, F. K., Faulhaber, T., & Gohdes, D. M. (1996). Screening and Diagnosis for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Among Chippewa Women in Northern Minnesota. Minnesota Medicine, 79(5), 21-25.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Abstract: We reviewed prenatal records of Chippewa women residing on two Minnesota reservations to define the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to describe the screening and diagnosis practices for GDM according to National Diabetes Data Group Criteria. Of the 554 pregnancies included in the study, six (1%) involved women with preexisting diabetes mellitus and 32 (5.8%) with GDM. In 24 (4.3%) of the pregnancies, the women were misclassified as having GDM. Women completed screening and/or testing during 450 (82%) of the pregnancies-by 32 weeks gestation for 401 (73%). This is of 548 pregnancies that could potentially have involved GDM. Women with incomplete screening and/or testing were older and of higher parity than those who completed negative screening and/or testing (p<0.05). Chippewa Indian women in northern Minnesota experienced GDM at rates higher than most other U.S. populations. Screening rates for GDM were high, but some high-risk women were not screened. Programs targeting high-risk women for timely and accurate diagnosis of GDM are needed in this primary care setting.(Abstract by: Author)

2677. Rith-Najarian, S. J., Valway, S. E., & Gohdes, D. M. (1993). Diabetes in a Northern Minnesota Chippewa Tribe. Prevalence and Incidence of Diabetes and Incidence of Major Complications, 1986-1988. Diabetes Care, 16(1), 266-270.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence and incidence of diabetes, and the incidence of major diabetic complications, in a Chippewa Indian population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--The format was a longitudinal population study that used active community and health center-based surveillance. The setting was a North American Indian reservation community of 4075 residents, served by an IHS clinic from 1986 to 1988. Patients were American Indians of Chippewa descent living on or near the Red Lake Reservation. RESULTS--Midway through the study, 346 people had been diagnosed with diabetes, which yielded an age- and sex-adjusted point prevalence of 148/1000 population. The adjusted rate for individuals > or = 25 yr of age was 252/1000 population, 3.82 times the U.S. rate (CI 2.95-4.93). Some 97 new cases of diabetes were identified for an age- and sex-adjusted average annual incidence of 17/1000 population. The incidence of hospitalization for LEA was 26/1000 diabetic person-yr, 4.3 times the 1978 U.S. rate (95% CI 2.8-6.8). Twelve individuals developed proliferative retinopathy, for an incidence of 12/1000 diabetic person-yr. Newly diagnosed ESRD incidence was 6/1000 diabetic person-yr. Twenty-three acute myocardial infarctions were observed, yielding an incidence of 22/1000 diabetic person-yr. CONCLUSIONS--Diabetes and its complications are prevalent in this Chippewa population, and further surveillance is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of prevention efforts.(Abstract by: Author)

2678. Ritterbush, L. W. (1991). Culture change and continuity: ethnohistoric analysis of Ojibwa and Ottawa adjustment to the prairies (Indians). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas.
Abstract: Anthropologists and historians have generally recognized two forms of cultural development among Plains Indians societies. The development of historic bison-hunting nomads has been interpreted as dramatic change to equestrian pastoralism. Village horticulturalists, on the other hand, maintained a stable cultural tradition throughout late prehistoric and historic times. The 'Plains Ojibwa' have most often been viewed as nomadic pastoralists on the basis of ethnographic data. However, ethnohistoric analysis of the initial Ojibwa and Ottawa occupation of the northeastern prairies does not support this interpretation. Reconstruction and comparison of subsistence patterns between traditional forest-lake Ojibwa and the prairie Ojibwa and Ottawa indicate that major adaptive changes were not associated with their migration. Likewise, intrasocietal relations, involving socioeconomic and sociopolitical organization were not altered from that of the traditional forager band organization. During this initial period of adjustment to the prairies, trade relations with Euroamericans and animosities with the Dakota continued. Meanwhile, alliances with the neighboring Plains Cree and Assiniboin were strengthened and contact with metis populations increased. While these intercultural relations may have stimulated some change, this appears to have been minimal during the initial period of prairie occupation (ca. 1780-1830). Adjustments within the cultural system of these migrants served to maintain a nomadic foraging existence in a grassland environment. Unlike historic pastoralists on the plains the Ojibwa and Ottawa did not undergo evolutionary adaptation to a new level of cultural development.

2679. Ritzenthaler, R. E. (1945). The acquisition of surnames by the Chippewa Indians. American Anthropologist, 47, 175-177.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2680. Ritzenthaler, R. E. (1984). Building a Chippewa Indian Birchbark Canoe.Milwaukee Public Museum.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

2681. Ritzenthaler, R. E. (1945). The ceremonial destruction of sickness by the Wisconsin Chippewa. American Anthropologist, 47, 320-322.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2682. Ritzenthaler, R. E. (1968). Chippewa preoccupation with health: change in a traditional attitude resulting from modern health problems. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University.

2683. Ritzenthaler, R. E. (1953). Chippewa preoccupation with health: change in a traditional setting resulting from modern health problems. Milwaukee Public Museum Bulletin, 19(4), 175-257.
Notes: Source: Human Relations Area Files Index, Category NG6 "[as of July 1, 1975]", identified as "(M)", page 2, item 13
Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)
published in Milwaukee

2684. Ritzenthaler, R. E. (1953). The impact of small industry on an Indian community. American Anthropologist, 55, 143-148.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2685. Ritzenthaler, R. E. (1943). The impact of war on an Indian community. American Anthropologist, 45, 325-326.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2686. Ritzenthaler, R. E. (1944). The impact of war on an Indian community. Wisconsin Archeologist, 25, 10-12.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2687. Ritzenthaler, R. E. (1953). The Potawatomi Indians of Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Museum Bulletin, 19(3).
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)
published in Milwaukee

2688. Ritzenthaler, R. E. (1978). Southwestern Chippewa. Handbook of North American Indians Vol. 15 (pp. 743-759, ill., map). Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2689. Ritzenthaler, R. E. (1945). Totemic insult among the Wisconsin Chippewa. American Anthropologist, 47, 322-324.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2690. Ritzenthaler, R. E. (1958). Wild rice. Lore, 8, 130-133, illus.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

2691. Ritzenthaler, R. E., & Peterson, F. A. (1956). The Mexican Kickapoo. Milwaukee Public Museum Publications in Anthropology, 2.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)
published in Milwaukee

2692. Ritzenthaler, R. E., & Ritzenthaler, P. (1970). The woodland Indians of the western Great Lakes. Garden City, NY: The Natural History Press.

2693. Robb, W. H. (1966). Arrayed-in-Wampum. Tornonto: Ontario Department of Lands and Forests.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XIII (1969:161)

2694. Robert, I. (1990). Le site de l'ancienne mission des Jesuites a Sillery. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Universite Laval, Canada.
Abstract:Le site de l'ancienne mission des Jesuites a Sillery a connu une occupation intensive sur une periode de plus de trois cents ans. De plus, bien avant l'arrivee des Europeens, les Amerindiensfrequentaient deja le secteur. Le fort potentiel archeologique de ce site a donc donne lieu a de nombreuses interventions archeologiques. Ces recherches ont permis de mettre au jour divers elements architecturaux relies a la periode missionnaire du site ainsi que des structures qui sont anterieures, contemporaines ou posterieures a la maison des Jesuites qui date du debut du XVIIIme siecle. La majorite des artefacts recoltes ne peut etre associee a un niveau d'occupation precis. De plus, une partie importante de la collection a ete egaree. Elle est majoritairement constituee d'artefacts du XIXme siecle mais contient aussi quelques temoins des XVIIme et XVIIIme siecles et une bonne quantite d'artefacts du XXme siecle. Par l'analyse et la synthese des donnees archeologiques du site de l'ancienne mission des Jesuites, nous avons voulu faire le point sur les resultats obtenus pour permettre une meilleure gestion des acquis et suggerer de nouveaux champs de recherche.

2695. Robertiello, J. (1997). Rice on the wild side. (includes recipes. Americas (English Edition), 49(5), 56 (2).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: Wild rice was so plentiful, and so essential to surviving the winter, that the Ojibwa of the Upper Midwest made their discovery of it part of their religious lore. Recipes including wild rice and brown rice, with turkey, and with leeks in a soup are provided.

2696. Roberts, K. G., & Shackleton, P. (1988). Le canoŽ d'ťcorce. Chasse-Marťe, 37, 10-25.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXXV (1992:56)

2697. Robertson, J. (1997). Undoing Racism at Leech Lake. Tribal College : Journal of American Indian Higher Education, 8(4), 22.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

2698. Robertson, J. M. (1981). The effects of increased information of minorities on the attitudes of prospective teachers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northwestern State University of Louisiana.
Abstract: Purpose of the Study. The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the change in attitudes of prospective teachers when presented information by videotape about the Blackfoot and Ojibwa Indians and the maintenance of change over time. Procedure. A longitudinal pretest, posttest, retention test time design was used in the experiment with three randomly assigned groups. During the first week of classes of the 1979 fall term the students in secondary teaching methods classes were administered the Minority Attitude Inventory. The students who completed the measurement were then randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Videotapes were shown to the subjects six weeks after the pretest. Group I saw a Blackfoot documentary videotape; Group II saw a videotaped interview of an Ojibwa Indian; and Group III saw both videotapes. Of the initial 102 subjects only sixty-eight completed the treatment phase of the experiment. Immediately after the videotape presentations the subjects were again administered the Minority Attitude Inventory. After a period of five weeks the subjects were requested to complete the instrument for the third time. The Minority Attitude Inventory was developed specifically for this field experiment by the researcher and major professor utilizing the 'Attitude Pie' concept. The analysis of the data from the pies was a two-way analysis of variance for seven of the nine hypotheses, a one-way analysis of data and a t-test. Findings. (1) No significant difference was found between the attitudes of Caucasian subjects and minority member subjects toward minority cultures. (2) No significant difference was found between pretest attitudes and posttest attitudes toward Native Americans. (3) Significant difference above the .05 level of confidence was found between
pretest and posttest attitudes toward Blackfoot and Ojibwa. (4) No significant difference was found between positivity gains produced by a documentary videotape, a videotaped interview, or both methods combined. (5) No significant difference was found between the attitudes of males and females to male dominated material or female dominated material. (6) Significant difference above the .05 level of confidence was found between posttest and retention test attitudes toward Blackfoot but not for Ojibwa. Conclusions. (1) Although the population was dominated by female Caucasians, minority and Caucasian prospective teachers have the same attitudes toward minority groups. (2) Information which conforms to stereotypes of minority groups is more readily accepted than information contrary to minority group stereotypes. (3) A variety of information both non-stereotypic and stereotypic decreases the group attitude variance toward minorities. (4) Although some immediate increase in positivity is realized after the introduction of information about a minority, attitude soon returns to the original level. (5) The gender of the primary subjects in a visual presentation of minority information does not affect the attitudes of male and female prospective teachers. (6) The format of the videotape presentation does not affect the attitudes of prospective teachers.

2699. Robin, R. W., Chester, B., & Rasmussen, J. K. (1998). Intimate Violence in a Southwestern American Indian Tribal Community. Cultural Diversity & Mental Health, 4(4), 335-344.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Much has been written about intimate violence and American Indians, but little empirical data are available. This study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of intimate violence among 104 members of a Southwestern American Indian tribe. A semistructured psychiatric interview and a measure of intimate violence were administered to 104 tribal community members from an overall study sample of 582. Both men and women reported high rates of lifetime (91%) and recent (31%) intimate violence; much of this behavior was interactive. However, female victims were more likely to require medical attention because of sustained injuries and to have their children involved with the violence than were male victims. For women in this study, forced sex was the only incident significantly associated with lifetime affective disorders and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder. In this Southwestern American Indian community, intimate violence appears to be another variable in an environmental context that includes alcoholism, other psychiatric disorders, and traumatic events.(Abstract by: Author)

 

 

 

 

 

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