Ojibwe Bibliography – part 3

[01-19-04]

 

 

            1130.    Enmengahbowh = (John Johnson). (1904). En-me-gah-bowh's story; an account of the disturbances of the Chippewa Indians at Gull Lake in1 857, and their removal in 1868. Minneapolis: Women's Auxiliary, St. Barnabas Hospital.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:45)

1131.   [Enrolled Members, Red Lake Anishinabe Ojibway Nation], & Sho-ne-ah-wub = (a.k.a. Francis Blake, Jr. (1988). Dear Mr. Giago: In a page-one article of your February 11, 1987 issue, Mr. Frank Whitaker reported on the Alliance for American Indian Leaders (AAIL) ... Ojibwe News.
Abstract: February 24, 1987
Red Lake, MN 56671
Mr. Tim Giago
Editor and Owner, Lakota Times
Martin, South Dakota 57551

Dear Mr. Giago,
In a page-one article of your February 11, 1987 issue, Mr. Frank Whitaker reported on the Alliance for American Indian Leaders (AAIL).  The issues discussed affect the people of the Red Lake Indian Reservation deeply—and the implications of your article should be clarified.
Reading between the lines of some mighty fine-sounding rhetoric, it seems as though the leadership of AAIL is defending the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  This is only to be expected, since these gentlemen are (albeit indirectly) paid by the B.I.A., and their “unique” status as “Indian leaders” depends on the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
As has been highlighted by recent media reports, American Indian Nations appear to be caught on the horns of a dilemma, torn between the Hobson’s choices of:
(1) Ongoing dictatorial (indirect) control by the B.I.A., and even intensification and re-entrenchment of the B.I.A.’s power, or:
(2) Takeover (even on the Red Lake Indian Reservation, which is legally exempt from Public Law 280) of our beleaguered native Nations by State and County encroachment.  This is effectively the “termination” specter of the 1950’s all over again: legislating us out of existence.
In Indian country across the continent, there has been strong community involvement toward economic development.  Indian community economic independence from the Federal (and State and County) Government; this would mean that we are no longer at the beck and call of bureaucrats in the dominant society.  Community owned and controlled economic development would also provide us with the means to regain traditional sovereignty and community-centered self-government.  Obviously, Red Lake Indian traditional self-government and self-sufficiency would mean that many parasitic bureaucrats (B.I.A., “Tribal,” and other) would no longer have their plush jobs, kickbacks and slush funds.
It should thus be apparent that this “dilemma” is a red-herring issue; and furthermore that the B.I.A. is using this issue as a means to intensify division in Indian communities.  “Divide and Conquer” is an old tactic.  We in Red Lake have had 98 years too much of it.
As is to be expected from a consummate politician, Roger Jourdain and his AAIL associates (backed by the B.I.A. “good ol’ boy” network) have uttered some rousing platitudes.  All they need is a ticker-tape parade and a 21-gun salute (and maybe a few statutes).  Unfortunately, a critical look at the AAIL platform reveals some gaping holes through which our people could fall into oblivion.  Roger Jourdain, who has been “chosen” as our leader by the B.I.A., has little stature compared to our traditional chiefs who signed the treaties.
•The AAIL met, according to the Lakota Times article, in the Hilton Hotel.  The old chiefs wouldn’t be eating steaks while their people eat commodities (= rations).  They would be sure that their people were fed.  There is 90% unemployment on this reservation, and our children are malnourished.
•The AAIL says that their “goal is nothing less than the recognition by Washington and other world governments of the constitutional rights ...”  But, whose constitution?  The 1934 Indian Reorganization Act boilerplate “Tribal Constitutions” were forced on the Indian people without their informed consent.  Or, are they talking about the U.S.A. Constitution—the constitution of an occupying nation.  Both constitutions are racist, and both constitutions deny Indian nations traditional sovereignty and self-government.
• Point one of the AAIL’s “1987 Campaign on Constitutional Rights” calls for Congressional Committee hearings on the “UNIQUE sovereign status of Indian nations.”  This = “domestic dependent nations” = indirect rule minus self-government = “constitutionally” abolishing traditional sovereign Indian governments and nations.  It is unclear exactly how this relates to “treaty rights,” since the Rad Lake Indian Nation signed the Treaties as a traditional sovereign nation, and (Roger Jourdain and the B.I.A. notwithstanding) remains such.
•The AAIL does not specify what they mean by “correct constitutional relationship of the federal government to Indian tribes,” but past experience gives us reason to believe that what it probably means is bringing P.L. 280 through the “back door” of Red Lake Reservation (e.g. phasing out the Indian Health Service, present administration of our schools by the State of Minnesota [ranked lower in academic achievement than any school in the state], and, worst of all, phasing out any vestige of independence in the law enforcement system.)  And then, where is our traditional sovereignty, and where are our rights as a traditional sovereign nation guaranteed by the Treaties?
•AAIL urges a “congressional seat for a non-voting Native American Indian representative to be elected by (which?) members of Indian tribes.”  This has a nice sound to it—but under AAIL leadership and/or the present system, the proposed representative will be an appointed B.I.A. yes-man.  Furthermore, this is blatantly giving away our claims to traditional sovereignty.  What does a non-dependent, fully traditionally sovereign Indian nation with self-government want with a small fraction of a non-voting member of the U.S.A. Congress?  (They never said anything about this in the Treaties—the emphasis was on “perpetual peace and friendship” between equal nations.  Besides which, if we had a solid economic base (as we should), the Red Lake Indian people could afford to send several observers (= non-voting member) to Congress.  We could even afford to follow the Capitalist Ethic, and buy ourselves a couple of Senators—like the corporations that are after our resources do.
•AAIL recommends “election of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to the presidential cabinet level.”  There is a saying in Indian Country about the “fox guarding the chicken coop.”  This plank of the AAIL platform sounds like the “Tribal” chairmen are speaking for the B.I.A. again.  We all know about the old B.I.A. headlock, “do as we tell you, or we’ll cut off your funding” (= “unique relationship”).  A traditional sovereign Indian nation doesn’t need a B.I.A., cabinet-level or otherwise.
•Roger Jourdain is quoted as saying some other strange things, for example, “upholding oral history ... legally.”  Does this mean that the B.I.A. gets to legislate, and thus censor, our oral history?  Roger has given away too many of our treaty rights already, whether out of self-aggrandizement, lining his own pockets, or perhaps ignorance.  (Our traditional Indian chiefs left community elders in charge of oral history, and didn’t need to buy followers.  Without cold, hard B.I.A. cash, how many followers would the Red Lake “Tribal Chairman” have?)
•AAIL is apparently launching an expensive (whose money?) campaign of P.R. and mass-mailings.  If this money were ethically used, instead, it would be spent on addressing the problems faced by the people: urgent need for community owned and controlled economic development on the Red Lake Reservation; improving the educational system which is destroying so many of our most precious resource, our children (who have been taught by non-Indians with disastrous results over the past 97 years); dealing with the root causes of the alcoholism, drug addiction, malnutrition, and suicide which are devastating our community; resolving—at the causal level—the health problems on Red Lake Reservation including epidemic stages of diabetes ... protecting our remaining forest, timber, fish and watershed, and wildlife habitat from the depredations of the surrounding Whites ... the list of extremely pressing problems inflicted on our nation and our people under U.S. B.I.A. (and “tribal council” administration is a depressingly long one.
Instead of helping his people, the Red Lake “Tribal Chairman” is playing dead-end politics with AAIL and devoting his energy to lobbying for an “Indian holiday.”  We wonder if he realizes that the White man’s holidays are generally named after dead people, or if perhaps his attention in this direction reflects the Bureau’s alcoholic leadership that will lead to our annihilation: “legislating” us out of existence (the International Convention calls this “genocide,” but in Chairman Jourdain’s case perhaps there’s “fratricide”).  For the Red Lake Indian people, one whole season named after us is good enough—we have Indian Summer.
After 98 years we need to put a moratorium on greed, corruption, graft, ruthless plunder of our resources, ... to a long list of man-made problems created by 98 years of the B.I.A. “helping us.”  We need to free ourselves from our (B.I.A. “recognized”) centralized and self-serving B.I.A.-controlled government, and return to our traditional council of chiefs dependent on the consensus of the community.  We need to return to the self-government, autonomy, and status as a traditional sovereign nation guaranteed us by the Treaties.  We need to provide a solid economic base (rather than the corporate-controlled “economic development” recommended by that apparent scoundrel Ross Swimmer) for our people.  We need to address the social and community problems inflicted on us by nearly a century of colonial occupation by the U.S. Government at the cause, rather than providing jobs for a B.I.A. elite (none of whom are descended from our ancestors who signed the Red Lake Treaties) and financing band-aid social service programs out of our trust funds.
We also need a cease-and-desist injunction against  the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, various multinational corporations, certain “Christian” institutions, and other government agencies.   The time is, indeed, long overdue for international (and U.S.A.) recognition of the Red Lake Anishinabe Ojibwe Nation as a traditional sovereign Indian nation.
We have been at the bottom of the heap for so long, we have nowhere to go but up.
You can fool some of the people, some of the time, but after 30 years, you can’t fool us.
We believe that since the Lakota Times has given ample space to the platform of the AAIL, we deserve equal consideration.
Thank you and mee gwitch.
            Sincerely,
[jointly signed by several persons, names omitted
 in present publication due to concerns about
 retaliation against signer’s family members]
Enrolled Members
Red Lake Anishinabe Ojibway Nation
Descendants of the signers of the 1889 Ratification of the 1863 Treaty

1132.   Ens, G. J. (1990). Kinship, ethnicity, class and the Red River Metis: the parishes of St. Francois Xavier and St. Andrew's (St. Francois Xavier Parish, St. Andrew's Parish). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alberta (Canada).
Abstract: The focus of this study the role of economic forces in the evolution of metis identity, ethnic differentiation, and class divisions the Red River Settlement. During the period studied (1835-1890), Red River metis society and economy underwent a fundamental transition as capitalism began to transform the region. The emergence of new economic opportunities in the 1840s acted as a centrifuge as communities and individuals increasingly were forced to make decisions of whether to participate in the commercial-capitalist fur trade (particularly the buffalo-robe trade), or to continue their peasant-subsistence mode of production (farming and hunting). The choice was made all the more decisive by the withdrawal of the buffalo westward. The parishes of St. Francois Xavier and St. Andrew's were representative of the different patterns of adaptation. The adaptation of some metis to the new opportunities in the capitalistic fur trade, effected a transformation of their family economy. Production of buffalo robes for market and profit, rather than subsistence, entailed a proto-industrialization of the metis family economy. This development had implications for metis family formation and fertility. These new economic opportunities and activities not only split the metis along occupational lines, but began to bifurcate metis society along economic or class lines. Social and economic divisions within metis society became much more distinct in the 1850s and 1860s. There arose an identifiable metis bourgeoisie or merchant class which employed large numbers of metis as labourers. With this, and as the HBC increasingly hired metis labourers for its boat and cart brigades, a metis labouring class emerged. That there was a clear absence of identity between metis groups can be seen in the Riel Resistance of 1869-70. This complex political event can neither be seen as a national uprising of the metis, nor a racial civil war. It had economic aspects that pitted French metis against French metis, while allying some groups of English and French metis. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.)

1133.   Episcopal Church. (1872). A Month among the Indian missions and agencies on the Missouri River, and in Minnesota and Wisconsin. New York : American Church Press Co.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 23683046 ... accession: 20471714 ... accession: 7267758

1134.   Erickson, L. (1998). At the cultural and religious crossroads: Sara Riel and the Grey Nuns in the Canadian northwest, 1848-1883. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Calgary (Canada).
Abstract: Sara Riel has been overshadowed by the attention paid to her famous brother, Louis. Yet, a study of her life provides great insight into aspects of the western Canadian past. Her experiences as a Metis Grey Nun and missionary were shaped by complex factors of race, gender, class, and religion. This study also contributes to our understanding of women's, specifically the Grey Nuns', contributions to the development of the West. The Grey Nuns staffed the Catholic missions of the West and provided essential social services such as health care and education. By accepting Metis, Mixed-blood and Aboriginal women, like Sara Riel, into their order, they demonstrated an ability to adapt to western society and to overcome racial boundaries. In particular, this study of a Metis woman missionary, sent to serve but also transform Native society, challenges simple models of missionaries as 'conquerors,' Catholic sisterhoods as auxiliaries, and Natives as victims.

1135.   Ernst. (1958 August). [Letter to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, re 'Proposed Election Order for Adoption or Rejection of Proposed Tribal Constitution and Bylaws Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians Minnesota'].
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995):
There is attached for your consideration and signature a proposed letter authorizing the Superintendent of the Minnesota Agency to conduct an election to permit the adult Indians of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians to vote on the adoption or rejection of the proposed tribal constitution and bylaws enclosed with the letter.  You will recall that in January of this year we asked the Secretary of the Interior to intervene in the matter of determining which of two General Councils within the Band (both of which claimed to be duly constituted in accordance with the Band's 1918 tribal constitution under a hereditary chieftain [sic] system) should be given official recognition by the Federal Government as representing the Band.  In response to our problem, the Secretary appointed a three-member special committee to study the matter.  This committee recommended in its memorandum of March 5, 1958, that six specific steps be taken toward the reconstitution of a tribal government.  The sixth step is now at hand, namely, the matter of the adoption of a new constitution and bylaws which will provide for an orderly government.  The Red Lake people, although they adopted [sic] the Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. 984) in an election held on November 17, 1934, have an intense feeling against organization under the provisions of that act.  The tribal members since the days of the Allotment Act have been fierce in their feeling against alienation of any lands within the Red Lake Reservation.  Tribal history indicates the only reason the Red Lake people accepted the application of the Indian Reorganization Act to their reservation was because Section 1 of that Act specifically prohibits further allotment of reservation lands.  Previous efforts to organize the Band under the Indian Reorganization Act have failed, the last being in 1946 which failed by a narrow margin.  In the current effort, the Red Lake people again voiced their opposition to organization under the Indian Reorganization Act.  An attempt, therefore, was made to offer them a proposed form of constitution outside the provisions of this Act.  The Assistant Solicitor on reviewing the proposed draft constitution  submitted by the Tribal Constitutional Committee held on July 18, 1858, that it is not possible for a tribe which has accepted the Indian Reorganization Act to amend a former constitution, from which recognition has been withdrawn, without complying with established legal criterion for obtaining the Secretary's approval of a new organic document.  In view of the strong tribal feeling, the proposed constitution and bylaws now before you, although it contains all the requirements of an IRA-document, dare not directly refer to that act if we are to obtain tribal acceptance of the proposed document.  We recommend, therefore, that the proposed election order receive your early favorable consideration.  We have been advised during this past week by the Area Director and the tribal constitutional committee of the urgent need to call this election as soon as possible for the presentation of the proposed document to the people.

1136.   Esbensen, B. J. (1988). The Star Maiden: An Ojibway Tale.  Little, Brown.
Notes: Source: Women's Resources International, New Books On Women & Feminism [University of Minnesota onlinedatabases], August 1999 search

1137.   Escholz, P. A., Rosa, A., & Clark, V. Language Awareness.  1974.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
[quotation from Thomas Szasz]

1138.   . (1979). A. Everwind, & K. SalterReminiscences of Alex Everwind, Red Lake band of Chippewa, Minnesota .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22906304

1139.   Ewers, J. C. (1974). Ethnological report on the Chippewa Cree tribe of the Rock Boy reservation, Montana, and the Little Shell band of Indians. in D. A. Horr (editor and compiler), Chippewa Indians VI . New York: Garland Press.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:45-6), "the Garland series reprints many valuabe and often otherwise unobtainable studies.  Pagination used here is that proved by Garland.  David Horr's introductions are well worth the reader's attention."

1140.   Ewers, J. C. (1966). Howard, J. H.  The Plains-Ojibwa or Bungi: hunters and warriors of the Northern Prairies with special reference to the Turtle Mountain band [book review]. American Anthropologist, 68(2 (part I)), 562.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XII (1968:89)

1141.   Ewers, J. C. Plains Indian Painting: A Description of Aboriginal American Art.  A M S Press, Incorporated.
Notes: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1142.   . (1979). E. C. Fairbanks, & C. KelseyReminiscences of Evangeline Critts Fairbanks, White Earth band of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 23017525

1143.   Fanany, I. (1991). Teacher-student interaction in the classroom: is race related to clarity and kinetic structure? Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Cornell University.
Notes: This research was designed to study the linguistic content of interactions between teachers and students of various races in the first grade and to identify possible reasons for widely noted racial discrepancies in academic achievement, most notably the low achievement of blacks and Native Americans as compared to whites. The study sample consisted of 263 white, black, and Native American children from 12 first grade classes in four schools and    three districts in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, Metropolitan Area. Intact classes were used where the school principals and classroom teachers were willing to participate and where white and minority students were present. Reading lessons were recorded and transcribed. The number of vagueness terms/minute and the number of mazes/minute were used to measure lesson clarity. Kinetic structure, a measure of lesson organization, was also assessed. All variables were specified at the individual student level and reflect                              verbal interactions between teachers and students in one-to-one instructional settings. It was hypothesized that black and Native American students would receive lessons that are significantly less clear and less structured than those received by whites. Analysis of                              variance results showed that minority students (black and NativeAmerican students taken together) and Native American students received lessons that were significantly less clear with respect to mazes/minute and significantly less structured when compared to whites. No significant differences in clarity or structure were found between blacks and whites. Additionally, no significant differences in clarity with respect to vagueness terms/minute were found. This study shows that teacher clarity and kinetic structure are, in some cases, related to student race. Further research is indicated to determine if other student characteristics influence teachers' verbal behavior. The findings that differences in clarity and kinetic structure occurred for Native American students but not for blacks while the achievement of both groups has been noted to be significantly lower than that of whites suggest that it would be useful to study minority groups separately in order to identify unique factors that contribute to each group's low achievement.

1144.   . (1963). P. FarbEcology  . New York: Time, Inc.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)

1145.   Farkas, C. S. (1985). Nutrition education planning for native Canadians: an application of the ethnography of speaking. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto (Canada).
Abstract: This study was concerned with identifying factors which impede nutrition education communication between Euro-Canadian nutrition educators and Ojibwa or Cree clients or audiences, with special attention being given to nutrition education in urban settings. Differences between Euro-Canadian and native Canadian communication patterns and structures of reasoning were investigated as being major factors influencing the process and outcome of nutrition education encounters. Structures of reasoning are defined in this work as epistemology or basic patterns of cognition, preception, behavior and causal explanation. The means used to collect information on these differences included: (1) Applying information obtained from sociolinguistic and native studies literature to Native/non-Native nutrition education interaction. (2) Applying this information to the development of a method to obtain information from Euro-Canadian nutrition educators and Native Canadians on selected aspects of structures of reasoning considered by the author as being important for an understanding of how structures of reasoning differences could impede nutrition education interaction. To obtain this information an adapted projective technique method was devised. This method consisted of six posters showing Native and non-Native semi-cartoon characters in food related situations, and narratives and queries about the poster which were coded with specific concepts related to structures of reasoning. These concepts, considered by the author to be important for nutrition education interactions, were cause and effect relationships between food and health; classification of foods; body image as a cultural norm; locus of control beliefs; and orientation to nutritional knowledge. The posters were shown to Native Canadians in groups and individual Euro-Canadian nutrition educators in Toronto. The findings of this study indicate that the standard approach used by nutrition educators may not be effective with Ojibwa and Cree clients or audiences. This is due to differences in Euro-Canadian and Ojibwa-Cree patterns of discourse and teaching and learning styles, and to a lesser degree, due to differences between Euro-Canadian and Native Canadian structures of reasoning.

1146.   Farlow, E. J. (1998). Wind River Adventure: My Life in Frontier Wyoming.  High Plains Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1147.   Farnell, B. (1997). Making It Their Own - Severn Ojibwe Communicative Practices - Valentine, L. P. American Anthropologist., 99(1), 195-196.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999

1148.   Farnham, R. S., 1918- . (1966). Peat resources of Minnesota : report of inventory no. 3, Red Lake Bog, Beltrami County, Minnesota . Saint Paul, Minn: Office of Iron Range Resources and Rehabilitation.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).   Grubich, Donald N. Minnesota. Dept. of Iron Range Resources and Rehabilitation. University of Minnesota. Agricultural Experiment Station. Dept. of Soil Science.

1149.   Farrar, J. G. (1982). Red Lake Court of Indian Offenses : management audit technical assistance report . St. Paul, Minn.  National Center for State Courts, North Central Regional Office.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).  Report contracted by Bureau of Indian Affairs.  Other: Wilfahrt, Priscilla. National Center for State Courts. North Central Regional Office. United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. ... accession: 17153516. ... accession: 8737595

1150.   Farris, L. (1986). Challenges in Serving the Elderly American Indian. Florida Nurse , 34(6), 12,19.
Notes: Source: Biomed (Cinahl) electronic database, Fall 1999 search. (6 Ref)

1151.   Farriss, N. (Sacred power in colonial Mexico: case of sixteenth century Yucatan). (1993). Meeting of Two Worlds: Europe and the Americas 1492-1650  (pp. 145-162). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via  University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1152.   Fauche, G. A. (1817). Account of the transactions at Fort William, on Lake Superior, in August 1816 .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 18012773.  Caption title. Dated: 4, Queen Square, Westminster, June 24th, 1816

1153.   (1967). Greeley, Colorado : Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado.
Notes: ERIC NO: ED046552
Abstract: Part II of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Documents are included relative to the Bad River, Lac Courte Oreilles, Lac du Flambeau, and the Red Cliff bands of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians; the St. Croix band of Chippewa Indians; the Sokaogon Chippewa, Forest County Potawatomi, and Stockbridge Munsee communities; and the Oneida, Menominee, and Winnebago tribes in Wisconsin. (JH)

1154.   . (1965). G. E. Fay, 1927- Archaeological field equipment . Oshkosh, Wis.  Museum of Anthropology, Wisconsin State University.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)

1155.   . (1965). G. E. Fay, 1927- Bibliography of the Indians of Wisconsin . Oshkosh, Wis.  Museum of Anthropology, Wisconsin State University.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)

1156.   . (1972). G. E. Fay, 1927- Great Lakes Agency : Minnesota-Michigan  . Greeley : Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 6412424

1157.   Fay, G. E., 1927- . (1965). Miscellaneous series. Oshkosh, Wis.  Museum of Anthropology, Wisconsin State University.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)
Abstract: no. 2: Bibliography of the Indians of Wisconsin -- no. 3: Treaties between the Menominee Indians and the United States of America, 1817-1856 -- no. 4: Archaeological field equipment

1158.   Federal Emergency Management Agency. (1999). North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations: Notice. Federal Register, 64(132), 37534.
Notes: Source: the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov] [DOCID:fr12jy99-78]
Abstract: SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Presidential declaration of a major  disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1279-DR), dated June 8,  1999, and related determinations.
EFFECTIVE DATE: June 8, 1999.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Madge Dale, Response and Recovery  Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC 20472,  (202) 646-3772.
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is hereby given that, in a letter  dated June 8, 1999, the President declared a major disaster under the  authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency  Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.), as follows:
    I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State  of North Dakota, resulting from severe storms, flooding, snow and  ice, ground saturation, landslides, mudslides, and tornadoes  beginning on March 1, 1999 and continuing, is of sufficient severity  and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the  Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act,  Public Law 93-288, as amended (``the Stafford Act''). I, therefore,  declare that such a major disaster exists in the State of North  Dakota.     In order to provide Federal assistance, you are hereby  authorized to allocate from funds available for these purposes, such  amounts as you find necessary for Federal disaster assistance and  administrative expenses.     You are authorized to provide Individual Assistance, Public  Assistance, and Hazard Mitigation in the designated areas.  Consistent with the requirement that Federal assistance be  supplemental, any Federal funds provided under the Stafford Act for  Public Assistance or Hazard Mitigation will be limited to 75 percent  of the total eligible costs.     Further, you are authorized to make changes to this declaration  to the extent allowable under the Stafford Act.
    The time period prescribed for the implementation of section  310(a), Priority to Certain Applications for Public Facility and Public  Housing Assistance, 42 U.S.C. 5153, shall be for a period not to exceed  six months after the date of this declaration.     Notice is hereby given that pursuant to the authority vested in the  Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency under Executive  Order 12148, I hereby appoint Lesli A Rucker of the Federal Emergency  Management Agency to act as the Federal Coordinating Officer for this  declared disaster.     I do hereby determine the following areas of the State of North  Dakota to have been affected adversely by this declared major disaster:
    The counties of Barnes, Benson, Bottineau, Burleigh, Cass,  Dickey, Emmons, Foster, Grand Forks, Griggs, Kidder, LaMoure, Logan,  McHenry, McIntosh, McLean, Mountrail, Nelson, Pembina, Pierce,  Ramsey, Ransom, Renville, Richland, Rolette, Sargent, Sheridan,  Steele, Stutsman, Towner, Traill, Walsh, Ward, and Wells, and the  Indian Reservations of the Spirit Lake Tribe, Three Affiliated  Tribes, and Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa for Individual  Assistance and Public Assistance.
    All counties within the State of North Dakota are eligible to apply  for assistance under the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program.
(The following Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers (CFDA)  are to be used for reporting and drawing funds: 83.537, Community  Disaster Loans; 83.538, Cora Brown Fund Program; 83.539, Crisis  Counseling; 83.540, Disaster Legal Services Program; 83.541,  Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 83.542, Fire Suppression  Assistance; 83.543, Individual and Family Grant (IFG) Program;  83.544, Public Assistance Grants; 83.545, Disaster Housing Program;  83.548, Hazard Mitigation Grant Program.) James L. Witt, Director.
[FR Doc. 99-17609 Filed 7-9-99; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6718-02-P

1159.   Feest, C. F. (1988). "Unser Hergott hat verschiedene Kostgänger"--Franz Hölzhuber beim Frühlingfest der Chippewa und Winnebago ["Our Lord has many boarders."  Franz Hölzhuber at the Chippewa and Winnebago spring festival in 1860]. Weiner Ethnohistorische Blätter (Vienna), 33, 101-114.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXXV (1992:149)

1160.   Ferris, N. (1985). Bellamy: a late historic Ojibwa habitation. Ontario Archaeology, 44, 3-21, ill.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1161.   . (1833). W. M. Ferry, 1796-1867 (Reverend), Notices of Chippeway converts 3rd//4th ed., ). Boston: Crocker and Brewster, Prints.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:46)
Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

1162.   . (1985). T. FiddlerLegends from the forest . Moonbeam, ON: Penumbra Press.
Notes: translations by Edtrip Fiddler
Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXX (1987:228)

1163.   Field. Treaties & Agreements of the Chippewa Indians.  Institute for the Development of Indian Law.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1164.   Fikes, J. C. (1995). Wub-e-ke-niew.  We have the right to exist: a translation of aboriginal indigenous thought: the first book ever published from an Ahnishinahbæótjibway  perspective. [book review]. Choice, 33(1).
Abstract: Like Vine Deloria’s Custer Died for Your Sins (CH, Mar ‘70),  this book offers an uncompromising critique of Euroamerican colonization of “New World” natives.  Steeped in the Ahnishinahbæótjibway tradition, Wub-e-ke-niew writes poignantly about his imprisonment in Catholic boarding schools, his confrontation with Indian colleagues in the American Indian Movement, and conflicts with agents from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
His interpretation of what motivates institutions to disparage and destroy his people’s aboriginal culture is predicated on a passionate but well-documented defense of his people’s sovereignty.
Substantial archival research supports his claim that neither fraudulent treaties signed by “mix-bloods” (Métis) nor the tribal government established under the Indian Reorganization Act by Chippewa Indians at Red Lake, Minnesota, have never extinguished his people’s stewardship of the land they have cherished for a millennium.
Wub-e-ke-niew argues cogently that neither the US government nor its chosen “Indians” have any right to interfere with the Ahnishinahbæótjibway people.
This superb combination  of expose and autobiography deserves careful reading by all Americans curious about how their government’s Indian policy endangers the aboriginal way of life so eloquently evoked by Wub-e-ke-niew.  All levels.
            J.C. Fikes, Institute for Investigation of Inter-cultural Issues.de

1165.   Filemyr, A. (1995). Living at the crossroads: the intersection of nature, culture and identity (original writing) (feminist). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Union Institute.
Abstract: The thesis provides an active critique of the construction of personal, social, and cultural identities from an ecological and feminist standpoint challenging existing Feminist Theory on Identity Politics with an emphasis on relationships between women. It makes new contributions to Cultural Studies, Cultural Ecology, Ethnography and Environmental Literature by expanding a gender and race perspective on issues of culture and nature. The primary focus is on stories and the role of stories in constructing personal, social, and cultural identity and relationships to the natural world. The notion of stories is applied broadly to include those generated from personal experience or from the news media, stories  handed down over generations or kept as secrets. A series of creative and critical essays explore these themes, titles include: Living at the Crossroads, a theoretical challenge to feminist standpoint theory based on exploring the tension between theory and lived experience; Loving Across the Boundary, the author recounts her experiences in long-term relationships across the color line; Blurring the Boundary, reflection on the connection between Africa and the Americas based on a trip to Senegal and Cape Verde and the legacy of slavery in the New World; Culture Within Nature--The Importance of Place, an examination of radical ecology including bioregionalism, deep ecology, environmental justice, ecofeminism, indigenous peoples movements, and the value of stories in creating relationships to specific places; Remembering the Future: Documenting the Zuni Conservation Project, analysis of ethnographic work and the role of stories among the Zuni as the author assists the Zuni in a documentary about an ecological program on the reservation; Thunder & Lightning: Story as Voice and Illumination among the Anishinaabeg, explores the role of sacred stories and oral history among the Anishinaabeg (Chippewa) includes the author's fourteen years as a memorizer of stories which cannot be written down; Body/Nature, final section explores in-depth th e experience of being female in relationship to urban, rural, and wild landscapes, includes poetry, journal writing, analysis, and reflections on involvement in earth-based spirituality.

1166.   Filene, B. (1997). Settlement and survival: Building towns in the Chippewa Valley, 1850-1925 - Pfaff, T. J AM HIST , 84(1), 167-172.
Notes: Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999

1167.   Finger, D. E. (1985). Evaluations of vocational rehabilitation programs by native American participants and state program staff . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)

1168.   Finley, A. (1963). Scholarships for American Indian youth. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:102), "Bibliography"

1169.   Finnell, A. L. (1971). Indian grove burial . Minnesota Genealogist, 2(2), 26.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 19281269. Sec. 6, T109N R44W, Hope Twp., Lincoln Co., Minn.

1170.   Finney, W. (1994 December). Star Tribune.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1171.   Firkus, A. J. (1999). Native Americans and the Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Service, 1910-1940 (agricultural education, Bureau of Indian Affairs, State Tribal relations, federalism) . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Purdue University.
Abstract: The Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Service (CES) began serving Native American communities in the 1910s because Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) agricultural instruction was insufficient to help Indians become prosperous farmers, and because progressivism philosophy called for the inclusion of Native Americans into the political and cultural mainstream. In 1915, J. F. Wojta, Wisconsin leader of county agents, attended the Menominee Fair to judge exhibits and discuss farming. Other Wisconsin reservation communities invited Wojta to help them as well. Because Indian fairs contained too many distractions, Wojta adopted the Farmers' Institute approach and held more than fifty such events in Native American communities over the next twenty years. County agents and University of Wisconsin agricultural specialists also visited Native American communities during the 1910s and 1920s to provide farming instruction. By 1930, however, Congress began increasing federal appropriations for Indian affairs. The BIA organized its own extension division and boosted its agricultural and extension activities. By 1940, however, the federal government had once again began to relinquish its responsibility for Native Americans, and the CES again began to sponsor programs in Indian communities.

1172.   Fischer, A. (1992). Indian lore : the Naniboujou resort conjurs North Shore fantasy in mythological trappings . Architecture Minnesota, 18(2), p. 42-45 : col. ill. ; 29 cm.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 26137957. Title from caption.

1173.   Fiset, S. (Composer). (1970). Steve Fiset-- et le kitschCanada: Trans-World.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
French-Canadian rock songs. Title from container. Playable on stereo. or mono. equipment. Steve Fiset, vocals, guitar ; supporting performers. Ma cherie (2:50) -- J'ai depasse les chemins  (3:22) -- Quebec "sloche" (2:14) -- Je revis  (2:50) -- Je ne pense qu'a ca (2:38) -- Monsieur le  Cardinal (6:20) -- Le temps de vivre (3:08) -- Caughnawaga  (2:44) -- Echec et mat (5:20) -- Enfants de notre terre  (1:23)

1174.   Fisher, M. W. (anthropological collaborator).
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995), worked for the B.I.A. at Red Lake

1175.   Fisher, P. A., Bacon, J. G., & Storck, M. (1998). Teacher, Parent, and Youth Report of Problem Behaviors Among Rural American Indian and Caucasian Adolescents. American Indian & Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 8(2), 1-23.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Previous research on the mental health status of American Indian youth has documented rates of pathology that are higher than the rates for Caucasian youth. However, much of this previous research has compared rural American Indians to urban Caucasians. The present study is a comparison of American Indian and Caucasian youth living on or near a rural reservation. Results suggest that although American Indian youth have higher levels than Caucasian youth of certain problem behaviors, group differences are much less general and pronounced than previous research has documented. Analyses also revealed teachers' perceptions of youth were in some cases quite different than parents' perceptions of youth and youth's perceptions of themselves.  (Abstract by: Author)

1176.   Fisher, P. A., Storck, M., & Bacon, J. G. (1999). In the Eye of the Beholder: Risk and Protective Factors in Rural American Indian and Caucasian Adolescents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69(3), 294-304.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: This study examines how relations Between risk and protective factors and psychopathology vary by ethnic group, gender, and informant. Data were collected from Caucasian and American Indian adolescents, and their teachers. Results indicate a need for interventions that reduce risk increase protective factors, and bring about greater convergence in the perceptions teachers and youth. [References: 34]

1177.   Fixico, D. L. (1994). The Alliance of the 3-Fires in Trade and War, 1630-1812 (Potawatomi, Ottawa, and Ojibwa Indian History). Michigan Historical Review, 20(2), 1-23.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

1178.   Flandrau, C. E. (1898). Lawyers and courts of Minnesota prior to and during its territorial period . in Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. Volume VIII.    St. Paul, Minn.: The Minnesota Historical Society.
Notes: Source: PALS online catalog (October 1999 search)
Abstract: The international boundary between Lake Superior  and the Lake of the Woods / by Ulysses Sherman Grant -- The settlement and  development of the Red River Valley / by Warren Upham -- The discovery and  development of the iron ores of Minnesota / by N.H. Winchell -- The origin  and growth of the Minnesota Historical Society / by Alex. Ramsey -- Opening  of the Red River of the North to commerce and civilization / by Russell Blakeley -- Last days of Wisconsin territory and early days of Minnesota  territory / by Henry L. Moss -- Lawyers and courts of Minnesota prior to  and during its territorial period / by Charles E. Flandrau -- Homes and  habitations of the Minnesota Historical Society / by Charles E. Mayo -- The  historical value of newspapers / by J.B. Chaney -- The United States  government publications / by D.L. Kingsbury -- The first organized  government of Dakota / by Samuel J. Albright -- How Minnesota became a  state / by Thomas F. Moran -- Minnesota's ! northern boundary / by Alexander N. Winchell -- The question of the sources  of the Mississippi River / by E. Levasseur. The source of the Mississippi / by N.H. Winchell --  Prehistoric man at the headwaters of the Mississippi River / by J.V. Brower  -- Charter members of the Minnesota Historical Society and its work in 1896  / by Alex. Ramsey -- History of agriculture in Minnesota / by James J. Hill  -- History of mining and quarrying in Minnesota / by Warren Upham --  History of the discovery of the Mississippi River and the advent of  commerce in Minnesota / Russell Blakeley -- Reminiscences of persons and  events in the early days of the Minnesota Historical Society / by William  H. Kelley -- Fort Snelling from its foundation to the present time / by  Richard W. Johnson -- Sully's expedition against the Sioux, in 1864 / by  David L. Kingsbury -- State-building in the West / by Charles E. Flandrau

1179.   Flandrau, C. E. (1898). State-building in the West . in Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. Volume VIII.    St. Paul, Minn.: The Minnesota Historical Society.
Notes: Source: PALS online catalog (October 1999 search)
Abstract: The international boundary between Lake Superior  and the Lake of the Woods / by Ulysses Sherman Grant -- The settlement and  development of the Red River Valley / by Warren Upham -- The discovery and  development of the iron ores of Minnesota / by N.H. Winchell -- The origin  and growth of the Minnesota Historical Society / by Alex. Ramsey -- Opening  of the Red River of the North to commerce and civilization / by Russell Blakeley -- Last days of Wisconsin territory and early days of Minnesota  territory / by Henry L. Moss -- Lawyers and courts of Minnesota prior to  and during its territorial period / by Charles E. Flandrau -- Homes and  habitations of the Minnesota Historical Society / by Charles E. Mayo -- The  historical value of newspapers / by J.B. Chaney -- The United States  government publications / by D.L. Kingsbury -- The first organized  government of Dakota / by Samuel J. Albright -- How Minnesota became a  state / by Thomas F. Moran -- Minnesota's northern boundary / by Alexander N. Winchell -- The question of the sources  of the Mississippi River / by E. Levasseur. The source of the Mississippi / by N.H. Winchell --  Prehistoric man at the headwaters of the Mississippi River / by J.V. Brower  -- Charter members of the Minnesota Historical Society and its work in 1896  / by Alex. Ramsey -- History of agriculture in Minnesota / by James J. Hill  -- History of mining and quarrying in Minnesota / by Warren Upham --  History of the discovery of the Mississippi River and the advent of  commerce in Minnesota / Russell Blakeley -- Reminiscences of persons and  events in the early days of the Minnesota Historical Society / by William  H. Kelley -- Fort Snelling from its foundation to the present time / by  Richard W. Johnson -- Sully's expedition against the Sioux, in 1864 / by  David L. Kingsbury -- State-building in the West / by Charles E. Flandrau

1180.   Flandrau, C. E. (Charles Eugene), 1828-1903 (The Indian War of 1862-1864 : and following campaigns in Minnesota ). (1890). detatched from Minnesota. Board of Commissioners on Publication of History of Minnesota in Civil and Indian WarsMinnesota in the Civil and Indian Wars, 1861- 1865  (p. [727]-818 ). St. Paul, Minn.  Printed for the State by the Pioneer Press Co.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 15689922. Caption title. "Roster of citizen soldiers engaged in the Sioux Indian War of 1862:" Other: Minnesota. Board of Commissioners on Publication of History of Minnesota in Civil and Indian Wars. Minnesota in the Civil and Indian Wars, 1861- 1865.  ... accession: 3254059 [2d ed.] 2d ed. was produced after an ammendment to the general appropriation act of April 22, 1891 and consists of 10,000 copies, 2 v. ; 27 cm., 1891

1181.   Flandrau, C. E. (Charles Eugene), 1828-1903. (1890). Narrative of the Indian War of 1862-1864 : and following campaigns in Minnesota .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 19485200. Cover title. ... accession: 13852008

1182.   Flannery, R. (1940). The cultural position of Spanish River Indians. Primitive Man, 13, 1-25.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:46)

1183.   Fleetwood, B. (The tribe that caught cat dancing). (1979). Culture, curers, and contagion, Novato  (pp. 59-63). California: Chandler and Sharp.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1184.   Foerster, J. W. (1964). An Indian Summer. Canadian Geographical Review, 38, 157-163.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:46)

1185.   Foley, D. E. (1995). The Heartland Chronicles.  University of Pennsylvania Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1186.   Folwell, W. W. (1929-1930). A History of Minnesota. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society.
Notes: cited by Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:102), "Bibliography"

1187.   Fonda, J. (1970). Account book 1755-1777, probably Jelles  Fonda's, Caughnawaga. Ithaca, N.Y.  Cornell University Library.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
Abstract: Microfilm of a colonial account book from  the Collection of Regional History, Cornell  University.

1188.   Forbes, H. M., 1856-1951. (1894). Two Indian chiefs. Westborough, Mass.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

1189.   Fore, C. L., & Chaney, J. M. (1998). Factors Influencing the Pursuit of Educational Opportunities in American Indian Students. American Indian & Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 8(2), 46-55.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: American Indians are the most under-represented minority group across all levels of education. The present study investigates sociocultural, psychological, and nontraditional academic factors that influence American Indian students' decisions to pursue higher education (e.g., vocational training, college). Nineteen American Indians with previous academic difficulties completed several self-report measures at the beginning of an eight-week Job Corps. program. The results indicate that students who pursue educational opportunities have a more realistic self-appraisal of their academic abilities and are supported by others (e.g., family, mentors) in their academic pursuits. A hypothesized link between self-appraisal and support suggests that the availability of a mentor and/or family support is crucial in American Indian students' decision to pursue educational opportunities.  (Abstract by: Author)

1190.   Forest County Potawatomi Community (Association). (1937). Constitution and by-laws of the Forest County Potawatomi Community, Wisconsin approved February 6, 1937. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search).  At head of title: United States. Department of the Interior. Office of Indian Affairs.

1191.   Forest County Potawatomi Community (Association). (1938). Corporate charter of the Forest County Potawatomi Community, Wisconsin ratified October 30, 1937. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)

1192.   Fortunate Eagle, A. N. (1994). Urban Indians and the occupation of Alcatraz Island. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 18(4), 33-58.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search
Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: Organizations including the Navajo Club, the Chippewa Club and the Pomo Club, representing Native Americans from both rural and urban areas in the nation and upholding the community's pride of place, came under the United Council, the umbrella organization of Native Americans, in organizing and conducting the 1969 invasion and occupation of Alcatraz Island in the San Francisco Bay Area, CA. This island invasion was a watershed in the Natives' quest for self-determination in the American society.

1193.   Foster, A. A. (1943). ESP tests with American Indian children: a comparison of methods. Journal of Parapsychology, 7(2), 94-103.  3 refs.
Notes: Source: Parapsychology Abstracts International, Jun 1984:21
Abstract: Fifty children attending a government school for Plains Indians in Canada were given tests for ESP by a white teacher.   The primary aim was to compare the effectiveness of a new type of test as against a standard technique, Screened Touch Matching, which has long been used in ESP research.  As it turned out, the older technique, which utilized ESP cards concealed from the subject's view by an opaque screen, gave significant results while the new technique gave only chance scores.  The significant results consisted of 250 runs through the ESP deck, five runs for each of the fifty subjects.  The children averaged 3.59 hits per deck, whereas expectation is 5.00.  This average is significant to five a critical ratio of 3.07; the odds are more than 700 to 1 that such a result would occur by chance.
   The new type of test, while it was a failure as far as producing evidence for ESP is concerned, may be regarded as an experimental control since the conditions were the same as far as precautions were concerned.  The principal significance of the experiment lies in its constituting the only published report to date of ESP experiments conducted with Indians as subjects. --DA

1194.   Foster, J., C. E. of Montreal. (1869). Railway from Lake Superior to Red River settlement considered in a letter to the Hon. Wm. McDougall, C.B., minister of public works . Montreal?  J. Lovell.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 9494765.  Reproduction of original in: Library of the Public Archives of Canada. Includes bibliographical references.  Other: MacDougall, William, 1822-1905. ... accession: 17756081.  B.B. Peel, Bibliography of the prairie provinces, no. 224. Advertisement for "Foster's new system of wooden railway" inserted. ... accession: 26709826

1195.   Fox, J. R. (1962). Dunning, R.W.  Social and economic change among the northern Ojibwa.  [Book Review]. British Journal of Sociology, 13(1), 83-85.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. VIII (1963:104)

1196.   Fox, T. B. (1858). History of Saginaw County, from the year 1819 down to the present time. Comp. from authentic records and other sources: traditionary acccounts, legends, anecdotes &c, with valuable statistics and notes of its resources and general information concerning its advantages; also a business directory of each of the three principal towns of the County. East Saginaw, MI: Enterprise Print.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:46)

1197.   Francis, D., & Payne, M., 1951-. (1993). A narrative history of Fort Dunvegan .  [Winnipeg?] : Watson & Dwyer.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
"Prepared for the Fort Dunvegan Historical Society and Alberta Community Development."-- T.p. Includes bibliographical references and index.

1198.   Franciscan Fathers . (1951). The Indian Maiden Catherine  Tekakwitha. Fonda, N.Y.  Franciscan Fathers, Tekakwitha  Friary.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
Abstract: Cover title. Catherine Tekakwith--Caughnawaga--Tekakwitha Friary and St.  Peter Chapel--Notre Dame de Foy--The Mohawk-Caughnawaga  Museum.

1199.   Frantz, S. (1989). Report to the Minnesota Legislature : American Indian education report for the Minnesota Technical Institute System . [St. Paul, Minn.] : Minnesota State Board of Vocational Technical Education.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 19247197 ... accession: 21213984
Abstract: Minnesota. State Board of Vocational Technical Education. American Indian education report for the Minnesota Technical Institute System.

1200.   Freeman, K., Stairs, A., Corbiere, E., & Lazore, D. (1995). Ojibwe, Mohawk, and Inuktitut Alive and Well? Issues of Identity, Ownership and Change. Bilingual Research Journal, 19(1), 39.
Notes: Source: UnCover database (Aug 1999)
Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: A demographic analysis of the three indigenous languages Ojibway, Mohawk and Inuktitut in Eastern Canada reveals that native language learning has diminished, though various language programs are being used to revive these languages. Native community educators stress the correlation between languages and cultural preservation in a heterogeneous world.

1201.   Freeman, W. L. (1994). Making research consent forms informative and understandable: the experience of the Indian Health Service. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 3(4), 510-521.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota Bioethics electronic database, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: <Conclusion>: This article is relevant to many more researchers and IRBs than just those that deal with AI/AN [American Indian and Alaska Native] communities. Many researchers and IRBs are involved with research in other minority communities. Although other minority communities may not have legal tribal sovereignty, many of the sensitivities and values needed to work with them effectively are similar to those discussed in connection with AI/AN groups. Even more important, in the cross-cultural setting of health professionals trying to communicate with lay volunteers, effective writing and communication requires the same methods as described here. Researchers and IRBs can write more effective consent forms and develop more effective consent processes by understanding 1) the findings of the NALS [National Adult Literacy Survey], 2) the six factors that inhibit written communication with people possessing typical reading skills, 3) the six characteristics of the effective consent forms, and 4) the four ways to go beyond the usual consent form. The IHS [Indian Health Service] Model Volunteer Consent Forms are examples or 'templates' that researchers and IRBs might use to improve their consent forms. [References: 39 fn.]

1202.   Fregeau, C. J., Tan-Siew, W. F., Yap, K. H., Carmody, G. R., Chow, S. T., & Fourney, R. M. (1998). Population Genetic Characteristics of the STR Loci D21S11 and FGA in Eight Diverse Human Populations. Human Biology , 70(5), 813-844.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: A highly polymorphic multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) system composed of D21S11, FGA, and the sex-typing system amelogenin (AMG) has been used to investigate allele frequency distributions in two Canadian Caucasian samples (British Columbia and Alberta), three Canadian aboriginal populations (Coastal Salishans from British Columbia, Ojibwa from northern Ontario, and Cree from Saskatchewan), and three ethnic groups from Singapore (Chinese, Malays, and Asian Indians). Using the automated fluorescence detection approach on an ABD 373A DNA Sequencer, we distinguished 20 D21S11 and 22 FGA alleles with a nearly equal representation of two- and four-base variants. An overlap in allele sizes for both STR loci across populations was observed, but frequency differences were noted. Statistical analysis revealed that (1) both D21S11 and FGA loci conform to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all eight surveyed populations based on five different tests and (2) both STR loci are in linkage equilibrium. Results from the 2 times N contingency table exact tests for population differentiation demonstrated that the Canadian samples from two different provinces were not distinguishable from one another at either STR locus and therefore could be combined to form one Caucasian group. Likewise, Chinese and Malays from Singapore did not show significant differences at either STR locus. In contrast, all other examined populations exhibited differences deemed statistically significant. As a complement to our study, we compared D21S11 allele frequency distributions in 21 worldwide populations and FGA allele frequency distributions in 14 populations. Many alleles never previously reported in worldwide populations were identified in Canadian aboriginal and Asian samples from this study. Twenty-four D21S11 and 29 FGA alleles were distinguished in worldwide groups. Interesting similarities in allele frequency distribution patterns across populations suggest that the STR polymorphism at these loci predates the geographic dispersal of ancestral human populations. This study further demonstrates the utility of highly informative STR loci such as D21S11 and FGA in human population evolutionary history and in forensic medicine.

1203.   [French, L., 1941-]. (1982). Indians and criminal justice . Totowa, N.J.  Allanheld, Osmun.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search)

1204.   Return to Endion women, work and family in Duluth, a historical perspective . (1985).  [Recording]. Duluth: University of Minnesota, Duluth, Learning Resources Center.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 12099115
Abstract: A talk given March 12, 1985 at UMD as part of Women's History Week, 1985. Gives a history of the living conditions of women in the Duluth area through the beginning of World War I, followed by a question and answer period.

1205.   Frickey, P. P. (1996). Domesticating Federal Indian Law. Minnesota Law Review, 81(1), 31.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1206.   Frickey, P. P. (1996). Pommersheim: Braid of Feathers: American Indian Law and Contemporary Tribal Life. Michigan Law Review, 94(6), 1973.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1207.   Fridley, R. W. (1883). Reference files on Minnesota history.
Notes: Source: PALS online catalog (October 1999 search)

1208.   Friedl, E. (1995). The Life of an Academic - a Personal Record of a Teacher, Administrator, and Anthropologist. Annual Review of Anthropology, 24, 1-19.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: An account, spanning 50 years, of how I became an anthropologist, my graduate education at Columbia University, and my academic positions at Brooklyn and Queens College and at Duke University. I discuss my fieldwork among the Chippewa of Wisconsin and among modern Greeks in Boetia and Athens. I comment on the new ethnography as it applies to modern Greek studies and discuss how and why I turned to gender studies. I comment on teaching, university administration, and trends in contemporary anthropology and make a recommendation for a future thrust of the field. Reconnecting biology and cultural anthropology is, I believe, a necessary step if anthropology is to continue to be useful for ameliorating the human condition.

1209.   Friedl, E. (1966). An attempt at directed culture change: leadership among the Chippewa, 1640-1948. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University.

1210.   Friedl, E. (1957). Chippewa Indians of yesterday and today [book review]. American Anthropologist, 59(4), 728-729.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. III (1959:3-4507)

1211.   Friedl, E. (1995). The life of an academic: a personal record of a teacher, admnistrator and anthropologist. Annual Review of Anthropology, 24, 1-19.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XLI (1996:4)

1212.   Friedl, E. (1944). A note on birchbark transparencies. American Anthropologist, 46, 149-150.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:46)

1213.   Friedl, E. (1956). Persistence in Chippewa culture and personality. American Anthropologist, 58(5), 814-825.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. III (1959:3-4722)
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:47)

1214.   Friedli, J. (1918). The Winnebago Indian Mission at Black River Falls, Wis. Sheboygan, Wis.  Board of Home Missions of the Northwest, Central and Southeast Synods of the Reformed Church in the U.S.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)

1215.   Friedman, L. D. (1991). Unspeakable images: ethnicity and the American cinema. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1216.   Friedman, S. S. (1994). Identity Politics, Syncretism, Catholicism, and Anishinabe Religion in Erdrich,Louise 'tracks' (American Indian Literature and Spirituality). Religion & Literature, 26(1), 107-133.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

1217.   Friedman, S. S. (1994). Identity Politics, Syncretism, Catholicism, and Anishinabe Religion in Louise Erdrich's Tracks. Religion & Literature, v 26(n 1), 107.
Notes: Source: UnCover

1218.   [Friends of the Martin County Library]. (1977). Indian legends of Martin County . Madelia, MN : House of Print.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 4355192

1219.   Frisch, L. L. (1998). The association between social influences (cues to action) and pap smear screening frequency rates. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.
Abstract: Cervical cancer occurs at a high rate among Native American women in the United States. Few published data have concurred why Native American women do not seek recommended preventive Pap smear screening exams to identify cancer in early stages, anddecrease mortality rates in this population. Social influences, in the role of preventive health behavior may play an important role in offering rationale. Chart audits and structured interviews were used of those women who complied with the guidelines of at least one Pap in the last three years, and those women who did not in a select population of Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indian women, aged 40 years and older (N = 30). Using crosstabs, chi-square and bFisher's exact, this study found no association between Pap smear screening frequency rates, and social influence as a cue to action.  However, findings did show the women in this study valued the opinion and advice of healthcare professionals, and that Pap smears exams were being discussed. These findings suggest the need for further research, and culturally sensitive interventions by the APN to move social influence to the cue to action phase.

1220.   Fritz, H. E. (1963). The movement for Indian assimilation, 1860-1890. Philadlephia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1221.   Fritz, R., Suffling, R., & Younger, T. A. (1993). Influence of Fur Trade Famine and Forest Fires on Moose and Woodland Caribou Populations in Northwestern Ontario From 1786 to 1911. Environmental Management , 17(4), 477-489.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Hudson's Bay Company records were used to estimate the 1786-1911 annual number of moose (Alces alces andersonii) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) involved in trade by northern Ojibwa natives to the company post at Osnaburgh House (51.degree.10'N 90.degree.15'W) in northwest Ontario, Canada.  The human population for the early 19th century, and the number and severity of human starvations from 1786 to 1911 were estimated.  The extent of forest fires in the region around Osnaburgh was documented using a 'fire-day' index computed from Hudson's Bay Company journals and using qualitative archival information.  It is argued that the human population was too small to have caused the observed early 19th century moose and caribou population decline solely through predation.  Likewise, severe early 19th century famines were caused by climatic factors rather than by declines in moose and caribou numbers.  Habitat change caused by increased forest fires correlates with the observed decline of caribou, while moose increased and subsequently collapsed as winter shelter was destroyed.  A burgeoning human population, sustained during winter food shortages on potatoes donated by the Hudson's Bay Company, then kept ungulate populations to low levels until the late 19th century.  Only then did maturing forests and a new outbreak of fires provides renewed habitat for resurgences of, respectively, caribou and moose.

1222.   Fruth, A. (Bernard Fruth), 1913-. (1958). A century of missionary work among the Chippewa Indians, 1858-1958. Redlake, MN: St. Mary's Mission.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:47)
Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search)

1223.   Fuks, K. H., & Wilkinson, B. H. (1998). Holocene sedimentation in two western Michigan estuaries. J GREAT LAKES RES , 24(4), 822-837.
Notes: Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999

1224.   Fulford, G. (1992). Pictographic account book of an Ojibwa fur trader. Papers, Algonquian Conference, 23 , 190-233.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1225.   Fulford, G. (1990). Structural analysis of Mide chants. Papers, Algonquian Conference [Ottawa], 21, 126-158.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1226.   Fulford, G. (1989). Structural analysis of Mide song scrolls. Papers, Algonquian Conference, (20), 132-153.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1227.   "Full-blooded Ponemah Indians". (1944 March). [Letter to Bureau of Indian Affairs, via Red Lake Agency].
Notes: cited by Wub-e-ke-niew

1228.   Fuller, I. (1940). The loon feather. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Incorporated.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:92), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "Tecumseh's daughter is adopted by a French couple.  This story tells of her attempts to absorb the best of the white man's world while maintaining the best of her Indian heritage.  Excellent for grades 7-8."

1229.   Fusaro, R. M., & Johnson, J. A. (1980). Hereditary Polymorphic Light Eruption in American Indians: Photoprotection and Prevention of Streptococcal Pyoderma and Glomerulonephritis. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association , 244(13), 1456-1459.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Hereditary polymorphic light eruption (HPLE) occurs in Indians of North and South America. Affected persons are sensitive to long UV radiation and receive no substantial benefit from conventional sunscreens. There were 46 HPLE patients treated at the Red Lake Reservation, Minnesota, USA, treated with topically administered dihydroxyacetone and lawsone, orally given beta-carotene or both. Oral beta-carotene afforded adequate photoprotection to 33 patients; 4 additional patients were protected with the combined use of oral and topical agents. HPLE is a causative factor in streptococcal pyoderma in the American Indian and may be associated with epidemics of streptococcal glomerulonephritis.

1230.   Fust, W. L. (1965). A study of Minnesota's Indian policy and problems since 1934 .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 18996027. Typescript. Bibliography: leaves [26]-28.

1231.   Gade, W., Jack, M. A., Dahl, J. B., Schmidt, E. L., & Wold, F. (1981). The Isolation and Characterization of a Root Lectin From Soybean (Glycine Max (L), Cultivar Chippewa). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 256(24), 12905-12910.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: A lectin has been isolated from the roots of 5-day soybean (Glycine max (L) cultivar Chippewa) seedlings, and its properties have been compared to those of the soybean seed lectin. The sugar-binding activities of the two lectins, both in terms of specific hemagglutinating activity and sugar specificity, are indistinguishable. Molecular properties of the two lectins, measured as relative molecular weights, isoelectric and electrophoretic patterns, amino acid compositions, immunochemical cross-reactivity, and chromatographic behavior on Sepharose-concanavalin A adsorbents suggest that the seed and the root lectin are very similar but not identical. On the basis of these comparisons, we conclude that models regarding biological functions of soybean lectin derived from studies using the seed lectin can be extended to include the root lectin in this cultivar. Studies on the distribution of the lectin in the root tissue suggest that it is associated with the outer surface of the root and is concentrated in the segments of the root at which hair and early secondary roots are observed. Since this is the region at which Rhizobium binding occurs and at which nodulation probably is initiated, all the reported observations on the root lectin are consistent with its proposed role in the specific interaction of the developing soybean with its symbiont.

1232.   Gagnon, M. (1995). Discours implicite sur le sacre dans quelques groupes environmentaux de la region de Quebec. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Universite Laval, Canada.
Abstract: Cette recherche porte sur le discours implicite sur le sacre au sein de quelques groupes environnementaux du Quebec metropolitain. Nous avons emis les hypotheses suivantes: premierement, il y aurait  presence d'un sacre auquel les membres des groupes feraient reference, avec les categories de sacre pur et impur. Ce sacre se presenterait sous la forme d'un syncretisme comprenant la combinaison de croyances amerindienne, bouddhiste et scientifique.  Deuxiemement, nous avons pose l'hypothese de la presence d'un  groupe qui constituerait une communaute de reference a cette forme symbolique de croyance syncretique. Troisiemement, il y aurait  presence d'un systeme de valeurs affirmant l'ordre sacre du monde,  l'unite de l'etre humain avec la nature, valeurs qui s'inspireraient de ce nouveau sacre en emergence. La recherche des indicateurs  pouvant nous aider a cerner le cadre du discours implicite sur le sacre et la decouverte de donnees verifiables, a necessite la realisation de deux demarches: theorique et empirique. La demarche theorique comprend, dans un premier temps, la recherche des sources historiques constituant le paradigme ecologique. Nous avons, a partir des indicateurs releves, cerne quelques  caracteristiques pouvant servir a la construction d'un type ideal. Dans un deuxieme temps, nous avons situe les enjeux du sacre en rapport avec les idees portees par le courant ecologiste. Dans la demarche empirique, nous avons procede a l'analyse d'un corpus comprenant des documents provenant des groupes environnementaux afin de trouver les indicateurs se rapportant au sacre et les valeurs qui y correspondent. La recherche sur le terrain a ete realisee au moyen de l'outil d'enquete aupres de seize  personnes provenant de cinq groupes de la region.

1233.   Gainer, B. J. (1979). The Catholic missionaries as agents of social change among the Metis and Indians of Red River: 1818-1845. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Carleton University (Canada).

1234.   Gallerneault, R. T., 1912- . (1972).  Saulteaux legends. Saskatoon: Indian and Northern Education Program, University of Saskatchewan.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

1235.   Gallo, J. C., Thomas, E., Novick, G. E., & Herrera, R. J. (1997). Effects of Subpopulation Structure on Probability Calculations of DNA Profiles From Forensic PCR Analysis. Genetica (Dordrecht), 101(1), 1-12.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: DNA typing for forensic identification is a two-step process. The first step involves determining the profiles of samples collected at the crime scene and comparing them with the profiles obtained from suspects and the victims. In the case of a match that includes the suspect as the potential source of the material collected at the crime scene, the last step in the process is to answer the question, what is the likelihood that someone in addition to the suspect could match the profile of the sample studied? This likelihood is calculated by determining the frequency of the suspect's profile in the relevant population databases. The design of forensic databases and the criteria for comparison has been addressed by the NRC report of 1996 (National Research Council, 1996). However, the fact that geographical proximity, migrational patterns, and even cultural and social practices have effects on subpopulation structure establishes the grounds for further study into its effects on the calculation of probability of occurrence values. The issue becomes more relevant in the case of discrete polymorphic markers that show higher probability of occurrence in the reference populations, where several orders of magnitude difference between the databases may have an impact on the jury. In this study, we calculated G values for all possible pairwise comparisons of allelic frequencies in the different databases from the races or subpopulations examined. In addition, we analyzed a set of 24 unrelated Caucasian, 37 unrelated African-American, and 96 unrelated Sioux/Chippewa individuals for seven polymorphic loci (DQA1, LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, GC, and D1S80). All three sets of individuals where sampled from Minnesota. The probability of occurrence for all seven loci were calculated with respect to nine different databases: Caucasian, Arabic, Korean, Sioux/Chippewa, Navajo, Pueblo, African American, Southeastern Hispanic, and Southwestern Hispanic. Analysis of the results demonstrated marked differences in the probabilities of occurrence when individuals were compared to the different populations and subpopulation databases. The possible genetic and forensic consequences of subpopulation structure on probability calculations are discussed.

1236.   Gannett, W. B. (1984). The American invasion of Texas, 1820-1845: patterns of conflict between Settlers and Indians. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Cornell University.
Abstract: The thesis examines the conflicts between the Indian peoples of Texas and the American settlers who came to Texas from 1822 to 1845. Particular emphasis is placed upon the different cultures of the Texas Indian peoples and how, in turn, these differences affected relations with the intrusive white population. The organizing principle used to classify the Indian cultures is ecological. Within the geographical expanse of Texas, there were four major environmental zones within each of which lived Indian groups that derived their subsistence in similar ways. The hunter-gatherer Karankawa and Atakapa Indians lived on the deltaic coastal plains; the Cherokee, Shawnee, Alabama and Coushatta practiced sedentary horticulture in the East Texas woodland region; the semi-nomadic Waco, Tawakoni, Lipan, Tonkawa, Keechi, transitional Caddo, and Toweash farmed and hunted on the grassland prairies; and the nomadic Comanche and Kiowa ruled the plains. The pattern of subsistence gathering among each of these groups affected not only the relative size of each group, but also their political and cultural organization. When American settlers began legally to migrate to Texas after 1822, they sought to establish a capitalist agricultural export society. Since ownership of the land itself was necessary for development, the whites fought with the different Indian groups to establish control over farming land. Disputes over possession of each of the environmental regions of Texas occasioned different types of warfare to further different white objectives. Initially, the whites fought with the coastal Indians for control of the coastline and water transportation routes of Texas. Because of the small numbers of coastal Indians and their inability to escape from the whites, by 1845 the settlers had largely exterminated these Indians. While fighting with the coastal Indians, the Americans allied with the woodland Indians to fend off attacks from the Indians to the west. However, as the white settlements grew, Americans began to covet the land settled by their putative allies, and in 1838 the whites drove these Indians from Texas. Instead of extermination or expulsion, conflict with the prairie and plains Indians throughout this period led to an uneasy state of truce. In 1845, the settlers could not use the arid lands upon which these Indians lived, and the whites desired only security from raids.

1237.   Garden, P. (1956). Young Brave Algonquian. New York: Little, Brown and Company.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:95), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "Good description of the Algonquian tribes during the 1650's.  Grades 4-6."

1238.   Garrad, C. (1987). Michabous and the colonel's white beaver. Beaver, 67(1), 50-55, ill.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1239.   Garrad, C. (1986). Some notes on the Chippewa of Beaver Islands in Lake Michigan. Arch Notes, 86(3), 35-38.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1240.   Garrett, P. C. Lake Mohonk Conference .
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1241.   Garrioch, A. C. Rev.  (1886). Manual of devotion in the Beaver Indian  language. London: Society for Promoting Christian  Knowledge.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

1242.   Garrioch, A. C., 1848-1934. (1885). A vocabulary of the Beaver Indian language : consisting of Part I Beaver-English, Part II English-Beaver- Cree . London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

1243.   Garro, L. C. (1991). Consultations With Anishinaabe (Ojibway) Healers in a Manitoba Community. Arctic Medical Research, (Suppl.), 213-216.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

1244.   Garro, L. C. (1990). Continuity and Change: the Interpretation of Illness in an Anishinaabe (Ojibway) Community. Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry, 14(4), 417-454.
Notes: Source: UnCover database (Aug 1999)
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search
Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Rich descriptions of Anishinaabe medical knowledge and the cultural meanings associated with illness are available in the anthropological literature, especially in the writings of A.I. Hallowell. Most of this work is based on fieldwork carried out prior to 1940 and was often motivated by a desire to reconstruct the pre-contact situation. Since that time, there have been numerous changes affecting health status and health care. This paper examines lay medical knowledge in a contemporary Canadian Anishinaabeg community, with particular attention to change and continuity in the way people explain and respond to the occurrence of illness.  (Abstract by: Author)

1245.   Garro, L. C. (1988). Culture and High Blood Pressure: Understandings of a Chronic Illness in an Ojibwa Community. Arctic Medical Research, 47(Suppl. 1), 70-73.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

1246.   Garro, L. C. (1988). Explaining high blood pressure--variation in knowledge about illness. American Ethnologist, 15(1), 98-119.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXXIV (1992:115)

1247.   Garro, L. C. (1995). Individual or Societal Responsibility? Explanations of Diabetes in an Anishinaabe (Ojibway) Community. Social Science & Medicine, 40(1), 37-46.
Notes: Source: UnCover database (Aug 1999)
Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: In recent years, many aboriginal communities in North America have experienced increasing rates of maturity onset diabetes. This paper is based on interviews held with individuals diagnosed with diabetes in an Anishinaabe community in Manitoba, Canada, The varying ways people account for their own case of diabetes and the increase in diabetes generally are described. Although people talk about diabetes as a result of individual dietary choices, much of the discourse links diabetes to environmental and societal changes. [References: 28]

1248.   Garro, L. C. (1996). Intracultural Variation in Causal Accounts of Diabetes - a Comparison of Three Canadian Anishinaabe (Ojibway) Communities. Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry, 20(4), 381-420.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: This paper presents a methodological approach for examining variation and consensus both within and between research settings and for addressing issues of generalizability and replicability. The comparison is based on how individuals diagnosed with diabetes and living in three Canadian Anishinaabe (Ojibway) communities explain diabetes and talk about their responses to the illness. Two kinds of interview format are used - an open-ended explanatory model type interview and a more structured, true-false, interview, amenable to analysis with cultural consensus theory. The responses given in both interviews converge on a set of explanations which can be found in all three communities, although differences occur in how these explanations are framed and emphasized. Implications of these differences and how these accounts relate to how individuals respond to diabetes are discussed. It is argued that the analysis of both interview formats leads to a deeper and more finely nuanced representation of understandings about causes of diabetes across the three communities than could be achieved by using one alone. [References: 27]

1249.   Garro, L. C. (1988). Resort to Folk Healers in a Manitoba Ojibwa Community. Arctic Medical Research, 47(Suppl. 1), 317-320.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

1250.   Garro, L. C. (1991). Ways of Talking About Illness in a Manitoba Anishinaabe (Ojibway) Community. Arctic Medical Research, (Suppl.), 226-229.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

1251.   Garte, E., & et al. (1984). The circle of life: cultural continuity in Ojibwe crafts. Duluth, MN: St. Louis County Historical Society.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)
Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXX (1987:30)

1252.   Garte, E. J. (1985). Living tradition in Ojibwa beadwork and quillwork. Papers, Algonquian Conference, (16), 9-24.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1253.   Garver, J. B. (1991). National Geographic Magazine.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1254.   Gast, A. D. Jr. (1975). The impact of the fur trade upon Chippewa-American culture and education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University.

1255.   . (1965). C. M. Gates (editor), Five Fur Traders of the Northwest : being the narrative of Peter Pond and the diaries of John Macdonell, Archibald N. McLeod, Hugh Faries and Thomas Connor  . St. Paul : Minnesota Historical Society Press.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 7394751

1256.   Gates, C. M. (Charles Marvin), 1904-1963. (1935). The Lac Qui Parle Indian mission. Minnesota History, 16, 133-151, pl., (ports.), facsim.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 19117975. Signed: Charles M. Gates. One of several stations that constituted the Dakota mission, supported by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.

1257.   Gedicks, A. (Resource wars in Chippewa country). (1984). J. G. Jorgensen (editor), Native Americans and energy development II  (pp. 175-193). Boston: Anthropology Resource Center.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1258.   Gedicks, A. (1993). The New Resource Wars: Native & Environmental Struggles Against Multinational  Corporations.  South End Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1259.   Geertz, C. (1994). Az ertelmezes hatalma: antropologiai irasok. Budapest: Szazadveg.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1260.   Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures: selected essays. New York: Basic Books.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1261.   Geisler, P. (1984). Parapsychological anthropology: I. Multi-method approaches to the study of psi in the field setting. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 78(4), 289-330. 141 refs.
Notes: Source: Parapsychology Abstracts International, Dec 1986:12
Abstract: The scope and nature of research in a new interdisciplinary science, parapsychological anthropology, is introduced.  The historically "one-sided" methodological models for researching psi and psi-relevant activities in the field setting in non-Western cultures and the predominantly ethnographic or predominantly experimental (ESP/PK testing) models are reviewed.  The paper aims at advancing the present methodological models employed in parapsychological antghropology by proposing a multi-method apprach in which improved and more psi-directed and culturally relevant versions of the standard ethnographic and intrusive experimental methods are utilized in a mutually complementary fashion.  In addition, a new integrative method, "psi-in-process," is introduced.  The psi-in-process approach studies ostensible paranormal functioning in a natural cultural or subcultural context with the rigor of experimental control and statistical evaluation, yet without (or minimally) altering or disturbing the context.  it is concluded that the psi-in-process method supplemented by ethnographic data on a particular psi-related activity, its actors, and its relationship to the greater cultural milieu affords a more holitic portrayal of psi and the psychocultural conditions under which it occurs.  This paper (Part I) concludes with the foundational material for a second (Part II), where the research with the Afro-Brazilian shamanic cult of Umbanda will be reported.  Part II will serve both to illustrate in detail an application of the psi-in-process approach proposed here and to substantiate some of the principal multi-methodological considerations delineated. --DA

1262.   General Federation of Women's Clubs. Public Welfare Dept. Indian Welfare Division. (1930). Prize essays on traditional background of the Indians . New York : Hanau Press.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 7346901
Abstract: Cover title. The Gros Ventres tribe of the Blackfoot Nation / Julia E. Schultz -- The Indians of Wisconsin / Mary Moran Kirch -- The Minnesota Indian / Ida J. Hitchcock -- Ceremonies of the Teton Dakota / Mrs. W.K. Williams -- The history, traditions and culture of the Indians of South Dakota / Florence D. Youngquist -- The legend of the Battle of Claremore Mound, Oklahoma / Rachel Caroline Eaton -- Indians of New Mexico / Gertrude E. Reid.

1263.   Gerein, H. J. H. (1998). Community wellness in the northwest territories: indicators and social policy (government change, political self determination, aboriginal, land claims). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Gonzaga University.
Abstract: The communities of Canada's Northwest Territories and its territorial government are struggling with rapid economic, social, political, and technological change in a region which is sparsely populated, largely Aboriginal, and very poor. Each community is committed to improving the condition of the population while also making progress towards economic self-sufficiency and political autonomy. The perspectives and cultural backgrounds of the four principal populations--Inuit, Dene, Metis, and Euro-Canadianand the views of the legislature and its professional bureaucracy must be harmonized and a common language developed in order to produce appropriate public policy and maximize the use of scarce financial resources. As a foundation for the development of a common language about community, the researcher sought to define a healthy northern community and develop an instrument for the measurement of community wellness. A definition of community wellness and its measures composed a draft instrument derived from the literature on quality of life, sustainable community, healthy community, and moral community movements, as well as northern public policy documents. Designed for adaptation, application, and maintenance at the local and regional levels, the Community Wellness Instrument and its output, a wellness index, were based on available administrative and publicly collected statistics. The instrument is a tool--a means by which the Northwest Territories government and its communities can assess community socio-economic condition, gain insights to causal relationships, and mutually design policies and intervention strategies that will optimize effectiveness and the building of a more just society. The researcher used focus groups to validate and revise the draft instrument. The study measures the condition of the Territories' 58 communities, using the Instrument and statistical analyses to examine the relationships between socio-economic indicators; the differences among the communities based on their size, population composition, and administrative region; and to identify the best predictors of the Community Wellness Index. The project's findings and conclusions include implications of community wellness measurement and reporting to political accountability, policy-making, bureaucratic organization, and administrative practice in Canada's north along with recommendations for change and further study.

1264.   Gerould, W. G., 1885- . (1918). Improvement of the upper Mississippi River : a bibliography . Bulletin of the Affiliated Engineering Societies of Minnesota. Annual Edition, 3(12).
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search) ... accession: 11265803.  Affiliated Engineering Societies of Minnesota. Bulletin.
Abstract: Reprint from The Bulletin of the Affiliated Engineering Societies of Minnesota, annual edition, v. 3, 1918. General works, arranged by date.--Waterways : Minnesota and Red River of the North waterway. Waterway from Lake Superior to the Mississippi River. Waterway from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi River, Wisconsin route ; Illinois route. Hennepin canal. Terminals and water-front improvement.--Water-power development : Reservoirs. St. Paul and Minneapolis lock and dam. Keokuk lock and dam. Engineering miscellany.-- Maps.

1265.   Gerrish, T., 1846-1923.  (1887). Life in the world's wonderland : a graphic description of the great Northwest, from St. Paul, Minnesota, to the land of the midnight sun : descriptions of the old Indian battle fields, with sixty splendid engravings . Biddeford, Me.  Press of the Biddeford Journal.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 6258203

1266.   Gerson, C. (1997). Nobler savages: representations of native women in the writings of Susanna Moodie and Catharine Parr Traill. Journal of Canadian Studies, 32(2), 5 (17).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract:  As immigrant newcomers, Susanna Moodie (Roughing It in the Bush, 1852) and Catharine Parr Traill (The Backwoods of Canada, 1836; "A Visit to the Camp of the Chippewa Indians," 1848; Canadian Crusoes, 1852) represent First Nations Canadians in relation to the stereotype of the Noble Savage. In their accounts of Native women they develop an experiential mode of discourse that communicates both their genuine engagement with the Other and their projection of their own otherwise unarticulable concerns as women and mothers.
Author's Abstract: COPYRIGHT 1997 Trent University (Canada)

1267.   Gerstenberger, S. L., Tavris, D. R., Hansen, L. K., Pratt, S. J., & Dellinger, J. A. (1997). Concentrations of Blood and Hair Mercury and Serum PCBs in an Ojibwa Population That Consumes Great Lakes Region Fish. Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 35(4), 377-386.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: Objective: This paper describes an exposure assessment of an American Indian population using blood and hair samples as indicators of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl exposure from the consumption of fish taken from the Great Lakes region. Methods: Questionnaires regarding fish consumption were completed by 89 Ojibwa tribal members. Mercury concentrations were determined in human hair and blood samples, and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were determined in serum. Results: Fish were consumed at the highest rates in April, May, June, and July. Lake trout, whitefish, and walleye were the preferred fish consumed by 91.4% of the respondents. Concentrations of blood mercury were all below 55 mu-g/L (ppb), while concentrations of mercury in hair were all less than 3 mg/L (ppm). Hair mercury concentrations were correlated with the previous year's fish consumption (p = .05). Dental amalgams and blood mercury concentrations were also significantly correlated (p lt .002). Serum polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations, determined as the sum of 89 congeners, were all below 9.6 ppb total polychlorinated biphenyls. Subject age and total serum polychlorinated biphenyls were correlated (p lt .001). Conclusions: The concentrations of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in this Ojibwa population were relatively low, but several individuals were identified as having elevated concentrations and additional testing may be warranted. Since the accumulation of contaminants was related to fish consumption and age, a long-term monitoring program that assesses chronic exposure to fish diets would be beneficial.

1268.   . (1900). A. T. GesnerIndian missions. Pt. 1  3rd ed. ed., ). Hartford, Conn.  Church Missions Pub. Co.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 19725653. Cover title: Indian. "December 1900"--Cover

1269.   Ghezzi, R. W. (1990). Ways of speaking: an ethnopoetic analysis of Ojibwe narratives (Native American, Jones). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Abstract: The present study examines nine texts from the collection of Ojibwe narratives transcribed by William Jones during the years 1903-1905 primarily in the region north of Lake Superior. I have included five texts of one narrator whose stories are strongly represented in Jones' collection. For comparison, I have also analyzed one text each of four other storytellers whose narratives Jones included. The purpose of my study is to examine the field work of William Jones (giving credit to Truman Michaelson's careful editing) and, through the analysis of patterns found within the narratives, offer a further presentation of these nine texts that both clarifies their original transcriptions and revives their fundamental intentions. In my analysis of each of the nine texts, I have initially changed the presentation of the narrative from a prose form into a line, or poetic, one in order to facilitate recognition of persistent patterns inherent within the texts. The final analysis of each text includes a version in 'measured verse'  (Hymes, 1981, ch. 4) in both Ojibwe and English, an analysis of the patterns found within the narrative and a profile which lists in table form the major divisions and initial markers of a text at a glance. Following the analyses of all nine texts, an in depth discussion of the persistent patterns found within Ojibwe narratives from this sample concludes the study. As with any literary criticism, no single analysis is the final word on the form or meaning of a particular text. Instead, each new inquiry must learn from and extend prior insights. The present analysis attempts to do just that. By using these nine examples of texts from Jones' collection, I have discovered significant shared elements among the texts as well as important differences between them, elements that were not visible in Jones' prose transcriptions. Other more general aspects of the texts have also surfaced during my study which will add to the richness of our knowledge about Ojibwe narrative and narration as well as Native American literature in general.

1270.   Ghobashy, O. Z., 1924- . (1961). The Caughnawaga Indians and the St. Lawrence Seaway. New York: Devin-Adair.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

1271.   Ghostkeeper, E. N. (1996). 'Spirit Gifting': the concept of spiritual exchange (Metis, Alberta). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alberta (Canada).
Abstract: The aim of this work is to describe the value of the concept of spiritual exchange known as 'Spirit Gifting' (Mekiachahkwewin) among the Metis of Paddle Prairie, Alberta. This thesis will be addressed by describing a shift in livelihood between two separate time periods in the community. The first set of events takes place in the year 1960, where a pattern of livelihood involves a sacred relationship of living with the land. The second set of events occurs in the year 1976, which involves a secular relationship of living off of the land. This thesis emphasizes that changes in subsistence patterns caused some of the Metis of Paddle Prairie, including myself, to repress their sacred world view and the way they related with the land through spiritual exchange. In my own case, this resulted in a dissatisfaction so intense that it stimulated me to attempt to revitalize my repressed world view. I will conclude by attempting to frame what happened to me in anthropological perspective.

1272.   [Giago, T. (Ed.). (1988). The Ojibwe Times//Red Lake Times  Bemidji, Minn.  Native American Pub.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 17527056.  "Serving the Chippewa Nation and all Indian country." Description based on: Vol. 1, issue 33 (Wednesday, Jan. 27, 1988).  Alt Title: The Ojibwe times Times Red Lake times (DLC)sn 93050508.

1273.   [Giago, T. (Ed.). (1987). The Red Lake Times//Ojibwe Times (Vols. Vol. 1, issue 1 (June 17, 1987)-v. 1, issue 31 (Jan. 13, 1988).). Bemidji, Minn.  Native American Pub. Inc.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 17606283.  "Serving the Chippewa Nation and all Indian country."  Alt Title: Ojibwe times 0897-4977 (DLC)sn 88000072

1274.   Gibson, K. R., Molohon, K. T., & Thames, M. E. (1991). Mating patterns and genetic structure of two native North American communities in northern Ontario. Papers, Algonquian Conference [Ottawa], 8(22), 145-156.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1275.   Gilats, A. S. (1997). American Indian lives, lands and cultures: the story of an intercultural educational travel program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Union Institute.
Abstract: This is a true story about the issues, challenges, problems, and processes associated with conceiving, constructing, delivering, and sustaining an educational program of study tours in Indian America aimed at adult lifelong learners. It is a story of engagement, collaboration, exchange, trial, error, and reflection as told by a non-Indian educator working within a large public university. It recounts a search for approaches and working methods in which (1)  partnership and dialogue with tribal communities shape program content, presentation, and faculty selection, (2) power and control are shared in order to preserve cultural integrity and dismantle stereotypes both in tribal communities and the academy, (3) tribal communities and their members take authority for deciding which aspects of their cultures are shared with outsiders and how and where that sharing takes place, and (4) the resulting programs further these communities' economic, cultural, and political goals for tourism. This story is written with the intention that the research, thought, and feeling that inform it will improve and enrich the educational program that is its subject, and that it will be useful to tribal communities and educational institutions that wish to develop similar educational and cultural programs. There is an artifact associated with this story. This artifact is American Indian Lives, Lands, and Cultures (AILLC), a program of study tours 'owned' and operated by the University of Minnesota. The goal of this program is to broaden and deepen knowledge about continuity and change in American Indian cultures by providing a variety of tourist-students access to historical Indian lands and contemporary tribal communities, and opportunities to learn from living American Indian educators, scholars, artists, and elders. This story is complemented, countered, and contextualized with quotations from  American Indian writers, artists, and philosophers, and with excerpts from the author's visual and written travel journals.

1276.   Gile, M. A. (1996). The thunderbird and underwater panther in the material culture of the Great Lakes Indians: symbols of power. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.
Abstract: Symbols/images of the thunderbird and the underwater panther within the material culture of the Ojibwa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi were investigated from pre-contact to contemporary times to determine possible changes in form and meaning. Additionally the human ecological concept of part and whole was explored in relation to these images. A search of primary documents, artifactual and photographic sources, and interviews with Anishnabeg artists and elders yielded information that was analyzed for changes over time and related to concurrent cultural influences. The study concludes that these two images have been expressed in a variety of material culture and yet remain a traditional cultural expression. Certain elements of each image remain uniform over time, although the medium employed may somewhat change its form. Meanings about these symbols are varied, yet a generally consistent view about the nature of each remains. Part and whole analysis reveals a continuing Anishnabeg world view that all life, at all levels, is connected in one unified totality.

1277.   . (1878). J. A. J. A. Gilfillan, 1838-1913The Indian deacons at White Earth .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 14379559. Title from caption.

1278.   Gilfillan, J. A. (1998). The Minnesota Trouble. in I. C. Barrows (editor and rept.), Proceedings of the sixteenth annual meeting of the Lake Mohonk Conference of Friends of the Indian  (pp. 18-27 [includes discussion]). [Philadelphia]: The Lake Mohonk Conference.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:47)

1279.   Gilfillan, J. A. (1902). Ojibwa Characteristics. Southern Workman, 31, 260-262.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:47)

1280.   Gilfillan, J. A. (1901). The Ojibways in Minnesota. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society, 9, 55-128.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:47)

1281.   Gillan, K. A., Hasspieler, B. M., Russell, R. W., Adeli, K., & Haffner, G. D. (1998). Ecotoxicological Studies in Amphibian Populations of Southern Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research , 24(1), 45-54.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: In order to evaluate the relative exposure and stress of environmental contaminants on amphibian populations of Southern Ontario, two species of frogs, Rana pipiens and Rana clamitans, were collected from nine sites and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Sediment samples were also collected, and analyzed for PCBs, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were calculated for PCBs and pesticides at all sites for both species of frogs. BSAFs ranged from 33.28 +- 16.16 to 1.06 +- 0.0 for leopard frogs and from 23.02 +- 7.89 to 0.42 +- 0.0 for green frogs. Sediment extracts were further tested for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on a leopard frog embryo cell line. The Neutral Red Uptake bioassay was used to measure cytotoxicity and a DNA break bioassay was used to test genotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was evident in four of the nine sites, Cornwall, Brighton, Ancaster, and Ojibway, at 200 g sediment equivalents per liter of culture medium. Genotoxicity, expressed as F-values, ranged from 0.921 +- 0.052 to 0.975 +- 0.004, indicating that sediment extracts were not causing significant genotoxic stress.

1282.   Gilliland, F. D., & Key, C. R. (1998). Prostate Cancer in American Indians, New Mexico, 1969 to 1994 [See Comments].  Journal of Urology, 159(3), 893-7.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search.  Discussion 897-8, 1998 Mar.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer as well as the leading cause of cancer death among American Indian men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To describe further the occurrence of prostate cancer among American Indian men, we examined population based incidence, treatment, survival and mortality data for American Indians in New Mexico during the 25-year period 1969 to 1994. RESULTS: Although American Indian men have a lower risk of prostate cancer than nonHispanic white men, the incidence and mortality rates are rising for American Indians, and mortality rates are now equal to those for nonHispanic white men. During the 25-year period age adjusted incidence rates for American Indians increased from 42.2/100,000 (95% confidence interval 27.1 to 57.3) to 64.6/100,000 (95% confidence interval 46.2 to 83.0). The burden of prostate cancer among American Indian men compared with nonHispanic white men was reflected in disproportionately high mortality rates in relation to incidence rates. The mortality rates were high because American Indian cases were more advanced at diagnosis, 23.3% of prostate cancers were diagnosed after distant spread had occurred compared with 11.6% for nonHispanic white men and the 5-year relative survival rate was poorer (57.1% compared with 77.6% for nonHispanic white men). CONCLUSIONS: Effective and culturally sensitive cancer control efforts for prostate cancer in American Indian communities are urgently needed.  (Abstract by: Author)

1283.   Gilman, C., 1954- . (1986). Coming home. Roots, 14(3), special issue, "On the Reservation".
Notes: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 13709117
Abstract: Title from cover. Coming home / by Carolyn Gilman -- "Places where I've lived" / by Paulette Fairbanks Molin -- Laurel Hole In the Day / by Gerald Vizenor -- Portrait of Red Lake / photos by Charles Brill -- Digging deeper, branching out / by Stephen Sandell

1284.   . (1987). C. Gilman, 1954- The way to independence : memories of a Hidatsa Indian family, 1840-1920  . St. Paul : Minnesota Historical Society Press.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 15657245. Includes index. Bibliography: p. [353]-362. Other: Schneider, Mary Jane.

1285.   Gindhart, F. X. (Clerk of Courts). (1990). Miscellaneous Docket No. 288, filed with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1286.   Giroux, S. S. (1997). The experiences that contributed to the attrition decisions of Lac du Flambeau high school students (Wisconsin, Chippewa, dropout). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Abstract: Chippewa elders and tribal council members at Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin were concerned that the economic prosperity and future cultural longevity of their tribe could be in jeopardy as a result of the very high attrition phenomena among their high school youth. According to Valliere (1990), the high school attrition rate among younger members of the Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Indians varied between fifty-three percent and seventy-three percent (53%-73%) over the past decade. The purpose of this study was to  help others understand the lived experiences of Chippewa high school students as they left the reservation (a majority learning environment) to attend public high school off the reservation (a minority learning environment) and also what events transpired that contributed to their attrition decisions. As part of this qualitative study, interview sessions with six Chippewa youths (three males and three females between the ages of 16 and 20) along with their parents or guardians were conducted on the Lac du Flambeau reservation in the fall of 1993. Other secondary resources and documents were examined for purposes of corroborating the testimonies of those individuals who had terminated their secondary education. In analyzing the content of the testimonies, ten primary  patterns and themes emerged. These included the effects of racism, fear, severe punishment, political and spiritual issues and peer pressure. A dichotomy existed between lighter and darker-skinned Indians. While most Chippewa families were profoundly committed to education, labeling, tracking, and sorting devices contributed to their sense of shame and an erosion of their cultural identity.  Domestic issues and family concerns burdened young Chippewa students. Internal strife among members of the Chippewa community itself served to further alienate young people from their educational or career pursuits. Though alternative education  programs on the reservation contributed significantly to the graduation accomplishments of Chippewa youths, these were discontinued due to a lack of funding. Though many Indian families prefer to have their children integrate academically and socially into  the predominantly all-white high school off the reservation, others have called for the construction of an Indian high school on the  reservation.

1287.   Gittelsohn, J., Evans, M., Story, M., Davis, S. M., Metcalfe, L., Helitzer, D. L., & Clay, T. E. (1999). Multisite Formative Assessment for the Pathways Study to Prevent Obesity in American Indian Schoolchildren. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69(4 Suppl. S), 767s-772s.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: We describe the formative assessment process, using an approach based on social learning theory, for the development of a school-based obesity-prevention intervention into which cultural perspectives are integrated. The feasibility phase of the Pathways study was conducted in multiple settings in 6 American Indian nations. The Pathways formative assessment collected both qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data identified key social and environmental issues and enabled local people to express their own needs and views. The quantitative, structured data permitted comparison across sites. Both types of data were integrated by using a conceptual and procedural model. The formative assessment results were used to identify and rank the behavioral risk factors that were to become the focus of the Pathways intervention and to provide guidance on developing common intervention strategies that would be culturally appropriate and acceptable to all sites. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69(suppl):767S-72S. [References: 39]

1288.   Gittelsohn, J., Harris, S. B., Burris, K. L., Kakegamic, L., Landman, L. T., Sharma, A., Wolever, T. M. S., Logan, A., Barnie, A., & Zinman, B. (1996). Use of Ethnographic Methods for Applied Research on Diabetes Among the Ojibway-Cree in Northern Ontario. Health Education Quarterly, 23(3), 365-382.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: Biomed (Cinahl) electronic database, Fall 1999 search. (57 Ref)
Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Abstract: This article presents the results of applied ethnographic research aimed at developing a community-based diabetes prevention program in an isolated Ojibway-Cree community in northern Ontario. Using qualitative techniques, the authors describe diabetes in its sociocultural context and underlying belief systems that affect related activity and dietary behaviors. Local concepts of food and illness are dichotomized into 'Indian' and 'white man's' groupings, with Indian foods perceived as healthy and white man's foods felt to be unhealthy. Diabetes is believed to result from consumption of white man's 'junk foods' (sugar, soda); some believe the disease can be avoided by eating traditional Indian foods such as game animals (moose, beaver, duck). While dietary linkages to diabetes are recognized, physical activity as a means of controlling obesity and decreasing the risk for diabetes is not part of the local ethnomedical model. This information is being used to develop culturally appropriate health education interventions.  (Abstract by: Author)

1289.   Gittelsohn, J., Harris, S. B., Zinman, B., Thorne-Lyman, A. L., Hanley, A. J. G., & Barnie, A. (1996). Body Image Concepts Differ by Age and Sex in an Ojibway-Cree Community in Canada. Journal of Nutrition, 126(12), 2990-3000.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [full text available]
Abstract: Community-based studies of body image concepts can be useful for developing health interventions to prevent obesity-related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease in specific populations. First Nations peoples, in particular, face increased obesity-related health problems as a result of acculturative changes in diet and activity. This study examined body shape perception in an Ojibway-Cree community in Northern Ontario, Canada. A set of figure outline drawings ranging from very thin to very obese were used to examine perceived body shape, body shape satisfaction and ideals of healthiness across sex and age groups. Overall, only 16% of the population were satisfied with their current body shape. People with a higher body mass index (BMI) were less satisfied with their bodies and thought they were less healthy than people with a lower BMI. While females had a significantly greater BMI than males, males and females did not differ significantly in perception of current body shape. On the other hand, females desired relatively smaller body shapes than males (P < 0.05). Older people chose significantly larger healthy body shapes than did younger people (P < 0.05). Differences between our results and those reported for Anglo populations indicate that while both groups prefer body shapes smaller than those they have currently, the Ojibway-Cree tend to prefer relatively larger body shapes. Knowledge of age and sex-related patterns of body image concepts in communities can assist in the design of obesity-reducing interventions targeting specific groups.  (Abstract by: Author)

1290.   Glanville, A. E. (Amos Edward), 1833-1916. (1988). I saw the ravages of an Indian war : a diary . Leoti, Kan.  J. Granville.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 18410422. Other: Glanville, John K. Glanville, Carrol G.

1291.   Glaser, P. H., Wheeler, G. A., Gorham, E., & Wright, H. E., Jr. (1981). The Patterned Mires of the Red Lake Peatland, Northern Minnesota, USA: Vegetation, Water Chemistry and Landforms. Journal of Ecology , 69(2), 576-600.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Red Lake Peatland in northern Minnesota covers an area of about 80 times 15 km which is uninterrupted by streams or uplands and consists of a vast patterned complex of raised bogs and water tracks. IR photography and LANDSAT imagery were used to examine their interrelationships. The major types of vegetation of the Red Lake Peatland were determined subjectively by the Braun-Blanquet method and are characterized by different water chemistry. The importance of surface drainage in the maintenance of mire patterns is suggested by the localized effects of drainage ditches on the vegetation and landforms. IR aerial photographs and LANDSAT imagery indicate that water flow is channelled across broad surfaces of peat to initiate the development of water tracks, bog drains, and islands that have an ovoid, horseshoe or teardrop shape.

1292.   Glaz, K., 1931- . (1988). Indian greetings from Caughnawaga  . Toronto : Toronto Center for Contemporary  Art.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
Twenty-eight photos. of paintings and drawings by K. Glaz,  mounted on boards.

1293.   Glubock, S. (1964). The art of the North American Indian. New York: Harper and Row, Publishers.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:91), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "A treatment of the full range of American Indian art.  Many photos give interest to a young reader."

1294.   Goc, M. J. (1995). The Chippewa County Chronicle.  The New Past Press, Incorporated.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1295.   "God". (1943). The four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles. St-Boniface: Oblate Fathers.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search)
Abstract: Bible. N.T. Gospels & Acts. Saulteaux

1296.   "God". (1886). The gospel according to St. Mark [Bible. N.T. Mark. Tsattine]. London: British and Foreign Bible  Society//Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

1297.   "God". (1974). The Gospel of Mark in Northern Ojibway (Saulteaux) and English (TEV). Toronto: Canadian Bible Society.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search).  Title page and text in Northern Ojibway and English. On spine: Mark

1298.   "God". (1957). The Holy Bible, King James Version.  William Collins and Co., Ltd.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
licensed "in terms of the Letters of Patent granted by Her late Majesty Queen Victoria ... dedicated to the most high and mighty Prince, James, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Etc. ...,"

1299.   . (1976). "God"Jii la Jesus Christ eh wajich uujuu . South Holland, Ill.//Weston, Ont.  World Home Bible League//Canadian Home Bible League.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
"The Good News of Jesus Christ as recorded by Mark in the language of the Beaver Indians of British Columbia and Alberta." Added cover title: Mark adeshtl'ish. Translated by M. and J. Holdstock. United Bible Societies language: Beaver.

1300.   Goddard, P. E., 1869-1928. (1916). The Beaver Indians. New York: The Trustees, American Museum of Natural History.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
Bibliography: p. 293

1301.   Goddard, P. E., 1869-1928. (1917). Beaver texts, Beaver dialect. New York: The Trustees, American Museum of Natural History.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

1302.   Godwin, L. H., Smith, B. D., United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Division of Energy and Mineral Resources , & Northwest Mining Association (U.S.). (1995). Mineral resources of the Red Lake Band of the Chippewa Indians of Minnesota. [Golden, Colo.] : U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Division of Energy and Mineral Resources.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 33041126. At head of title: Northwest Mining Association. ... accession: 34360471

1303.   Goeman, T. J. (1991). Walleye mortality during a live-release tournament on Mille Lacs, Minnesota. North American Journal of Fisheries Management , 11, 57-61, bibl., il.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota Biological & Agricultural Index [electronic database], Fall 1999 search

1304.   . (1979). M. Gofas, & H. T. HooverReminiscences of Maxine Gofas, Mdewakanton Community of Prior Lake, Minnesota .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 23179970

1305.   Goldstein, B. (1967). Low Income Youth in Urban Areas.  Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:102), "Bibliography"

1306.   Gollnick, W. A. (1990). The Reappearance of the Vanishing American. The College Board Review, 155, 30.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Abstract: They live in Boston, Omaha, and Las Vegas, as well as Narragansett, Fond du Lac, and Warm Springs, Although they are the First Americans, their interests have often come last.

1307.   Gonzales, D. J. (1990). Because of the blood in the water: a novel (original novel). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Abstract: 'Because of the Blood in the Water: A Novel' is a dissertation with creative component. The scholarly portion consists literary research pertaining to the idea of land as motif in emergent American Indian literature. N. Scott Momaday's House Made of Dawn, Leslie M Silko's Ceremony, James Welch's Winter in the Blood, Gerald Vizenor's Darkness in Saint Louis Bearheart, and Ignatia Broker's Night Flying Woman serve as representative literary works, emphasizing the land and spirituality. The research is based on American Indian cultural perspectives distinguishing land as a living, holy entity from land as real estate and private property. The creative component is a novel set in the Middle East. Two American Indian mixedbloods travel, making a film of the Arab world. The male character is a filmmaker, and the female character is his girlfriend from Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwa Indian Reservation in northern Wisconsin. They film the conflict between the Israelis and Palestinians after the British withdraw from Palestine and the Palestinians are displaced in Lebanon, Syria, and other Arab countries. The novel ends with the return of the two characters to the United States. They end their journey of consciousness at the Lac Courte Oreilles Reservation. A final drama occurs between the two characters, a scenario of death and life questions, a drama of love between them. The male character leaves the reservation after attempting to murder his girlfriend's lover. He continues his journeying west, never to return.

1308.   Gonzalez, P. (1992). Ojibwa Women and Marriage From Traditional to Modern Society. Wicazo Sa Review, 8(1), 31.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1309.   Gonzalez, V. G. (1995). Breaking points and the role of the print visual in public service communication campaigns. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.
Abstract: This study explores the nature and use of the print visual in public communication campaigns. The work is based on interviews with persons responsible for the planning and execution of those campaigns and documentation found largely in the files of public agencies and the library of Michigan State University. Official posters, booklets and brochures, the visual focal points of the study, are also among the sources cited in this work. The study describes, interprets and analyzes the printed visual within the context of campaigns of the Michigan Travel Bureau, the Native American Institute of Michigan State University, the Office of Minority Equity of the State Department of Education and the Michigan Office of Substance Abuse Services. The research provides insights into the complexity of the print visual, demonstrating that the strength of a message is based not upon the number of visual elements, but the coherence of its parts, including composition and color, and its appropriateness to a given target audience. In so doing, the work reveals that the visuals reflect either a harmony of effort or a series of inconsistencies within the production process. The work notes,  especially, the presence of gaps, or breaking points, in the development of the visuals. The study defines and describes those points and analyzes their relationship to the creation of the visual message. The study draws upon the literature of mass communication, journalism and advertising, particularly as they relate  to public service campaigns, in describing the campaign process and in determining ways to judge the roles and effectiveness of the visual components. The literature of art and art education provide insights into the nature and aims of a variety of visuals. The study proceeds within an analytical framework in delineating the visual from concept  to construction. The work offers judgments regarding the effectiveness of the print visual in the four campaigns and renders conclusions as to the role of breaking points in those outcomes.

1310.   Good, E. R. (1996). Crown-directed colonization of Six Nations and Metis land reserves in Canada (Ontario). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Saskatchewan (Canada).
Abstract: This study focuses upon contact between British-Canadian, Aboriginal and Mennonite colonists' systems of property. Both Aboriginal peoples and Mennonites sought to maintain within the British-Canadian state their own areas of civil jurisdiction, including distinct property systems. They gained de facto civil autonomy at first, but eventually the British-Canadian state presumed to define their property rights according to British-Canadian law. Aboriginal peoples' property rights, secured by promises from the Crown, gradually wore incorporated into the British-Canadian property system as usufructuary interests which could be converted into fee simple estates only at the discretion of the Crown. Mennonite property rights, derived from Crown grants, immediately were incorporated into the British-Canadian property system as fee simple estates which were enforceable against all parties including the Crown. The systematic enforcement of British (later Canadian) property rights, against competing Aboriginal property rights, ultimately led, by 1848, to the dislocation in Upper Canada (today's Ontario) of the Six Nations from the Grand River Valley; and in what is now southern Manitoba, to the dislocation of Metis people from the Red River Valley by 1878. The provincial governors/lieutenant-governors ensured that Aboriginal peoples' dislocation occurred without resort to the degree of bloody armed conflict that characterized Aboriginal-newcomer relations in the American Northwest. So long as the Six Nations in Upper Canada and the Metis people in Red River/Manitoba held the balance of military power, provincial governors/lieutenant-governors recognized Aboriginal property rights secured by prior agreements. The Six Nations and Metis people consequently exercised their military power consistently in favour of the Crown because they believed that their interests could best be promoted by enforcing prior agreements through this channel. Thus, at every flashpoint in the periods under investigation--whenever they might have united with newcomers in opposing imperial/dominion control of the administration of 'Crown' lands--the Six Nations and Metis people forestalled such action and prevented an American-style revolution from taking place in Canada.

1311.   Good, E. R., 1958- . (1995). Mississauga-Mennonite relations in the Upper Grand River Valley . Toronto, Ont.  The Ontario Historical Society.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
Caption title. Offprint from: Ontario history, 87, no. 2 (June 1995). Includes bibliographical references (p. 170-172).

1312.   Goodspeed, W. A., 1852-1926. (1904).  The province and the states : a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom ... Madison, Wis.  Weston Historical Association.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 17250598 ... accession: 2717088
Abstract: v. 1-2. General history -- v. 3. Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Indian territory -- v. 4. Missouri, Kansas, Colorado -- v. 5. Iowa, Nebraska, Wyoming -- v. 6. Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota -- v. 7. Biography.

1313.   . (1979). J. Goodthunder, 1899- , & H. T. HooverReminiscences of Joe Goodthunder, Mdewakanton Community of Prior Lake, Minnesota .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 23179978

1314.   Gordon, E. W., & Wilkerson, D. A. (1966). Compensatory Education for the Disadvantaged.  College Entrance Examination Board.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:102), "Bibliography"

1315.   . (1979). E. Gorham, & H. E. Wright (Minnesota Peat Program), Ecological and floristic studies of the Red Lake peatland : final report to Peat Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources  . [St. Paul] : Minnesota Department of Natural Resources .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).

1316.   Gorman, P. W., & Paquin, M. T. (1992). A Minnesota Lawyer's Guide to the Indian Child Welfare Act. Law & Inequality : a Journal of Theory and Practice, 10(2/3), 311.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1317.   Gough, B. M. (1984). Gunboat Frontier: British Maritime Authority & Northwest Coast Indians,1846-1890.  University of Washington Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1318.   Gourdeau, C. (1992). Marie de l'Incarnation et ses pensionnaires Amerindiennes (1639-1672): transferts culturels et acculturation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Universite Laval, Canada.
Abstract: L'arrivee des Ursulines francaises a Quebec en 1639 marque le debut de l'instruction des filles en Amerique du Nord. A la demande des Jesultes, la superieure-fondatrice Marie de l'Incarnation et ses deux compagnes viennent convertir a la foi catholique les jeunes Amerindiennes qui leur seroni confiees. Les religieuses, qui effectuent l'aller-simple pour le Canada, amenent avec elles leur culture francaise et catholique. Aussitot debarquees, elles reintegrent leur couvent. C'est a l'interieur de cet espace clos qu'elles entreront en contact avec les femmes du Nouveau Monde. Deux univers completement etrangers l'un a l'autre se rencontrent alors. Par la qualite des sources qui en temoignent, l'experience vecue par Marie Guyart de l'Incarnation aupres de ses pensionnaires amerindiennes au monastere de Quebec constitue un riche terrain pour l'etude de l'interaction culturelle entre Europeens et Amerindiens au XVIIe siecle. La rencontre es Ursulines avec les Amerindiennes, c'est la rencontre de l'Europe avec l'Amerique, un choc culturei a tous les niveaux pour deux groues de femmes que rien ne prepare a vivre ensemble. Notre recherche porte sur la nature des echanges culturels entre les religieuses et leurs pensionnaires amerindiennes au monastere de Quebec et la maniere dont ces echanges furent recus chez l'un et l'autre groupe.

1319.   Gouveia, G. M. (1995). Chippewa Child Life and Its Cultural Background - Hilger,Mi. Journal of the West, 34(1), 110.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

1320.   Gouvela, G. M. (1994). "We Also Serve": American Indian Women's Role in World War II. The Michigan Historical Review, 20(2), 153.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1321.   Governor's Human Rights Commission. (1965). Minnesota's Indian citizens, yesterday and today.  State of Minnesota.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:98), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 4843025. Cover title.
Abstract: "Very usuable section on the history of the Indians of Minnesota."

1322.   Governor's Statewide Indian Conference(3rd : 1959 : Bemidji State College. (1959). Summary of proceedings, Third Governor's Statewide Indian Conference, September 11-12, 1959, Bemidji State College, Bemidji, Minnesota. St. Paul?: Governor's Human Rights Commission.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 13829454

1323.   Governors' Interstate Indian Council. Meeting (11th : 1958 : Saint Paul, Minn.). (1958). Report of the Governor's [i.e. Governors'] Interstate Indian Council eleventh annual meeting : St. Paul, Minnesota, October 9, 10, 11, 1958. Saint Paul? Minn.  Governors' Interstate Indian Council .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 12620289. Caption title.

1324.   Gower, C. W. (1972). The CCC Indian Division : aid for depressed Americans, 1933-1942 . Minnesota History, 43(1), 3-13, ill. Includes bibliographical references.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 19387936

1325.   Graber, L. C. (1949). Henry Mower Rice: fur-trader and Indian agent, 1842-1849. Archive/Manuscript Control.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 19415848

1326.   Grabowski, J. (1994). The common ground: settled natives and French in Montreal, 1667-1760. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Canada.
Abstract: The present study is an attempt to understand and explain the ambiguous relationship that came into existence between the French colonists and Indians settled in Montreal in the closing decades of the seventeenth century and persisted until the fall of the French regime. The phenomenon of Indian-White contacts in an urban setting has largely escaped historical scrutiny. Owing to the precarious political and military situation of New France, its feeble French population and a significant number of settled Indians, the  latter enjoyed a unique status. Despite the fact that the Indians settled in the Montreal area were officially considered French subjects, the reality belied the letter of the law. On the one hand, the authorities created a system of exemptions that enabled the domicilies to break French laws with impunity. On the other, the habitants strived to establish a common ground of their own, developing a framework of trade, business and personal relationships that bridged the gap between the two groups. The size of the native population established close to the French settlements had a crucial importance for the development of the common ground between the two societies. The national composition of native villages also played a significant role in colonial relationships. The domicilies formed a significant part of the total population of the Montreal district. Their communities, although on several occasions weakened by the impact of epidemics, were able to maintain their population thanks to frequent migrations. More importantly, the number of warriors in Indian villages outnumbered by far the garrison of Montreal. The fourth and fifth chapters deal with French criminal procedure and its application in cases involving the domicilies. Our research in the judicial archives points to the fact that, in order to accommodate the natives, the authorities created a system of exemptions that amounted to nothing less than a 'parallel'  justice. Few domicilies charged with an offense were ever convicted. Since practically all registered crimes allegedly committed by natives occurred under influence of alcohol, the judicial and executive officials focused on French liquor-traders and did not prosecute the Indians. Chapter VI analyses the liquor trade in Montreal and its impact in the creation of the common ground between Europeans and Amerindians. It appears that the liquor-trade was a significant economic factor for numerous French families and that all strata of the colonial society took part in this highly profitable exchange. Chapter VII examines the meaning and significance of the 'illegal' fur trade between New France and the English colonies for the common ground established between the French and the Indians. Despite numerous ordinances expressly  forbidding the transport of furs to the south, the domicilies continued  to engage in this inter-colonial trade throughout the period. Chapter VIII traces the evolution and the deepening of the common ground in the area of inter-personal relations between the members of Indian and White societies. The habitants strived on their own to reach a modus vivendi with the domicilies. Frequent contacts and common pursuits resulted in an increased awareness of the other.  The habitants spoke Indian languages, knew native traditions and and were aware of the different spiritual world of their native  neighbours. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

1327.   Grafe, S. L. (1999). The origins of floral-design beadwork in the southern Columbia River plateau (Washington, Oregon). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of New Mexico.
Abstract: For over a century, Native American artists of the southern Columbia River Plateau have embroidered seed beads onto personal accessories and garments using a variety of floral compositions. Some observers have speculated that these designs emerged as local Indian people saw decorated objects belonging to those Great Lakes and Woodlands Indians who were employed in the Columbia River fur trade. Credit for the origins of the style has also been assigned to the Cree, Ojibwa, and Métis wives of fur company employees. While Plateau scholars have argued that regional floral design began in response to intrusive Native influences, researchers have concluded that throughout other areas of Native North America, indigenous floral decoration appeared in the wake of westward Euroamerican expansion. Few eastern Indians were actually present in the Plateau after 1810 and they were persons of little influence. These men generally married local Indian women and few eastern Indian women ever visited the region. An exhaustive search of museum collections reveals that Eastern peoples seldom used floral designs before the 1840s. From a stylistic perspective, pre-1840 embroidered articles from the Woodlands and Great Lakes would not have prompted other groups to produce floral imagery. The visual and material records also reveal that floral designs were first used by the Nez Perce, Palouse, Walla Walla, Cayuse, Umatilla, and Yakima peoples during the 1860s. The adoption of this new iconographic system occurred only after seed beads became readily available and after these same groups began to actively interact with growing numbers of Euroamericans. Regional white settlement began in earnest after 1840 and the presence of European and American trade items also increased. Commercially produced and homemade Euroamerican manufactures of this period were frequently adorned with floral motifs. The decoration of these items shares stylistic affinities with the earliest regional examples of Indian-made floral embroidery. The southern Plateau floral style was first practiced by persons residing in reservation communities. Initial examples of regional floral art may thus reflect an Indian identity that was being redefined as it responded to acculturation pressures and the realities of interracial coexistence.

1328.   Graff, P. A. (1965). Squanto: Indian adventurer. Champaign, Illinois: Garrard Publishing Company.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:92), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "The aid of Squanto rendered to the first English settlers is the setting of this story.  Grades 3-6."

1329.   Grafstein, A. (1989). Disjoint reference in a 'free word order' language. Theoretical Perspectives on Native American Languages  (pp. 163-175). Albany: State University of New York Press.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1330.   Grafstein, A. J. (1985). Argument structure and syntax in a non-configurational language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, McGill University (Canada).
Abstract: This thesis is an attempt to develop a model for the interpretation of thematic relations in the Algonquian language, Ojibwa. Ojibwa is a language with an extremely rich derivational and inflectional morphology and a highly flexible word order. The analysis developed in this thesis is based on the assumption that an adequate grammar of Ojibwa should reflect the fundamental role of the morphology in encoding thematic relations. A model of Ojibwa phrase structure is proposed which is similar to the model already developed by Hale (1982a,b) for Walbiri and by Farmer (1980) for Japanese. Within this model, lexical items are inserted in random order under category-neutral terminal nodes. An algorithm is then formulated which accounts for how nouns, which appear in random order in syntactic phrase markers, are associated with lexically-specified verbal argument positions. According to this algorithm, a noun in a syntactic phrase marker is associated with a verbal argument position when its features match the features specified by the verbal inflections which refer to that argument position.

1331.   Graham, E. L. (1951). An analysis of the errors made in standardized achievement tests by Indian children in grades six, seven, and eight in Becker county, Minnesota . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Colorado State College of Education, Division of Education.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 8040517

1332.   Grand, B. (1968). American Indians: yesterday and today. New York: E.P. Dutton and Company.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:91), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "An alphabetically arranged encyclopedia designed as a reference and history.  Each entry is compact and describes the lore, legends, history, beliefs, food, customs and the characteristics of all known tribes.  Some biographies of Indian leaders and chiefs are included.  Many references to the place locations in America that have Indian names."

1333.   Grand General Indian Council (7th : 1882 : near Hagersville, Ont.). (1883). Minutes of the 7th Grand General Indian Council held upon the New Credit Indian Reserve, near Hagersville, Ontario, from September 13th to September 18th, 1882.  Hagersville Book and Job Rooms.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

1334.   . (1993). H. C. Grandy, & H. T. Rubin, 1926-Tribal court-state court forums : a how-to-do-it guide to prevent and resolve jurisdictional disputes and improve cooperation between tribal and state courts  . Williamsburg, Va.  National Center for State Courts.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 27187492

1335.   Grant, B. H. (1995). Spirituality and sobriety: the experience of alcohol use and abuse among the Menominee Indians of Wisconsin (substance abuse). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Catholic University of America.
Abstract: This study explored cultural meanings of alcohol use and abuse among the Menominee Indians of Wisconsin, and analyzed their interrelationships within historical, community, and clinical contexts. It employed a conceptual framework that integrated several analytic concepts to understand their cultural experience of alcohol use. These included revitalization movements, symbolism, and explanatory models. Fieldwork proceeded in three phases. Phase I focused on the Menominee community and involved open-ended interviews and participant-observation of a wide range of tribal activities. Phase II involved in-depth, semi-structured interviews with sixteen key informants. These focussed on identifying a broad range of alcohol-related concerns among community members. Phase III focused on the Menominee alcohol treatment center. A sample of twenty-one adult Menominee clients receiving outpatient services was interviewed to elicit perceptions of alcohol use and abuse. Client interviews utilized the Explanatory Model Interview Catalog (EMIC), an instrument designed to explore cultural models of illness. Thematic analysis of field notes and symbolic analysis of transcribed key-informant interviews were performed. Groups of quantitative variables from client interviews were also analyzed. Lastly, relevant historical sources were analyzed. Findings revealed that perceptions of alcohol use and abuse are linked to concepts of Menominee cultural identity. Spirituality emerges as a central characteristic that influences beliefs and behaviors about sobriety. Historically, alcohol use was associated with various sacred experiences among Menominee Indians. Today, it is the abstinence of alcohol that is strongly associated with spirituality. Sobriety has assumed powerful symbolic value as a sign of personal renewal, which is seen as vital to tribal revitalization. These cultural meanings of sobriety are increasingly accepted among contemporary Menominee Indians and strongly associated with efforts to reclaim the values of traditional tribal life. The spiritual aspects of a client's life must therefore be carefully weighed at each stage of treatment planning and implementation in order to achieve effective outcome. Future research should focus on exploring ways to systematically assess the impact of the symbolic and social world on Indian alcoholics, including ways to understand the historical and cultural complexities that shape their experience of illness.

1336.   Grant, G. M., 1835-1902. (1882). Picturesque Canada; the country as it was and is. Toronto: Belden bros.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).  O'Brien, L. R. (Lucius Richard), 1832- 1899
Abstract: Paged continuously. Vol. 1 has added t.-p., and imprint: Art Publishing Co. v. 1. Quebec: Historical review, by G. M. Grant. Quebec, picturesque and descriptive, by A. M. Machar. French Canadian life and character, by J. G. A. Creighton. Montreal, by A. J. Bray and J. Lesperance. The lower Ottawa, by R. V. Rogers and C. P. Mulvany. Ottawa, by F. A. Dixon. The upper Ottawa, by C. P. Mulvany. Lumbering, by G. M. Grant and A. Fleming. The upper lakes, by G. A. Mackenzie. The North-west: Manitoba, by G. M. Grant; Red river to Hudson's bay, by R. Bell; The Mennonites, by J. B. McLaren; Winnipeg to Rocky mountains, by G. M. Grant. The Niagara district, by Louise Murray. Toronto and vicinity, by G. M. Adam.--v. 2. From Toronto westward, by J. H. Hunter. From Toronto to lake Huron, by A. Kemp and G. M. Grant. Georgian bay, and the Muskoka lakes, by G. M. Adam. Central Ontario, by J. H. Hunter. Eastern Ontario, by G. M. Grant and A. M. Machar. South-eastern Quebec, by J. H. Hunter. The lower St. Lawrence and the Saguenay, by J. G. A. Creighton. New Brunswick, by C.G.D. Roberts, Nova Scotia, by R. Murray and Mrs. A. Simpson. Cape Breton, by R. Murray and J. McLennan. Prince Edward island, by R. Murray. British Columbia, by G.M. Grant.

1337.   . (1936). J. C. B. Grant, 1886- Anthropometry of the Beaver, Sekani, and  Carrier Indians . Ottawa: J. O. Patenaude, printer.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

1338.   Grant, P. (1890). The Sauteux Indians about 1804. in L. F. R. Masson (editor), Les Bourgeois de la compagnie du Nord-Ouest Vol. 2 (pp. 303-366). Quebec: Imprimerie Générale A. Coté.
Notes: Source: Human Relations Area Files Index, Category NG6 "[as of July 1, 1975]", identified as "(M)", page 2, item 19
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:47)

1339.   Grant, U. S. (1898). The international boundary between Lake Superior  and the Lake of the Woods . in Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. Volume VIII.    St. Paul, Minn.: The Minnesota Historical Society.
Notes: Source: PALS online catalog (October 1999 search)
Abstract: The international boundary between Lake Superior  and the Lake of the Woods / by Ulysses Sherman Grant -- The settlement and  development of the Red River Valley / by Warren Upham -- The discovery and  development of the iron ores of Minnesota / by N.H. Winchell -- The origin  and growth of the Minnesota Historical Society / by Alex. Ramsey -- Opening  of the Red River of the North to commerce and civilization / by Russell Blakeley -- Last days of Wisconsin territory and early days of Minnesota  territory / by Henry L. Moss -- Lawyers and courts of Minnesota prior to  and during its territorial period / by Charles E. Flandrau -- Homes and  habitations of the Minnesota Historical Society / by Charles E. Mayo -- The  historical value of newspapers / by J.B. Chaney -- The United States  government publications / by D.L. Kingsbury -- The first organized  government of Dakota / by Samuel J. Albright -- How Minnesota became a  state / by Thomas F. Moran -- Minnesota's ! northern boundary / by Alexander N. Winchell -- The question of the sources  of the Mississippi River / by E. Levasseur. The source of the Mississippi / by N.H. Winchell --  Prehistoric man at the headwaters of the Mississippi River / by J.V. Brower  -- Charter members of the Minnesota Historical Society and its work in 1896  / by Alex. Ramsey -- History of agriculture in Minnesota / by James J. Hill  -- History of mining and quarrying in Minnesota / by Warren Upham --  History of the discovery of the Mississippi River and the advent of  commerce in Minnesota / Russell Blakeley -- Reminiscences of persons and  events in the early days of the Minnesota Historical Society / by William  H. Kelley -- Fort Snelling from its foundation to the present time / by  Richard W. Johnson -- Sully's expedition against the Sioux, in 1864 / by  David L. Kingsbury -- State-building in the West / by Charles E. Flandrau

1340.   Grant, V. (1991). Users' Guide to the Round Lake Study Database with special attention to
Sandy Lake. Papers, Algonquian Conference [Ottawa], 22(182-192).
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search, English Summary

1341.   Grauer, L. (1993). In the camp of Big Bear: narrative representations of the Frog Lake uprising, 1885 (Saskatchewan). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto (Canada).
Abstract: In April, 1885, as the Riel rebellion was beginning, the Plains Cree of Big Bear's band took armed action in the village of Frog Lake and at Fort Pitt, Saskatchewan. This study explores the narrative representation of that action and surrounding events, examining the personal accounts of seven men and women held captive by the Cree at that time. They include the popular history and adventure story of The War Trail of Big Bear, by W. Bleasdell Cameron, trader turned writer; the captivity narratives Two Months in the Camp of Big Bear, by Theresa Gowanlock and Theresa Delaney, newcomers from Ontario who dedicated their text to 'Our Sisters, the Ladies of Canada'; the reminiscences of Hudson's Bay Company official William J. McLean, Chief Trader at Fort Pitt, and those of his daughters Kitty and Elizabeth McLean; and the picaresque account by Metis Louis Goulet recorded in his memoirs L'espace de Louis Goulet. These form a context for the examination of Rudy Wiebe's novel The Temptations of Big Bear (1973), and its transformations of these historical writings. The study investigates the origins, perspectives, narrative forms and strategies of these texts, which together constitute a complex colonial discourse constructing the Cree uprising. By origins, I mean the texts' conditions of production (material and social); by perspectives, the cultural and gender positions involved; by narrative forms and strategies, the generic influences (literary or non-literary) that can be traced in the different accounts. The thesis illuminates the diverse range of narrative forms and signifying practices which these writers take up in their efforts to construct history and story. What is said about the Cree uprising in historical accounts has as much to do with the narrative form employed as it does in fictional accounts. The effect of different narrative structures is apparent even among the 'non-literary' accounts. And resemblances appear between the 'historical' account of Cameron and the 'fictional' one of Wiebe in their common use of classic realist techniques.

1342.   Gray, N. (1998). Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment With American Indian Adolescents. [Review] [42 Refs]. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 15(5), 393-399.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Substance abuse among American Indian adolescents is a serious problem that frequently continues into adulthood. Therefore, it is important to investigate all potential means of prevention and treatment of substance abuse that might improve the physical and psychological health it undermines. This paper examines the prevalence of substance abuse and its potential relationships with physical/emotional trauma or loss that occurs in American Indian adolescents' lives. The possible benefits of addressing trauma and posttraumatic stress as means of enhancing treatment is explored. An example of residential treatment that involved a focus on trauma and loss is included.  (42 Refs)  (Abstract by: Author)

1343.   Gray, R. A. (1994). Theological Responses to Environmental Decline: An Annotated Bibliography. RSR: Reference Services Review, 22(3), 69.
Notes: Source: UnCover database (Aug 1999)
Abstract: The threat of ecosystemic collapse imposes an obligation on public policy framers to take all possible actions to avert catastrophe. But theologians in particular cannot evade the same duty if they are to be faithful to their reason for being. In as much as the defining task of theologians is to devise convincing imagery of divine intentions toward man and the ecosystem, divine judgement on man, and human responsibilities toward God and the ecosystem, they cannot remain silent when confronted as they are with humanity's grim ecological prospects. Nor have they remained silent. In this article, Gray reviews a 1967 article by Lesley White, in which he assigned major responsibility for the current ecological crisis to the Judeo-Christian heritage and its "subdue the earth" philosophy. Gray's article continues with critical responses to White's article and a two-part annotated bibliography: on Lesley White and his critics; and on current thinkers who have made significant progress in constructing an ecocentric theology to substitute for the theology that White found to be unacceptable environmentally.

1344.   Gray, S. E. (1994). Limits and Possibilities: White-Indian Relations in Western Michigan in the Era of Removal. The Michigan Historical Review., 20(2), 71.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1345.   Gray, S. E. (1997). The Ojibwa world view and encounters with Christianity along the Berens River, 1875-1940 (First Nations, Ontario). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Manitoba (Canada).
Abstract: Conversions and the taking on of Christianity had multi-dimensional meanings and were interpreted in a myriad of different ways by Ojibwa people living along the Berens River between 1875 and 1940. Christian rituals and practices were integrated into the Saulteaux world view in ways that were controlled by and meaningful to the participants. Today, both Christian and Ojibwa ideas are interwoven in the lives of Berens River residents. Both strands hold power, meaning and sincerity. There is no doubt that aspects of Christianity sustain many in their daily life and it is equally true that many of the same people's beliefs remain grounded in such Ojibwa concepts as the Thunderbirds, the power of medicine men and conjurors (terms still used at Berens River when people speak in English) and the use of dreams as vehicles of prediction, guidance and foreshadowing. Ojibwa people living along the Berens River experienced and still live a deep, dynamic and complex religion based on the power of belief and yet which is adaptive and flexible. New ideas arriving in their midst, such rituals as the Dream Drum Dance, have often been welcomed if seen as valuable. Contrary to the assumptions of generations of Westerners, the Saulteaux employed empiricism and critical thinking at deep levels. The ability to incorporate outside ideas into an existing world view does not imply an inability to think empirically nor does it suggest a superficial belief system. In positive encounters with Christianity, native people along the Berens River were influenced by a number of factors. These included a wish for literacy and Western education and technical resources, a desire to understand the Bible as a source of potentially helpful and beneficial messages, added divine protection from illness and other crises, protection against bad medicine, access to Western medicine and added dimensions and powers to existing ones derived from traditional ones such as rituals. Where mission efforts were successful in these communities, it was usually as a result of the sustained presence of a devoted missionary who stayed long enough to achieve respect and earn trust. By the late nineteenth century, most Berens River Ojibwa were second generation Christians; thus a tradition and loyalty had been established among families. Christianity, however, was not always accepted out of hand. Lack of support by missionaries, lack of agreement with the lessons taught to children in schools, or lack of need to take on aspects of a new religion and lack of respect by a missionary for sacred Ojibwa rituals could all yield cold responses. Clearly, native people were in control of making choices hereit was they who decided when and how they would or would not accept Christianity.

1346.   Gray, T. (1974). The Indian trials in Minnesota, 1862-1864 . Long Prairie, Minn : T. Gray.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 3767937

1347.   Grayson, D., 1870-1946. (1941). Native American the book of my youth . New York : Scribner's.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October, 1999 search)

1348.   Great Britain. (1957). Treaty no. 3 between Her Majesty the Queen and the Saulteaux tribe of the Ojibbeway Indians at the northwest angle on the Lake of the Woods, with adhesions. Ottawa: E. Cloutier, Queen's Printer.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)

1349.   Great Britain. Treaties. (1875). Copy of treaty and supplementary treaties made 20th and 24th September, 1875, between Her Majesty the Queen and the Saulteaux and Swampy Cree tribes of Indians at Beren's River and Norway House. Canada.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search)

1350.   Great Britain. Treaties, etc., 1837-1901 (Victoria). (1874). Copy of treaty no. 4 and supplementary treaty made 15th and 21st September, 1874, between Her Majesty the Queen and the Cree and Saulteaux tribes of Indians at Qu'Appelle and Fort Ellice. Ottawa.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search)

1351.   Great Britain. Treaties, etc., 1837-1901 (Victoria). (1957). Treaty no. 5 between Her Majesty the Queen and the Saulteaux and Swampy Cree tribes of Indians at Beren's River and Norway House, with adhesions. Ottawa: E. Cloutier, Queen's Printer.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search)

1352.   Great Britain. War Office. Intelligence Division. (1870). Notes on the routes from Lake Superior to the Red River, and on the settlement itself ... : notes relating to the transport of troops, &c.  London: Printed at the War Office.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search). ... accession: 13852952: At head of title: Confidential. Original wrappers. Tables of distances: p. 7-16. ... accession: 21889245.

1353.   Treaty with the Chippewa, September 30, 1854. (1994). Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission A Guide to Understanding Chippewa Treaty Rights  . Odanah: GLIFWC [Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission].
Notes: Source: cited by Loew, Patty (Fall 1997)

1354.   Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council. (1976). The overall economic development plan for the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Red Cliff Reservation, Red Cliff, Wisconsin /prepared by Great Lakes Inter Tribal Council and Red Cliff Overall Economic Development Committee. [Bayfield, Wis.] : Red Cliff Overall Economic Development Committee.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 21838293

1355.   Great Northern Railway Company (U.S.). (1896). Red lake reservation and Red River Valley, Minnesota. [St. Paul?], Minn.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 21540690.  Cover title.

1356.   Greater Minneapolis Council of Churches. Division of Indian Work (Ed.). (1981). Vision on the Wind [Newsletter of the Minneapolis Division of Indian Work]//Wig-i-Wam  (Vols. Oct. 1981-). Minneapolis, Minn.  Division of Indian Work.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 8963141

1357.   Greater Minneapolis Council of Churches. Division of Indian Work (Ed.). (197u). Wig-i-Wam (Vols. v. 1- 197 -). Minneapolis, Minn.: Division of Indian Work.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 6188776

1358.   Green, J. D. (1993). The Chippewa.  Franklin Watts Incorporated.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1359.   Green, J. (1996). After Wounded Knee: Correspondence of Major & Surgeon John Vance Lauderdale While Serving with the Army Occupying the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, 1890-1891.  Michigan State University Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1360.   Greenberg, A. M. (1985). Game conservation and native peoples in northern Ontario. Cultural Survival Quarterly, 9(1), 26-30, il.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1361.   Greenberg, A. M., & A Morrison, J. (1982). Group identities in the boreal forest: the origin of the Nothern Ojibwa. Ethnohistory, 29(1-4), 75-102.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXIX (1986:51)
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1362.   Greenberg, A. M. (1978). Adaptive responses by an Ojibwa band to northern development. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University.

1363.   Greenberg, J. H., Turner G. C. =II, & . Zegura, S. L. (1985). Convergence of Evidence for the Peopling of the Americas. Collegium Antropologicum, 9(1), 33-42.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Linguistic, dental, and genetic evidence are concordant with the hypothesis that there were three major pre-European New World migrations which can be identified in terms of a linguistic classification as Amerind, Na-Dene, and Aleut-Eskimo.  The problems of relative and absolute chronology raised by this hypothesis are discussed in a framework provided by recent summary interpretations of early New World prehistory.

1364.   Greenblatt, S. J. (1991). Marvellous possessions: the wonder of the new world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1365.   Greene, J. D., & Hewitson, J. Manabozho's Gifts: Three Chippewa Tales .
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [book review]
Abstract: Gr. 4-7 younger for reading aloud. Incorporating elements from Algonquin, Menominee, and Ojibwa legends, Greene introduces the shape-shifter hero Manabozho, known as Nanbozho, Hiawatha, or Manabush in similar tales. The philosophy of living in harmony with nature that is central to Manabozho's adventures combines the appeal of pourquoi tales, magic, and talking animals. In these three stories, Manabozho becomes a rabbit to bring fire to his people, learns to cultivate wild rice during a vision quest, and restores the balance of nature when the animals ignore the disappearing wild rose. Complemented by dramatic black-and-white stylized illustrations, reminiscent of scratchboard or woodcuts, Greene's adaptations are accessible to independent readers yet contain evocative phrasing that marks them as good read-alouds for any age group. The bibliography and source notes provide both young and adult readers with material to extend their study of Manabozho.
Full Text COPYRIGHT American Library Association 1995

1366.   Greenholt, H. R. (1937). A study of Wilhelm Loehr, his colonies and the Lutheran Indian missions in the Saginaw valley of Michigan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Chicago.

1367.   Greenlund, K. J., Valdez, R., Casper, M. L., Rith-Najarian, S., & Croft, J. B. (1999). Prevalence and Correlates of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome Among Native Americans - The Inter-Tribal Heart Project. Diabetes Care, 22(3), 441-447.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The clustering of factors characterizing the insulin resistance syndrome has not been assessed among Native Americans, a population at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We examined the distribution and correlates of the insulin resistance syndrome among individuals in three Chippewa and Menominee communities in Wisconsin and Minnesota. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 488 men and 822 women ages > or = 25 years in the Inter-Tribal Heart Project (1992-1994) were included. The clustering of each individual trait (hypertension, diabetes, high triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol) with the other traits and the association of the number of traits with measures of adiposity and insulin levels were examined. RESULTS: Among the men, 40.4, 32.6, 17.4, and 9.6% had none, one, two, or at least three of the four traits, respectively; among the women, the respective percentages were 53.2, 25.6, 15.3, and 6.0%. The percentage of individuals with each particular trait significantly increased (P < 0.01) among those with none, one, or at least two other syndrome traits. Having more syndrome traits was significantly related (P < 0.001) to higher BMI, conicity index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip and waist-to-thigh ratios. Among individuals with normal glucose levels, having more syndrome traits was significantly related (P < or = 0.05) to higher fasting insulin levels after adjusting for age and measures of adiposity, although associations were attenuated with adjustment for either BMI or waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: Traits characterizing the insulin resistance syndrome were found to be clustered to a significant degree among Native Americans in this study. Comprehensive public health efforts are needed to reduce adverse levels of these risk factors in this high-risk population.  (Abstract by: Author)

1368.   Greenman, E. F. (1940). Chieftainship among Michigan Indians. Michigan History, 24, 361-379.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:47)

1369.   Greenwood, D. (1994). Buildings green [CIESIN]. Blueprints, 12(1), 9-12.
Notes: Source: U of M architecture bibliographic database (October, 1999 search). 
Abstract: On the design of a new facility for Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network on Ojibway Island in Saginaw, Mich.  Architects: Smith, Hinchman & Grylls

1370.   Greer, S. (1995). Lighting the 7th Fire. Winds of Change : a Magazine for American Indians, 10(4), 134 .
Notes: Source: UnCover
Abstract: This educational film takes a tough look at the overt acts of persecution inflicted upon the Chippewa fishermen from sportfishing constituencies, despite treaty rights.

1371.   Gregorich, B. (1995). John Olson and His Barnstorming Baseball Teams. Michigan History, 79(3), 38.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Abstract: In the 1890s Watervliet's John B. Olson Jr. and his two teams--the Cherokee Indian Base Ball Club and the Chicago Star Bloomers--entertained crowds across the country.

1372.   Gregory, S. A. (1993). A validation and comparative study of kinetic family drawings of Native American children (family perceptions). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Andrews University.
Abstract: Problem.  Research on how Native American (NA) children draw their families and how perceptions of their families are reflected in their family drawings is lacking. The purpose of the study was (1) to validate the Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD) as an appropriate instrument for use with this population, and (2) to compare Native American and Caucasian children's KFDs. Method. The KFD and Semantic Differential Scales were administered to 52 Native American children from the Potawatomi and Iroquois tribes, ages 6-14. A matched sample of 104 KFDs of Caucasian children from Southern; Michigan was used for comparison. The data were analyzed by multiple regression, t-tests, and analysis of variance. The value of alpha was set at.05. Results. (1) The Semantic Differential obtained significant correlations with the KFD. Family pictures drawn with the child outside, a higher level of activity of mother and self, mother and self involved in less nurturing activities, fewer barriers between mother and self, and less direct physical orientation between figures correlated with a higher rating of family relationships. (2) Statistically significant differences were found between the KFDs of Native American and Caucasian children, although the mode scores for both groups were identical for all KFD variables related to action, physical, position, and style characteristics. (3) Some differences were found between the KFDs of children differing in proportion of Native American ancestry and attendance rate at NA cultural events, although these differences were not the same for both groups. No differences were found relating to birth order. Differences between NA and Caucasian females and males were noted. The majority of the pictures were free from KFD style characteristics; over 67% drew all the figures  facing forwards.  Conclusions. The findings of this study indicated that the KFD is a valid instrument for use with this population if cultural and mainstream societal trends are considered in the interpretation. Even though differences were apparent between Native American and Caucasian children, Native American children from this sample might have be exhibiting a more acculturated picture than other minority groups. Generalizability was limited due to a self-selected, small sample size.

1373.   Grewe, J. M. (1970). Dental Arch Dimensions in Children of Varying Chippewa Indian Ancestry. Journal of the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, 25(2), 96-103.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

1374.   Grewe, J. M., Cervenka, J., Shapiro, B. L., & Witkop, C. J., Jr. (1968). Prevalence of Malocclusion in Chippewa Indian Children. Journal of Dental Research, 47(2), 302-305.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

1375.   Gribb, W. J. (1983). The Grand Travers Band's land base: a cultural historical study of land transfer in Michigan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.
Abstract: The land holdings of the Native American have dwindled substantially since their contacts with Europeans. This study is an investigation of the Grand Traverse Bands' land holdings as prescribed in the Treaty of Detroit, July 31, 1855. The treaty provided for the allotment of eighty acre parcels to; the heads of households, widows, and single adults over the age of twenty-one. Five major questions were addressed in relation to the transfer of the Grand Traverse Bands' holdings: (1) What were the methods by which the Grand Traverse Bands' transfered their allotments? (2) Was there a difference between the methods of transfer experienced by the Euro-Americans and those experienced by the Native Americans? (3) If the land was sold, did the Native American  receive a fair market price for the parcel? (4) How long did the Native American keep the fee simple title? And, was there any difference between the length of time the Native American kept the title and the Euro-American in the same area? And, (5) Was there a correlation between the length of time the Native American kept the allotment and the land value or potential land value? Archival research revealed that the Grand Traverse Bands' members received 20,040.73 acres in allotments. Four methods of transfer were experienced, 77.4% transfered by warranty sale, 3.2% by tax sale, 18.8% by quit claim sale, and over .6% by administrative sale. Using a random sample, there was a statistically significant difference between the selling price received by the Native American ($3.31) and that received by Euro-Americans ($6.95). Furthermore, the Native American kept their land only 6.4 years compared to over eleven years for the Euro-American. Finally, there was no statistical relationship between the value of the land and the length of time the Native American held the land. Also, there was no significant statistical relationship between price or the length of time the land was held and distance to market. It was further revealed that forty percent of the allotments were obtained by sixteen local entreprenuers, and they tended to acquire land juxtaposed to their other holdings.

1376.   Gridley, M. E. 1. (1936). Indians of today. Chicago: Indian Council Fire.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:102), "Bibliography"
republished, several editions

1377.   Grieger, M. (1983). Zur mythologie der Odschibwä [On the mythology of Ojibwa]. Americana, Jahrg 3(4), 16-20.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1378.   Griffin, K. O., 1939- . (1973). Paleoecological aspects of Red Lake peatland, Beltrami County, Minnesota . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Ann Arbor, Mich. University Microfilms.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search)

1379.   Grigal, D. F. (1983). Impact of right-of-way construction on organic soil bulk density in the Red Lake Peatland. Canadian Journal of Soil Science , 63, 557-562, bibl., il.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota Biological & Agricultural Index [electronic database], Fall 1999 search

1380.   Grim, J. (1984). The shaman: patterns of Siberian and Ojibway healing. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXX (1987:217)

1381.   Grim, J. A. (1980). The shaman: an interpretation of this religious personality based on ethnographic data from the Siberian tribes and the Woodland Ojibway of North America. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Fordham University.

1382.   Gringhuis, R. H. [published as Dirk Gringhuis]. (1972). Indian costume at Mackinac: seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. in Mackinac Island State Park CommissionMackinac History Vol. 2, Chap. leaflet 1, ). Mackinac Island, MI: Mackinac Island State Park Commission.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:48)

1383.   Grinnell, I. H. (1967). The Tribal Government of the Oglala Sioux of Pine Ridge, South Dakota.  University of South Dakota, Governmental Research Bureau.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1384.   Groarke, C. (1988). Letters from Doig . Winnipeg: Queenston House.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

1385.   Grobsmith, E. S. (1981). Lakota of the Rosebud PB.  Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1386.   . (1959). M. D. Grosslein (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service), The goldeye, amphiodon alosoides (rafinesque), in the commercial fishery of the Red Lakes Minnesota  . Washington, D.C.  U.S. G.P.O.
Notes: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 15213597

1387.   Grover, J. Z. (1997). True north, magnetic north [review of North spirit: soujours among the Cree and Ojibway (1996), by Paulette Jiles]. Women's Review Of Books, 24(6), 5-6.
Notes: Source: Women’s Resources International [University of Minnesota onlinedatabas--Women’s Studies Database], August 29, 1999 search

1388.   Gryc, G. (1942). The Keweenawan geology of the Grand Portage Indian Reservation ... Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 17906963

1389.   Guilford, A. M., Scheverle, J., & Shirek, P. G. (1982). Manual Communication Skills in Aphasia... Acquisition and Use of American Sign Language and American Indian Gestural Code (Amerind). Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 63(12), 601-604.
Notes: Source: Biomed (Cinahl) electronic database, Fall 1999 search.  (14 Ref)
Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: The acquisition and use of American Sign Language (ASL) and American Indian Gestural Code (Amerind) were investigated in 8 (human) aphasic adults. Subjects received 2 h of instruction for 4 wk in 20 signs from each system. No difference was found in ease of acquisition between the sign systems in these subjects. When specific subject characteristics were noted, auditory comprehension skills were significantly related to subjects' abilities to learn the signs. Subjects' residual expressive language skills were not related to their abilities to learn either sign system.

1390.   Gulig, A. G. (1998). In whose interest?  Government-Indian relations in northern Saskatchewan and Wisconsin, 1900-1940. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Saskatchewan (Canada).
Abstract: American and Canadian Indian policy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries generally focused on 'civilizing' Indian peoples. In other words, the government wanted a more sedentary, less dispersed Indian population who would likewise require less land for traditional hunting and gathering activities and might be more easily assimilated when time and circumstance required. Such policy, however, was best suited to agricultural regions. In forested regions or other areas which were not suitable for commercial cultivation, conflict arose as Aboriginal groups tried to maintain their traditional practices while other interest groups sought to access the same resources. Increasing use of these non-agricultural areas by sport hunters, commercial fishing industries, logging enterprises, tourists, and in some cases prospectors and land speculators, grew in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. These interests not only competed for the same resources from which the Indian population secured its subsistence, but they also influenced the governments of the United States, Canada, Wisconsin, and Saskatchewan to regulate traditional Indian hunting and gathering activity. Conservation commissions in both the United States and Canada went about the business of re-shaping the public perception of the acceptable use of fish and game. Traditional subsistence activity had little, if any place in these new fish and game management strategies. This was the case even though Indians in both northern Saskatchewan and Wisconsin negotiated treaties which they believed upheld their access to vital resources. The conflict over resources became acute in the early twentieth century when governments in both places actively interfered with traditional activities. Such interference had the most dire consequences for the Indian people in both areas. The case studies presented here illustrate the historical antecedents of conflicts which still exist today. The Indian concern for continued access to natural resources has rarely been heard in its historical context. This study places the historic confrontation between Indian subsistence resource users and government resource-managing agencies in the context of the early twentieth century conservation movement. The two areas studied here have striking similarities. The governments refused to uphold treaty promises and rarely listened to the Indians' demands for continued access to natural resources. This study explains how governments managed resources in their own interest and relates not only the struggle for access to resources, but also how Indians responded to government interference in their way of life. It is important to move beyond a comparative analysis of two similar tribal populations in a cross-border analysis. By examining two disparate tribal groups who negotiated similar treaties in two different eras but in distant geographic locations, a better understanding of governmental conservation motives and actions, as well as the impact of such governmental activity on Indian people, may be achieved. This study is a unique look at the impact of the early conservation movement on the subsistence needs of Indian peoples in North American non-agricultural regions.

1391.   Guyette, S. (1982). Selected Characteristics of American Indian Substance Abusers. International Journal of the Addictions, 17(6), 1001-1014.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Data on characteristics of 71 adult American Indians in an urban treatment program are reported, including patterns of drug use and cultural implications of use.

1392.   (1967). [Audiovisual]. J. Haaven (KCMT-TV (Alexandria, Minn.) ). St Paul, Minn.  Twin City Area Educational Television.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 19641343
Abstract: Title on container: The Red Lake Indian Reservation story. Originally broadcast on KCMT-TV, Alexandria, Minn., June 13, 1967. An overview of the Red Lake Reservation -- its history, people, educational system, religions, industries, and governance.

1393.   Hafen, P. J. (1994). The complicated web: mediating cultures in the works of Louise Erdrich (Erdrich Louise, Native Americans). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.
Abstract: Louise Erdrich is a mixed blood Turtle Mountain Chippewa, educated in the dominant culture. Her volumes of poetry, Jacklight and Baptism of Desire, express a personal and narrative voice that reflects her tribal, European, Catholic, and educational heritage. Her well received novels, co-authored with her husband, Michael Dorris, are poetic in their language. Love Medicine and Tracks abound in myth, irony, humor, and contemporary Chippewa issues.  The Beet Queen and The Crown of Columbus, incorporate Euroamerican settings and characters while disclosing Native American characteristics of oral rhetoric and tribal community. The trickster archetype in Erdrich's works incorporates survival humor, moral indicators, and cultural mediation. The conflation of narrative voices, cultural pluralism, indistinguishable genres, and interdisciplinary criticism interweave a complexity that celebrates diversity in a 'toleration of paradox' and harmonizes the human community.

1394.   Hagan, W. T. (1979). American Indians. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1395.   Hagan, W. T. (1988). The Sac & Fox Indians.  University of Oklahoma Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1396.   Hagan, W. T. (1980). Indian police and judges : experiments in acculturation and control . Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).  "A Bison book". Reprint of the ed. published by Yale University Press, which was issued as no. 13 of its series: Yale Western Americana series. Includes index. Bibliography: p. [177]-183.

1397.   Hagen, E. A. M. (1965). A study of the Indian dropout in the Black River Falls School District .
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)
Abstract: Seminar paper--Wisconsin State University (La Crosse) Includes bibliographical references.

1398.   . (1979). R. T. HagenVegetation analysis of Red Lake, Minnesota, peatlands by remote sensing methods : final report to Peat Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources  . St. Paul : Remote Sensing Laboratory, College of Forestry and the Agricultural Experiment Station, Institute of Agriculture, Forestry and Home Economics, University of Minnesota//Minnesota Department of Natural Resources .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).  At head of title: Remote sensing applications in agriculture and forestry. "Project sponsored by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Minerals Division-Peat Program ... " "November 1, 1979." Bibliography: p. 39.

1399.   Hagey, R. (1984). The Phenomenon, the Explanations and the Responses: Metaphors Surrounding Diabetes in Urban Canadian Indians. Social Science & Medicine, 18(3), 265-272.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Type II Diabetes is a growing problem among Indian people in Canada. Ojibway and Cree leaders in Toronto collaborated with the University of Toronto, Faculty of Nursing, to develop the Native Diabetes Program. A key to the success of the program was seen by Natives to be the story 'Nanabush and the Pale Stranger', which seemed to put into perspective the nature of diabetes as a phenomenon. It provided explanations for it and answered numerous questions (non-biological) associated with the disease and indicated appropriate coping strategies. Yet formal methods of analyzing the story would not reveal its benefit as there is no explicit reference to many of the questions it implicitly answers. Metaphoric relationships are illuminated which may provide an underlying rationality to the narrative. Cultural expression is advocated as a source of making meaningful and tolerable that which is feared and avoided; of generating metaphors which make health information understandable and useful, by providing resolution to conflicting systems of belief. Information does not come in discreet ingestible particles of fact. All information is a sort of propaganda in that it is tied to deeper meaning structures. Clinicians are architects of meaning construction. Clinical research and practice requires a knowledge of the folk and professional construction of meaning around so-called factual information.

1400.   Hagey, R., & Buller, E. (1983). Drumming and Dancing: a New Rhythm in Nursing Care... Native Diabetes Project for Cree and Ojibway People in Toronto. Canadian Nurse, 79(4), 28-31.
Notes: Source: Biomed (Cinahl) electronic database, Fall 1999 search.  (17 Ref)

1401.   Hagg, H. T. (1972). Logging line : a history of the Minneapolis, Red Lake and Manitoba . Minnesota History, 43(3), 123-135, ill. Includes bibliographical references.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 19388134.  (OCoLC)1758179.

1402.   Hagwood, D. (1998). IGI on computer: the International genealogical index from CDROM. London: D. Hagwood.
Notes: Includes index. Describes the use of the FamilySearch system and the International genealogical index, produced by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

1403.   Hahn, R. A. (1999). Why Race Is Differentially Classified on U.s. Birth and Infant Death Certificates: an Examination of Two Hypotheses [See Comments]. Epidemiology, 10(2), 108-111.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Among U.S. infants who die within a year of birth, classification of race on birth and death certificates may differ. I investigate two hypotheses: (1) The race of infants of different-race parents is more likely to be differentially classified at birth and death than the race of infants of same-race parents. (2) States with a greater proportion of infant deaths of a given race are less likely to differentially classify infants of that race on birth and death certificates than states with a smaller proportion of infant deaths of that race. Using the Linked Birth/Infant Death data tape for 1983-1985, I assessed the first hypothesis by comparing rates of differential classification for infants with different-race parents and same-race parents. To assess the second hypothesis, I examined the correlations between the proportion of infant deaths of each race in each state and the proportion of infants of that race consistently classified. Differential racial classification on birth and death certificates was more than 31 times as likely with different-race than with same-race parents. The second hypothesis was confirmed for white, black, American Indian, and Japanese infants. As the U.S. population becomes more heterogeneous, attention to these methodologic issues becomes increasingly critical for the measurement and redress of differential racial health status.  (Abstract by: Author)

1404.   Hale, D. K. (1991). Researching and Writing Tribal Histories.  Michigan Indian Press.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1405.   Halifax, J. (1988). Shaman, the wounded healer. New York: Thames and Hudson.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1406.   Hall, B. J. (1994). Understanding Intercultural Conflict Through an Analysis of Kernel Images and Rhetorical Visions. International Journal of Conflict Management, 5(1), 62-86.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: This study endeavors to deepen our understanding of intercultural conflict by the detailed development of a particular case. The case chosen is the controversy over spearfishing between the largely white protest community in northern Wisconsin and the Native American (Anishinabe) community in the same region. This study identifies and examines a kernel image which serves simultaneously as common and uncommon ground across the two communities, thus helping to escalate and prolong the conflict. This process is further explored through the identification and articulation of the rhetorical visions which embody the common sense of a community and are expressed through the collective discourse of that community. Finally, implications for intercultural conflict in general are discussed [References: 41]

1407.   Hall, G. L. (1955). Me papoose sitter. New York: Crowell.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology (1955:I-1402)

1408.   Hall, G. L. (1962). Peter Jumping Horse. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Incorporated.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:95), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "Hilarious incidents occur as the Jumping Horse family attend the famous Calgary 'Stampede' and rodeo.  Grandmother provides much of the excitement.  Grades 3-7."

1409.   Hall, S. (1991). The Local and the Global: Globalization and Ethnicity. in A. D. King (editor), Culture, Globalization, and the World System . Binghamton, NY: SUNY.
Notes: Source: cited by Stuart Christie (Summer 1997)

1410.   Hall, S. (1980). Old and New Identities, Old and New Ethnicities. Media, Culture, and Society , 2, 57-72.
Notes: Source: cited by Stuart Christie (Summer 1997)

1411.   Hallowell, A. I. (1976). Chippewa Ontology, Behavior, and World View. in A. I. HallowellContributions to Anthropology: Selected Papers of A. Irving Hallowell .  University of Chicago Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999
Source: cited by Loew, Patty (Fall 1997).

1412.   Hallowell, A. I. (1946). Concordance of Ojibwa narratives in the published works of Henry R. Schoolcraft. Journal of American Folklore, 59, 136-153.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:48)

1413.   Hallowell, A. I. (1976). Contributions to Anthropology: Selected Papers of A. Irving Hallowell.  University of Chicago Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1414.   Hallowell, A. I. (1955). Culture and experience. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Notes: Source: Human Relations Area Files Index, Category NG6 "[as of July 1, 1975]", identified as "[I] (M)", page 2, item 21
cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:102), "Bibliography"
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:48)

1415.   Hallowell, A. I. (1967). Culture and experience. New York: Schocken ooks.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XIII (1969:88)

1416.   Hallowell, A. I. (Ojibway ontology, behavior and world view). (1960). in Stanley Diamond (editor), Culture in history; essays in honor of Paul Radin . New York: Columbia University Press for Brandeis University.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:48)

1417.   Hallowell, A. I. (1963). Ojibway world view and disease. in I. Galdston (editor), Man's image in medicine and anthropology  (pp. 358-315). New York: International Universities Press.
Abstract: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:48)

1418.   Hallowell, A. I. (1942). The role of conjuring in Salteaux society. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Notes: Source: Human Relations Area Files Index, Category NG6 "[as of July 1, 1975]", identified as "(M)", page 1, item 4
Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)

1419.   Hallowell, A. I. (1966). The role of dreams in Ojibwa culture. in G. E. von Grunebaum, & R. CalloisThe dream and human societies  (pp. 267-292). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:48)

1420.   Hallowell, A. I. (1939). Sex, sin and sickness and Salteaux Belief. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 18, 191-197.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:48)

1421.   Hamilton, J. C. (1903). The Algonqujin Manabozo and Hiawatha. Journal of American Folklore, 16, 229-233.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:48)

1422.   Hamilton, J. C., 1836-1907. (1876). The prairie province; sketches of travel from Lake Ontario to Lake Winnipeg, and an account of the geographical position, climate, civil institutions, inhabitants, productions and resources of the Red Valley: with map of Manitoba and part of the North- West Territory and District of Kewatin, plan of Winnipeg, and of the Dawson route, view of Fort Garry, and other illustrations . Toronto: Belford brothers.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 12077216.  "Canandian copyright edition." Error in paging: nos. 121-124 omitted. ... accession: 13852492, accession: 27297857, accession: 27297852.

1423.   Hamilton, S. (1985). Competition and warfare: functional versus historical explanations. Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 5(1), 93-113, ill.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1424.   Hammond, J. H. (The Ojibway of Lakes Huron and Simcoe). (1905). in Toronto. Ontario Provincial MuseumAnnual archeological report 1904 being a part of appendix to the Report of the Minister of Education, Ontario  (pp. 71-76). Toronto: L. K. Cameron.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:49)

1425.   Hamp, E. P. (1976). One and single in Ojibwa. International Journal of American Linguistics, 42(2), 166-167.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXII (1979:116)

1426.   Hampton, J. W. (1998). New Model for Cancer Screening in American Indian Women [Editorial; Comment]. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 73(9), 916.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

1427.   Handrick, P. (1987). A Chippewa case--resource control and self-determination. Cultural Survival, II(2), 39-42.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXXIII (1991:183)

1428.   Handrick, P. (1987). Chippewa case: resource control and self-determination. Cultural Survival Quarterly, 11(2), 39-42, ill.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1429.   Hankes, J. E. (1998). Native American pedagogy and cognitive- based mathematics instruction . New York : Garland.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)
Abstract: "Describes a Ph. D. dissertation study completed in 1994 at the Oneida National Elementary School in Oneida, Wisconsin"--Introd. Includes bibliographical references (p. 145-151).

1430.   Hankey, A. M. (1975). The environmental health needs of the White Earth Indian Reservation as could be effected by a total solid waste program .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 21173255

1431.   . (1979). M. B. Hanks, b. 1888 , & C. KelseyReminiscences of Maggie Brown Hanks, White Earth band of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 23017527

1432.   Hannin, D. (1968). Selected factors associated with the participation of adult Ojibway Indians in formal voluntary organizations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Wisconsin--Madison.

1433.   Hanowski, J. M., & Niemi, G. J. (1983). Henslow's Sparrow In Red Lake Peatland. Loon, 55(3), 120-121.
Notes: Source: Wildlife Worldwide database,Wildlife Review Abstracts [University of Minnesota onlinedatabases], August 1999 search

1434.   Hansen, L. C. (1987). Chiefs and principal men: a question of leadership in treaty negotiations. Anthropologica, N.s, 29(1), 39-60.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org  via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1435.   Hanski, I. K., Fenske, T. J., & Niemi, G. J. (1996). Lack of Edge Effect in Nesting Success of Breeding Birds in Managed Forest Landscapes. Auk, 113(3), 578-585.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: We assessed avian nesting success in two forested landscapes (Chippewa and Superior National Forests) in northern Minnesota. We found 311 nests of 33 species in the Chippewa study area and 36 nests of 13 species in the Superior study area. Each nest was classified into one of three general habitat types: open (clearcuts with vegetation <2 m high), regenerating aspen (2-8 m high), or forested (trees >8 m high). Mayfield nesting success for the most common species in the Chippewa (all of which had open-cup nests) averaged 0.43. Nesting success ranged from 0.18 for the Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus) to 0.76 for the Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia). Nest predation was the most common mortality factor, causing 89.2% of known failures Nest predation among ground-nesting birds was significantly higher in the Chippewa (55%) than in the Superior (15%) study area (P = 0.038). Nest predation was highest (P = 0.015) in the forest (62.2%) and lowest in open (42.2%) and regenerating (47.4%) habitat types. Only canopy cover explained differences in nesting success. which was higher in more open canopies. Distance to forest edge, nest height, and nest concealment had no effect on nesting success in both forested and open habitats. Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism was low (9.6% in the Chippewa study area), and parasitized nests were relatively unsuccessful (only 1.7% yielded cowbird fledglings). Neither cowbirds nor nest parasitism was observed in the Superior study area. [References: 37]

1436.   Hanson, D. S., & Hargrave, B. (1996). Development of a Multilevel Ecological Classification System for the State of Minnesota. Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, 39(1-3), 75-84.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (MNDNR) began development of an Ecological Classification System (ECS) in 1991. The ECS is hierarchically organized into six levels following the United States Forest Service structure. The upper four levels are being developed State-wide by an interdisciplinary group from several agencies. Geographic Information Systems approaches are being used to overlay and integrate existing data. The first two levels (Province and Section) have been completed. The third level (Subsection) is nearly completed, and work on the fourth level (Land Type Association (LTA)) started in January 1995. Classification and inventory for the lowest two levels (Ecological Land Type and Ecological Land Type Phase) was cooperatively undertaken on two Land Type Associations within the Chippewa National Forest. A sample set of management interpretations is being developed and tested for the two lower levels. Workshops demonstrating how ECS can be used for natural resource management began in mid-1995 and will continue for several years, as will development of the lower two levels on LTAs beyond the Chippewa National Forest.

1437.   Hardy, D. W. (1957). 1957 report on the American Indian Project at Elliot Park Neighborhood House : 2215 Park Avenue, Minneapolis 4, Minnesota . Minneapolis, Minn.  Elliot Park Neighborhood House.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 12832235. Title from cover.  Other: Elliot Park Neighborhood House.

1438.   Hare, J. (1996). Meanings attached to literacy in a First Nation community. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada).
Abstract: It is apparent from the literature surrounding literacy and acquisition of literacy that historical experiences, culture, and shifts in culture may cause differences in how literacy is acquired and the beliefs one forms about literacy. The purpose of this study is to determine what understandings of literacy, literacy values, and literacy practices have been formed by the complex and conflicting traditions that have affected Native people within a First Nation community. The experiences of Native people, who attended residential school, where the social, emotional, and physical conditions necessary for the development of literacy were devoid, was collected through a semi-structured interview. Interviews were also conducted with Native people who did not attend a residential school, but lived at home and attended school within the provincial system. The remarkably different experiences of these two groups were compared and contrasted as they relate to meanings Native people attach to literacy, how literacy was acquired, and how past experiences with literacy affect decisions Native people make about present literacy values, practices, and choices. The study reveals literacy is valued for different purposes among those who attended residential school and those who lived at home and attended school within the provincial school system. Literacy for the five respondents was seen as important to economic well-being, culture, and communication. In addition, interviews reveal a resurgence in the importance of literacy for Native people and the necessity for literacy skills in a changing world. Participants further expressed a sense of 'loss' in not being able to speak the Ojibwe language. It was a connection to their culture that was missing. The meanings attached to literacy in this Native in community contributes to a broader understanding of literacy for Aboriginal people.

1439.   Hare, S. (1991). Excerpt from a submission to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Affairs. Matriart, 2(1), 10-11.
Notes: Source: Women’s Resources International [University of Minnesota online database-- Women's Studies Database], August 29, 1999 search

1440.   . (1970). A. M. HarkinsThe elementary education of St. Paul Indian children : a study of one inner-city school  . Minneapolis: Training Center for Community Programs, University of Minnesota.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 5367141. "USOE grant OEC-0-8-080147- 2805."

1441.   . (1972). A. M. HarkinsIndians and their education in Minneapolis and St. Paul  . Minneapolis : University of Minnesota.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 13204993

1442.   . (1970). A. M. HarkinsJunior high Indian children in Minneapolis: a study of one problem school . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 16394908. "Training Center for Community Programs in coordination with the Office of Community Programs, Center for Urban and Regional Affairs." Includes bibliography. Other: University of Minnesota. Training Center for Community Programs. University of Minnesota. Office of Community Programs.

1443.   Harkins, A. M. (1969). Proposal for a reservation-urban center for Indian development at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis . Minneapolis, Minn.  Training Center for Community Programs : Office of Community Programs, Center for Urban and Regional Affairs.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 12158526. "25 October 1969." "For review by members of the Indian Affairs Center Subcommittee of the Ad Hoc Committee on American Indian Studies, University of Minnesota."  Other: Craig, Gregory W. University of Minnesota. Training Center for Community Programs. University of Minnesota. Office of Community Programs.

1444.   . (1970). A. M. Harkins, I. K. Sherarts, & R. G. Woods, 1933-  (University of Minnesota. Training Center for Community Programs), The teachers of Minneapolis elementary Indian children : 1969 survey results  . Minneapolis, Minn.  Training Center for Community Programs, University of Minnesota.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 8063489. Published "in coordination with the Office of Community Programs, Center for Urban and Regional Affairs."

1445.   . (1970). A. M. Harkins, I. K. Sherarts, & R. G. Woods, 1933-  (University of Minnesota. Training Center for Community Programs), The teachers of Minneapolis junior high school Indian children : a second "problem school"  . Minneapolis [Minn.] : Training Center for Community Programs, University of Minnesota.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 7971956. Published in coordination with Office of Community Programs, Center for Urban and Regional Affairs.

1446.   Harkins, A. M., & Woods, R. G., 1933- . (1970). Indian Americans in Duluth : a summary and analysis of recent research . Minneapolis: Training Center for Community Programs, University of Minnesota.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 3179738. Issued in coordination with the Office of Community Programs, Center for Urban and Regional Affairs, University of Minnesota.

1447.   Harkins, A. M., Woods, R. G., 1933- , & Sherarts, I. K. (1969). Indian education in Minneapolis : an interim report . Minneapolis: Training Center for Community Programs, University of Minnesota.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 2917296. "Training Center for Community Programs in coordination with the Office of Community Programs, Center for Urban and Regional Affairs." Includes bibliographical references.

1448.   Harkins, A. M. (1969). Public education on a Minnesota Chippewa reservation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas.

1449.   Harp, M. A. (1997). Indian missions, immigrant migrations, and regional Catholic culture: Slovene missionaries in the upper Great Lakes, 1830-1892 (Minnesota, Ottawa, Ojibway, nineteenth century). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Chicago.
Abstract: In the second quarter of the nineteenth century, the Upper Midwest received Catholic missionaries of various ethnicities who sought primarily to convert the Native Americans who resided in the regionnin relatively large numbers. Slovene missionaries sponsored by thenVienna-based Leopoldine Foundation were particularly numerous. This dissertation explores the connections between the initial work done by Slovene missionaries among the Native Americans and the subsequent influence these missionaries exerted on the type and pattern of Catholic settlement which followed in the 1850s and beyond, especially in the state of Minnesota. Such Catholic migrations lent a specific tenor to the regional Catholic culture that eventually emerged in the area. The migrations of specific types of Catholics, namely Central European Germans and Slovenes, produced a German-based religious culture migration to Minnesota, the remains of which are still evident in the area in the late twentieth century. In tracing the linkages between the early mission work among the Ottawa and Ojibway Indians and the later migration of Catholics, the role of the Slovene missionary priests becomes vital. This study examines the work of these missionaries and establishes the validity of such linkages and why they merit attention in the study of this region of the United States. Previously, immigration historians have not examined Indian missions as a precursor to immigrant settlement. In the Upper Great Lakes, clearly this was the case. Whether this holds for other regions of the country remains to be researched.

1450.   Harper, A. G. (Field representative).
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995), worked for the B.I.A. at Red Lake

1451.   Harpole, P. C., & Nagle, M. D. (1972). Minnesota Territorial Census, 1850.  Minnesota Historical Society Press.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1452.   Harris, S. B., Caulfield, L. E., Sugamori, M. E., Whalen, E. A., & Henning, B. (1997). The Epidemiology of Diabetes in Pregnant Native Canadians - a Risk Profile. Diabetes Care, 20(9), 1422-1425.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: Biomed (Cinahl) electronic database, Fall 1999 search.  (26 Ref)
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy (gestational diabetes mellitus [GDM] and NIDDM) and to identify risk factors in the development of GDM in a native population in northwestern Ontario, Canada. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 1,305 singleton deliveries among Ojibwa-Cree women from northwestern Ontario, Canada, was conducted from 1990 to 1993 inclusive. GDM was diagnosed using a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and defined according to standard guidelines. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy (NIDDM and GDM) was 11.6% (152 of 1,305) with a GDM prevalence of 8.4% (110 of 1,305). Among 741 women with complete data, prevalence rates increased with age, peaking at 46.9% in the age-group > or = 35 years. Significant risk factors for GDM included older maternal age, multiparity, prepregnancy obesity, a family history of diabetes, and a history of GDM in previous pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes in pregnancy among Ojibwa-Cree reported here represent the highest rates reported to date in a Canadian population. The high rates of maternal obesity and relative young age of this population further highlight the urgent need for diadbetes screening and prevention in this population.  (26 ref)

1453.   Harris, S. (1993). Rare Light on Indian Lives at the Time of European Arrival. The Wisconsin ArcheologistMAR 01 1993, 74(1/4), 422.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1454.   Hart-Wasekeesikaw, F. (1997). First Nations Peoples' perspectives and experiences with cancer. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Manitoba (Canada).
Abstract: The purpose of this descriptive, ethnographic study was to explore the experiences of First Nations People diagnosed with cancer and Elders' perceptions of cancer. The Medicine Wheel was the conceptual guide for this study. Forty-six informants living in four Anishinaabe communities were interviewed using semi-structured interview schedules. Content analysis of First Nations experiences with cancer occurred at various levels using three data sets: the individual with cancer, her/his family and community. The cancer experience was metaphorically characterized by 'the stranger.' Some examples of the themes are presented. In 'The Presence of a Stranger: The Elders Speak,' the Elders provided a historical perspective of the development and prevention of cancer in First Nations communities. 'Becoming Aware: The Stranger in the Body' describes the informants' experiences when they sensed they had cancer. In the theme 'Making The Stranger Known: The Healing Journey,' the informants identified traditional Indian medicine as one way to manage cancer in their communities. Some of the findings revealed that cancer is thought to be a new disease affecting Anishinaabe. Food is considered to be the primary cause of cancer and the loss of traditional values is at the core of cancer in First Nations communities. A range of metaphors reflected First Nations Peoples' understanding about cancer. The most common metaphor used by the Anishinaabe in this study was 'manitoch' which, in the Ojibwa language, Saulteaux, means cancer-as-worm. Informants suggested that Western medicine is limited in its ability to cure cancer. First Nations People with cancer consulted one or more Indian medicine healers before, during, or after obtaining medical cancer treatment. Spiritual visions and dreams were important to First Nations People. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

1455.   Hartman, K. (1994). Dream catcher: the legend, the lady, the woman.  Weeping Heart.
Notes: Source: Women’s Resources International [University of Minnesota online databaseNew Books on Women & Feminism Database], August 29, 1999 search

1456.   Harvey, J., Arnett, F. C., Bias, W. B., Hsu, S. H., & Stevens, M. B. (1981). Heterogeneity of Hla-Dr4 in the Rheumatoid Arthritis of a Chippewa Band. Journal of Rheumatology, 8(5), 797-803.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: A high frequency of both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and HLA-DR4 was found in a Chippewa Indian population. Multiple immunogenetic 'variants' of HLA-DR4 were demonstrated, each showing a different response in mixed lymphocyte culture which corresponded to a serologic pattern of reactivity to a panel of non-DR4 B cell alloantisera. No DR4-bearing HLA haplotype or DR4 'variant' was common to subjects with RA, all of whom were DR4-positive. The implications are discussed.  (Abstract by: Author)

1457.   Harvey, J., Lotze, M., Stevens, M. B., Lambert, G., & Jacobson, D. (1981). Rheumatoid Arthritis in a Chippewa Band. I. Pilot Screening Study of Disease Prevalence. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 24(5), 717-721.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: The Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians in central Minnesota was screened for rheumatoid arthritis, with a 77% completion rate of the reservation census. Rheumatoid arthritis was found in marked excess, namely 6.8% of those evaluated or, minimally, 5.3% of the total band if all persons had been evaluated with no additional cases identified. This relatively closed population thus provides an opportunity to assess genetic and environmental factors of significance in this disease.  (Abstract by: Author)

1458.   Harvey, J., Lotze, M. A. F. C., Bias, W. B., Billingsley, L. M., Harvey, E., Hsu, S. H., Sutton, J. D., Zizic, T. M., & Stevens, M. B. (1983). Rheumatoid Arthritis in a Chippewa Band. II. Field Study With Clinical Serologic and Hla-D Correlations. Journal of Rheumatology, 10(1), 28-32.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: We present an in-depth study of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a Chippewa band. Of the 227 band members, 168 (74%) were evaluated. The unusually high prevalence of RA was confirmed in 7.1% of those studied or, minimally, 5.3% with a 100% completion rate without additional cases found. Seropositivity in those with clinically definite RA was 92% relative to rheumatoid factor and 75% for ANA. Despite the high prevalence (68%) of HLA-DR4 in this closed population, there was a significant correlation of DR4 with RA (100%). The implications of these observations in this population isolate are discussed.  (Abstract by: Author)

1459.   Hasken, T. E. (1910 June). [Letter to Long, E. H. Special Assistant to the Attorney General Detroit MN].
Notes: cited by Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1460.   Hasketh, J. (1923). History of the Turtle Mountain Chippewa. North Dakota: State Historical Society.
Notes: Source: Human Relations Area Files Index, Category NG6 "[as of July 1, 1975]", identified as "(M)", page 2, item 17

1461.   . (1988). J. Hassler, & S. Nees (Minnesota Center for Book Arts), Staggerford's Indian  Deluxe ed. ed., ). [Minneapolis, Minn.] : Minnesota Center for Book Arts.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 21072671.  The deluxe edition consists of 26 copies, lettered and signed by the author and the artist." ... accession: 21064558.

1462.   Hatch, C. D. (1895). Narratives of Charles D. Hatch's experience in the Indian War in Minnesota, 1862 .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 5259164. Caption title.

1463.   Hatt, F. K. (1970). The response to directed social change of an Alberta Metis colony. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alberta (Canada).

1464.   Haugh, A. E. (1995). Balancing rights, powers and priveleges: a survey and evaluation of natural resource co-management agreements reached by the government and First Nations of Manitoba. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Manitoba (Canada).
Abstract: A 1991-93 survey of natural resources cooperative management agreements reached by the government and First Nations of Manitoba yielded eighteen agreements involving thirty-five Chiefs and Councils, four Tribal Councils, fourteen Metis communities, nine federal and provincial government departments, two large-scale resource developers and twenty-two third parties. Subsumed under the general heading 'co-management', these agreements created management regimes for barren ground and woodland caribou, moose, elk, wood bison, sturgeon, walleye, northern pike, lake trout, whitefish, goldeye, wild rice and timber. In addition to participants and resource sectors, this study presents co-management agreements in terms of geographic areas and time periods covered, legal status or 'formality', the level of community participation in the decision-making process and in specific management functions, the economic returns accruing to participants, the level of funding support and the provision of information feedback mechanisms. Finally, co-management agreements are presented in terms of their ability or failure to implement the three-tiered resource allocation regime mandated by the Supreme Court of Canada and thereby strike a balance between constitutionally-derived legislative authority, constitutionally-protected aboriginal and treaty rights and legislated privileges in natural resources management. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

1465.   Hauswirth, W. W., Dickel, C. D., Rowold, D. J., & Hauswirth, M. A. (1994). Inter- and Intrapopulation Studies of Ancient Humans [Review]. Experientia, 50(6), 585-591.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: For a genetic analysis of ancient human populations to be useful, it must be demonstrated that the DNA samples under investigation represent a single human population. Toward that end, we have analyzed human DNA from the Windover site (7000-8000 BP). MHC-I analysis, using allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization to PCR amplified Windover DNA, microsatellite anaysis by PCR of the APO-AZ repeat and mtD-loop 3' region sequencing on multiple individuals spanning nearly the full range of estimated burial dates all confirm the hypothesis that there is a persistence of both nuclear and mitochondrial haplotypes at Windover throughout its entire period of use. Thus, Windover can be considered a single population. Neighbor-joining tree analysis of mtDNA sequences suggests that some mitochondrial types are clearly related to extant Amerind types, whereas others, more distantly related, may reflect genetically distinct origins. A more complete sequence analysis will be required to firmly resolve this issue. Calibrating genetic relationships deduced by tree analysis, radiocarbon dates and burial position, yields a human mtD-loop DNA rate of evolution of 3700 to 14,000 years per percent change. Both values are within the range of recent, independently calculated values using estimates of evolutionary divergence or theoretical population genetics. Thus we are beginning to realize the promise of ancient DNA analysis to experimentally answer heretofore unapproachable questions regarding human prehistory and genetic change. [References: 22]

1466.   Hawkinson, E. A., 1896- . (1933). The "Old Crossing" Chippewa treaty of 1863. Archive/Manuscript Control.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 25481128

1467.   Hay, T. H. (1977). The development of some aspects of the Ojibwa self and its behavioral environment. Ethos, 5(1), 71-89.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXIII (1981:317)

1468.   Hay, T. H. (1968). Ojibwa emotional restraint and the socialization process. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.

1469.   Hayakawa, S. I. S. I. 1. (1962). The Use and Misuse of Language. Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1470.   Hays, M. A. (1979). Native American history as an elective course for secondary schools : an organizational guide for high school teachers and administrators . La Crosse, Wis.  Hays.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search).  Appendices: leaves [30]-86. Action learning project--University of Wisconsin--La Crosse. Includes bibliographies.

1471.   Hebal, J. J. (John James) . (1959). Field administration of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Minnesota and Wisconsin . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Photocopy. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms, 1990. 22 cm.  Microfilm. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms, [1959]. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 21553995, accession: 10133519

1472.   Hebal, J. J. (1967). Field administration of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.

1473.   Heckard, M. (1995). Windows and Mirrors: Featuring Native Americans. Media Spectrum, 22(2), 28.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Abstract: A Matter of Respect: An Interview with Pam Martell, Coordinator of Indian Education, Michigan Department of Education.

1474.   Hedican, E. J. (1985). Modern economic trends among the northern Ojibwa. Man in the Northeast, 30, 1-25.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXX (1987:113)

1475.   Hedican, E. J. (1997). The Ojibwa of Western Canada, 1780-1870 - Peers, L. Great Plains Quarterly, 17(2), 147-148.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999

1476.   Hedican, E. J. (1985). Modern economic trends among the northern Ojibwa. Man in the Northeast, (30), 1-25, il.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1477.   Hegeman, W. R., Desjarlait, R., Van Tassell, K., & Minnesota Museum of American Art (Saint Paul, Minn.). (1995). Patrick DesJarlait and the Ojibwe tradition . Saint Paul, Minn.  Minnesota Museum of American Art.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 32604552
Abstract: Introduction / by Ron Libertus -- Patrick DesJarlait : art of tribe and culture / by Robert Desjarlait - - The life and work of Patrick DesJarlait / by Katherine Van Tassell -- Chronology -- Checklist of the exhibition

1478.   Heidenreich, C. E. (1994). The Ojibwa of Berens-River, Manitoba - Ethnography Into History - Hallowell, A. I. Canadian Historical Review, 75(3), 444-447.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

1479.   Heimstra, J. C. (1996). The storyteller and indigenous Canadian oral narratives: a study of the relationship of contemporary storytellers to the remembered indigenous oral narratives. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Trent University, Canada.
Abstract: In response to increasing interest in storytelling as a formal event in Canada, contemporary tellers draw from traditionally oral narratives of indigenous Canadians. This thesis, the study of the three oral mythtellers, describes a contemporary relationship between teller and story, now outside its original context; a relationship awakening traditional patterns in order to inform listeners. Pennishish, Mushkigo storyteller, shows that the correlation of traditional narratives to physical landscape offers contemporary survival and re-appropriation of land. Esther Jacko, Anishinabe storyteller, shows that traditional narratives formed interior landscapes once in harmony with an exterior landscape. Today they offer the listener restoration and recovery of balance. Robert Bringhurst, translator of Haida oral narratives, offers retrieval and recognition of these aesthetic compositions, preliterary artforms restored to the anthology of the world's great literature.

1480.   Henderson, H. (1984). The Kebecanung Chippewa medicine society symbol, the bear claw .
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search).  Title from caption. Signed: Hank Henderson. "March 15, 1984."

1481.   Hendra, R. I. (1971). An assessment of the motivation and achievement of Michigan reservation Indian high school students and Michigan Caucasian high school students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.

1482.   Hendrickson, E. J. (1954). The city where the two rivers meet : the background and early history of Thief River Falls, Minnesota . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Dakota.
Notes: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 17255640

1483.   . (1938). L. Hennepin (Father), Description of Louisiana, newly discovered to the soutwest of New France by order of the King .  University of Minnesota Press.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1484.   Hennings, K. R., Parker, J. M., Hansen, J. L., Forester, C. G., & Miller, M. (1980). Red Lake wildlife management area master plan, 1980-1989 . St. Paul, Minn.  Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search) ... accession: 27002915

1485.   Henry, A. (1809). Travels and adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories between the years 1760 and 1776. New York: I. Riley.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:48)

1486.   . (1809). A. HenryTravels and adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories between the years 1760 and 1776 . New York: I. Riley.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:48)

1487.   . (1809). A. HenryTravels and adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories between the years 1760 and 1776 . New York: I. Riley.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:48)

1488.   . (1998). L. R. HenryNative American directory of (Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Wisconsin)//Native American directory : vital records of Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York and Wisconsin . Bowie, MD : Heritage Books.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)

1489.   Heritage, W. (1936). Forestry, past and future, on Indian reservations in Minnesota. Journal of Forestry, 34, 648-652.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:48)

1490.   Hermes, M. R. (1996). Making culture, making curriculum: teaching through meanings and identities at an American Indian tribal school. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Wisconsin--Madison, PhD dissertation (advised by Elizabeth Ellsworth).
Abstract: In this dissertation I explore some of the meanings of culture based curriculum as I interpret them through my own and others teaching practices at the Lac Courte Orielles Ojibwe School in Northern Wisconsin. Practice and voices of community members inform the research and lend multiple perspectives to the ongoing construction of curriculum. Through the process of writing and reflecting I have identified a post-modern shift which occurs when culture based curriculum as a process involves community and relationship. Further this perspective recognizes essentialized notions of culture and curriculum as obstacles to this process. Culture based curriculum in Indian education takes on new meanings in classrooms contexts where neither the concept of Ojibwe culture nor curriculum is given a fixed meaning. I have generated theory from these practices which point to a break with a cultural determinist model of cultural education. Fourteen interviews are included.

1491.   Herring, D. A., Driben, P., & Sawchuk, L. A. (1983). Historic fertility patterns in a northern Ontario Ojibwa community: the Fort Hope band. Anthropologica, 25(2), 147-161, ill.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXXII (1990:85)
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via  University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1492.   Hesse, J. L., & Powers, R. A. (1978). Polybrominated Biphenyl (Pbb) Contamination of the Pine River, Gratiot, and Midland Counties, Michigan. Environmental Health Perspectives, 23, 19-25.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Michigan Chemical Corporation, St. Louis, Michigan manufactured PBB from 1970 until November 20, 1974. Studies in 1974 showed significant quantities of PBB in effluent discharged from the facility and in water, fish, ducks, and sediments from the Pine River. Fish uptake rates and bioconcentration factors were estimated. Followup surveys over the three year period since the termination of PBB production indicate a decline in PBB loadings to the river but no significant corresponding decline of PBB levels in sediments, fish and duck tissue. A Michigan Department of Public Health warning against consumption of Pine River fish from St. Louis downstream to its confluence with Chippewa River remains in effect.

1493.   Hessler, M. (1995). Catholic Nuns and Ojibwa Shamans: Pauline and Fleur in Louise Erdrich's Tracks. Wicazo Sa Review, 11(1), 40 (6).
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: In 'Tracks' written by Louise Erdrich, the clash between the traditional Ojibwa beliefs and the Catholic church is shown through the central characters of Fleur Pillager and Pauline Puyat. Fleur remains loyal to her beliefs all her life while Pauline rejects traditional Native American beliefs and invents a sadist form of Catholicism and ultimately loses the battle against her own people. Although the Catholic church forced Native Americans to embrace Catholicism, Erdrich's critical focus is on people like Pauline, who renouncing their own people.

1494.   Heuman, W. (1965). The Indians of Carlisle. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:91), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "The fascinating story of Carlisle Industrial School which was created to prepare American Indians to survive in a white man's world by teaching them trades as well as scholastic subjects.  Grades 4-8."

1495.   . (1976). H. J. Hibschman, 1879- The Shetek pioneers and the Indians  . New York : Garland Pub.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 1959502. Reprint of the 1901 ed. published by the Pioneer Press, St. Paul. Issued with the reprint of the 1900 ed. of Janney, A. Narrative of the capture of Abel Janney. New York, 1976.

1496.   Hickerson, H. (1974). An anthropological report on the Indian Occupancy of Area 242, which was ceded to the United States by the Chippewa Nation of Indians under the Treaty of July 29, 1837 ... in D. A. Horr (editor and compiler), Chippewa Indians IV  (pp. 9-253). New York: Garland Press.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:45-6, 50), "The Garland Series reprints many valuable and often otherwise unobtainable studies. ... David Horr's introductions are well worth the reader's attention."

1497.   Hickerson, H. (1974). An anthropological report on the Indian use and occupancy of Royce Area 337, which was ceded to the United States by the Mississippi Bands, and the Pillager and Winnibigoshish Bands of Chippewa Indians under the Treaty of February 22, 1855. in D. A. Horr (editor and compiler), Chippewa Indians IV  (pp. 9-317). New York: Garland Press.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:45-6, 50), "The Garland Series reprints many valuable and often otherwise unobtainable studies. ... David Horr's introductions are well worth the reader's attention."

1498.   Hickerson, H. (1974). An anthropological report on the Indian use and occupation of Royce Area 332, which was ceded to the United States by the Chippewa Indians of Lake Superior and the Mississippi under the Treaty of September 30, 1854 ...". in D. A. Horr (editor and compiler), Chippewa Indians III  (pp. 9-180). New York: Garland Press.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:45-6, 50), "The Garland Series reprints many valuable and often otherwise unobtainable studies. ... David Horr's introductions are well worth the reader's attention."

1499.   Hickerson, H. (1970). The Chippewa and their neighbors; a study in ethnohistory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Notes: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XVI (1972:34)
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:50)
Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1500.   Hickerson, H. (1974). Chippewa Indians III.  Garland Publishing, Incorporated.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1501.   . (1974). H. HickersonEthnohistory of Chippewa in central Minnesota . New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXI (1978:172)

1502.   Hickerson, H. (1966). The genesis of bilaterality amng two divisions of Chippewa. American Anthropologist, 68(I), 1-26.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XII (1968:98)

1503.   . (1967). H. HickersonLand tenure of the Rainy Lake Chippewa at the beginning of the 19th century . Washington: Smithsonian Press.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XIII (1969:78)
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:50)

1504.   Hickerson, H. (1962). The proscription of cross-cousin marriage among the Southwestern Chippewa. American Anthropological Association, Memoir 92, 64(3), 73-86.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. IX (1964:107)

1505.   Hickerson, H. (1963). The sociohistorical significance of two Chippewa ceremonials. American Anthropologist, 65(1), 67-85.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. IX (1964:129)

1506.   . (1962). H. HickersonThe southwestern Chippewa: an ethnohistorical study Vol. 92). Menasha: American Anthropological Association Memoir.
Notes: Source: Human Relations Area Files Index, Category NG6 "[as of July 1, 1975]", identified as "(M)", page 3, item 25
Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. VIII (1963:338)
Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. IX (1964:666)
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:48)

1507.   Hickerson, H. (1962). The Southwestern Chippewa: warfare and ecological basis. American Anthropological Association [Memoir 92], 64(3), 12-29.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. IX (1964:114)

1508.   Hickerson, H., & William, T. (1965). Boutwelle of the American Board and the Pillager Chippewa: the history of a failure. Ethnohistory, 12(1), 1-29.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XI (1967:30)

1509.   . (1957). H. Hickerson, 1924- An anthropological report on the Indian occupancy of the Royce area 268 which was ceded to the United States by the Chippewa of the Mississippi and Lake Superior under the treaty of Aug. 21, 1847 : and of Royce area 269, which was ceded to the United States by the Pillager Band of Chippawa under the treaty of Aug. 21, 1847  . [New York] : Clearwater.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 8619345. Originally prepared in 1957.  Other: United States. Indian Claims Commission. Chippewa and Pillager Band of Chippewa in Minnesota, 1642- 1847.

1510.   . (1954). H. Hickerson, 1924- An anthropological report on the Indian occupancy of the Royce area 357 which was ceded to the United States by the Mississippi Bands and the Pillager and Winnibigoshish Bands of Chippewa Indians under the treaty of February 22, 1855   . [New York] : Clearwater.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 8619327. Originally prepared in 1954.  Other: United States. Indian Claims Commission. Occupancy by Chippewa bands of areas ceded in Minnesota, 1855.

1511.   Higgins, E. (1982). Whitefish Lake Ojibway memories. Cobalt, ON: Highway Book Shop.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXIX (1986:52)

1512.   Hildebrand, C. L. (1970). Maternal-Child Care Among the Chippewa: a Study of the Past and the Present. Military Medicine, 135(1), 35-43.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

1513.   Hildreth, S. P. ( Dec. 1971). Pioneer History: Being an Account of the First Examinations of the Ohio Valley, & the Early Settlement of the Northwest Territory.  Ayer Company Publishers, Incorporated.
Notes: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1514.   Hilger, M. I. (1998). Chippewa Families: A Social Study of White Earth Reservation, 1938.  Minnesota Historical Society Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1515.   Bureau of American Ethnology. (1951). Bulletin. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Notes: Source: Human Relations Area Files Index, Category NG6 "[as of July 1, 1975]", identified as "(M)", page 2, item 15
Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)
cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:102), "Bibliography" [with a publication date of 1950]
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:51)
Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999
Source: Women’s Resources International [University of Minnesota online database: Composite Record | New Books On Women & Feminism | Women Of Color And Southern Women  Database], August 29, 1999 search, "New introduction by Jean M. O'Brien"

1516.   Hilger, M. I., Sister. (1936). Chippewa hunting and fishing customs. The Minnesota Conservationist, 1, 17-19.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:51)

1517.   Hilger, M. I., Sister. (1939). A social study of one hundred fifty Chippewa Indian families of the White Earth Reservation of Minnesota. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Presss.
Notes: Source: Human Relations Area Files Index, Category NG6 "[as of July 1, 1975]", identified as "(M)", page 1, item 12
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:51)
Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1518.   Hilger, M. I., Sister. (1939). A social study of one-hundred-fifty Chippewa Indian families on the White Earth Reservation of Minnesota. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Catholic University of America.

1519.   Hill, E. E. Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  National Archives and Records .
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
listing, for example, 8,033 feet of documents in Item 121, Central Classified Files [B.I.A. Washington office], 1907-39, and another 80 feet of documents in item 122, Classified Files, New System, 1936.  The B.I.A. and other Federal Agencies also maintain vast quantities of information which have not been released to the National Archives

1520.   Hill, J. J. (1898). History of agriculture in Minnesota . in Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. Volume VIII.    St. Paul, Minn.: The Minnesota Historical Society.
Notes: Source: PALS online catalog (October 1999 search)
Abstract: The international boundary between Lake Superior  and the Lake of the Woods / by Ulysses Sherman Grant -- The settlement and  development of the Red River Valley / by Warren Upham -- The discovery and  development of the iron ores of Minnesota / by N.H. Winchell -- The origin  and growth of the Minnesota Historical Society / by Alex. Ramsey -- Opening  of the Red River of the North to commerce and civilization / by Russell Blakeley -- Last days of Wisconsin territory and early days of Minnesota  territory / by Henry L. Moss -- Lawyers and courts of Minnesota prior to  and during its territorial period / by Charles E. Flandrau -- Homes and  habitations of the Minnesota Historical Society / by Charles E. Mayo -- The  historical value of newspapers / by J.B. Chaney -- The United States  government publications / by D.L. Kingsbury -- The first organized  government of Dakota / by Samuel J. Albright -- How Minnesota became a  state / by Thomas F. Moran -- Minnesota's northern boundary / by Alexander N. Winchell -- The question of the sources  of the Mississippi River / by E. Levasseur. The source of the Mississippi / by N.H. Winchell --  Prehistoric man at the headwaters of the Mississippi River / by J.V. Brower  -- Charter members of the Minnesota Historical Society and its work in 1896  / by Alex. Ramsey -- History of agriculture in Minnesota / by James J. Hill  -- History of mining and quarrying in Minnesota / by Warren Upham --  History of the discovery of the Mississippi River and the advent of  commerce in Minnesota / Russell Blakeley -- Reminiscences of persons and  events in the early days of the Minnesota Historical Society / by William  H. Kelley -- Fort Snelling from its foundation to the present time / by  Richard W. Johnson -- Sully's expedition against the Sioux, in 1864 / by  David L. Kingsbury -- State-building in the West / by Charles E. Flandrau

1521.   Hill, K. J. (1989). An analysis of Michigan Treaty fishing rights in the 1836 Treaty ceded waters of Lake Superior, Lake Huron and Lake Michigan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Eastern Michigan University.
Abstract: This thesis consists of a descriptive component and an analytic one. The descriptive element presents an intellectual discussion relative to  Native American studies. The analytic component presents primary material focusing on the importance of fishing to the Michigan Chippewa since pre-European contact, origins of federal Indian policy, relevant treaties, court cases, and an examination of the rules  and regulations governing Indian fishing in the treaty ceded waters of  the Great Lakes. State and federal court case records, as well as a variety of primary and secondary sources, were consulted while researching this paper. I conducted several telephone interviews and personally visited the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. and the Helen Newberry Library in Chicago, Illinois. Finally, complementing historical scholarship, disciplines such as anthropology, ethnology, linguistics and sociology (to name several) contributed valuable insights to my study.

1522.   Hind, H. Y., 1823. (1859). Papers relatiave to the exploration of the country between Lake Superior and the Red River settlement. London: George Edward Eyre.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).

1523.   Hind, H. Y. Y. (1859). North-west territory: reports of progress, together with a preliminary and general report on the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan exploring expedition, made under instructions from the Provincial Secretary, Canada.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).  Reprint of the 1859 ed. issued as part of Appendix no. 36, A. 1859 (Appendix to the seventeenth volume of the Journals of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada); with t.p., introd., and table of contents lacking. Bound with Dawson, S. J. Report on the exploration of the country between Lake Superior and the Red River settlement. [New York, 1968]

1524.   . (1858). H. Y. Hind, 1823-1908Report on a topographical & geological exploration of the canoe route between Fort William, Lake Superior, and Fort Garry, Red River and also of the Valley of Red River, north of the 49th parallel, during the summer of 1857 : Made under instructions from the provincial secretary of Canada  . Toronto: S. Derbishire & G. Desbarats, law printer to the Queen's most excellent Majesty.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search) ... accession: 13735236.  Canada. Provincial Secretary's Office.  Wagner-Camp. Plains and Rockies, 301.  Other: Canada. Provincial Secretary's Office.  ... accession: 15099874.  The introduction to Hind's report. The complete report was published in Canada. Provincial Secretary's Office. Report on the exploration of the country between Lake Superior and the Red River settlement ... 1858.  Other: Canada. Provincial Secretary's Office. ... accession: 24097565. ... accession: 31989489.

1525.   Hinsdale, W. B. (1931). Archaeological atlas of Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:51)

1526.   Hirata-Dulas, C. A., Rith-Najarian, S. J., Mcintyre, M. C., Ross, C., Dahl, D. C., Keane, W. F., & Kasiske, B. L. (1996). Risk Factors for Nephropathy and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetic Northern Minnesota American Indians. Clinical Nephrology, 46(2), 92-98.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Although complications of diabetes are common among Southwest American Indians, little is known about diabetes and associated risk factors for nephropathy and cardiovascular disease in other genetically distinct tribes. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 665 diabetic patients at two Chippewa Indian reservations in northern Minnesota to evaluate the prevalence of risk factors for diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. In 79 patients, a more detailed study was carried out, including an assessment of renal function and urinary albumin excretion (UAE). The overall prevalences of proteinuria and hypertension were 47.9% and 62.6%, respectively. Proteinuria was observed more often in hypertensive than in non-hypertensive patients (55.2% vs 44.4%, p < 0.05), and in patients with diabetes for longer than 10 years (57% vs 40% for diabetes less than 10 years, p < 0.05). Although hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol > or = 200 mg/dl) was observed in 54% of patients, there was no relationship between hypercholesterolemia and proteinuria. In the 79 patients studied in more detail, UAE was greater in hypertensive patients compared to non-hypertensive patients (606 +/- 15600 mg/24h vs 101 +/- 157 mg/24 h, p < 0.05), and in patients with diabetes for 10 years or longer compared to patients in the first decade of disease (748 +/- 1732 mg/24 h vs 96 +/- 171 mg/24 h, p < 0.05). Hypercholesterolemia and elevated LDL-cholesterol (> 130 mg/dl) were observed in 56% and 49% of patients, respectively, but were not associated with increased UAE. In contrast, hypertriglyceridemia (> 250 mg/dl) was associated with an elevated UAE (932 +/- 2150 mg/24 h vs 245 +/- 735 mg/24h, p < 0.05). Increased lipoprotein(a) was found in patients with overt albuminuria. In summary, the prevalence of risk factors for diabetic nephropathy and associated cardiovascular disease is high in Chippewa American Indians in northern Minnesota. Although detecting abnormal UAE may be useful in identifying high-risk patients who may benefit from early intervention, traditional risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia may not explain the risk associated with increased UAE.  (Abstract by: Author)

1527.   Historical Records Survey.  Minnesota. (1941). The Report of the Chippewa Missionn archaeological survey. St. Paul, MN: The Minnesota Historical Records Survey Projects.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:51)

1528.   Hitchcock, I. J. (1930). The Minnesota Indian . in General Federation of Women's Clubs. Public Welfare Dept. Indian Welfare DivisionPrize essays on traditional background of the Indians  . New York .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 7346901
Abstract: Cover title. The Gros Ventres tribe of the Blackfoot Nation / Julia E. Schultz -- The Indians of Wisconsin / Mary Moran Kirch -- The Minnesota Indian / Ida J. Hitchcock -- Ceremonies of the Teton Dakota / Mrs. W.K. Williams -- The history, traditions and culture of the Indians of South Dakota / Florence D. Youngquist -- The legend of the Battle of Claremore Mound, Oklahoma / Rachel Caroline Eaton -- Indians of New Mexico / Gertrude E. Reid.

1529.   Hittman, M. (1990). Wowoka and the ghost dance. Verington Paiute Tribe, Carson City, NV: Grace Dangberg Foundation.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1530.   Hjartarson, F. A. (1997). Epistemological foundations of traditional native education according to Algonquian elders. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ottawa (Canada).
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to define traditional Native education for three Algonquian speaking nations using ethnographic skills of cognitive anthropology. An understanding of traditional Native education from a First Nations' perspective through dialogue using individual audio-taped interviews and an audio-taped group consensus-building dialogue is provided. The Algonquian elders involved are from the Algonquin, Cree and Ojibway Nations. Ten case studies and a group consensus-building conversation with elders constitutes this study. Each case study contains an individual audio-taped dialogue transcription with contextual remarks. The audio-taped dialogues and group consensus-building conversation are transcribed and analyzed using verbal protocol techniques. The emergent themes across the interviews and group consensus-building dialogue are analyzed and the findings tabulated. Six female elders and four male elders whose ages cover a fifty year age span, is the composition of the ten case studies. Nine elders, two women and seven men make up the membership of the group dialogue. Some of the participating elders conveyed their thoughts using the assistance of a translator. Consensus emerges across the individual dialogues and group interview. Elders tell of the existence of a different epistemology for Algonquian speakers that originates in the circle of life and is represented by the medicine wheel. In the cosmology of the circle each person is a whole world and a member of the larger circles of life; the family, the community, the world and the universe. According to the elders the concept of traditional Native education and the process of traditional Native education are embedded in the medicine wheel. Traditional Native education includes learning the Algonquian customs, traditions, values and beliefs and languages. Traditional Native education is the process of acquiring a First Nation identity. The importance of the land to all First Nations People is a recurring theme across all the dialogues. Elders disclose that the land holds knowledge and wisdom, and that it is capable of offering direction. They also iterate the interconnectivity of all of life in the recorded dialogues. No apparent difference in the thought patterns of the contributing Algonquian elders to this study is evident. This study has implications for First Nations' education in particular and for education in general. First, it gives direction to educators involved in educating First Nations children pointing out the need to provide traditional Native education and delineating the components of such an education. Second, it indicates that different epistemologies exist for First Nation Peoples and non-First Nations People and suggests ways of bridging the cultural differences to encourage understanding amongst all people. Third, it offers direction to educators involved in developing cross-cultural education programs.

1531.   Hoagland, J. (1972). South Africa, civilzations in conflict.  Houghton Mifflin//Washington Post.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1532.   . (1907-1910). F. W. Hodge (editor),  Handbook of American Indians north of Mexico . Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:52)

1533.   Hoebel, E. A. (1988). The Plains Indians: A Critical Bibliography.  Indiana University Press.
Notes: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1534.   Hoffman, W. J. (1896). The Menomini Indians. Bureau of American EthnologyAnnual Report 14 ed.,  (pp. 11-335). Washington, D.C.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)

1535.   Hoffman, W. J. (1885-1886). The Mide'wiwin or "Grand Medicine Society" of the Ojibwa. United StatesBureau of Ethnology, Sevent Annual Report, 1885-1886 7 ed.,  (pp. 143-300). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Notes: Source: Human Relations Area Files Index, Category NG6 "[as of July 1, 1975]", identified as "(M)", page 1, item 10
Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)
cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:102), "Bibliography"
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:52)

1536.   Hoffman, W. J. (1890). Notes on Ojibwa ball play. American Anthropologist, 3, 133-135.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:52)

1537.   Hoffman, W. J. (1889). Notes on Ojibwa folk-lore. American Anthropologist, 2(215-223).
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:52)

1538.   Hoffman, W. J. (1888). Pictography and shamanistic rites of the Ojibwa. American Anthropologist, 1, 209-229.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:52)

1539.   Hoffmann, H., & Noem, A. A. (1975). Adjustment of Chippewa Indian Alcoholics to a Predominantly White Treatment Program. Psychological Reports, 37(3, pt. 2), 1284-1286.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

1540.   Hofsinde, R. (1961). Indian Beadwork. New York: William Morrow and Company, Incorporated.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:91), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "The history of Indian beadwork.  Includes instructions and diagrams for making and decorating many items.  Grades 5-8."

1541.   Hofsinde, R. (1957). Indian Games and Crafts. New York: William Morrow and Company, Incorporated.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:91), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "A book of instructions showing how to make equipment for twelve different Indian games and how to play them.  Grades 5-8."

1542.   Hofstetter, R. H. (1969). Floristic and ecological studies of wetlands in Minnesota . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Microfilm of typescript. Ann Arbor, Mich., Xerox University Microfilms, 1969. -- 1 reel ; 35mm.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search)

1543.   Holand, H. R., 1872-1963. (1919). The Kensington rune stone : is it the oldest native document of American history?   Wisconsin Magazine of History, 3(2), p. [1]-31 : ill. ; 27 cm.  Includes bibliographical references.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search).

1544.   Holcombe, R. I. R. I., 1845-1916. (1902). Sketches, historical and descriptive, of the monuments and tablets erected by the Minnesota Valley Historical Society in Renville and Redwood counties, Minnesota : to preserve the sites of certain incidents and in honor of the devotion and important services of some of the characters, whites and Indians, connected with the Indian outbreak of 1862. Morton, Minn.  Minnesota Valley Historical Society.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 6101868
Abstract: Cover title: Monuments and tablets erected by the Minnesota Valley Historical Society. Caption title: Commemorative structures in the upper Minnesota valley. Running title: Monuments and markers of the Minnesota Valley Historical Society. Compiled by R.I. Holcombe, historiographer. Includes bibliographical references.

1545.   Holling, H. C. (1962). Book of Indians. New York: Platt and Munk, Incorporated.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:92), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "A presentation of the North American Indian's daily life.  Grades 3-6."

1546.   Holling, H. C. (1928). Claws of the Thunderbird. New York: P.E. Volland Company.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:95), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "This story takes place on the North Shore of Lake Superior.  Deals with a family's struggles with nature and the Sioux.  Brings in much consideration of the spirit world.  Grades 4-7."

1547.   Holman, R. C., Parashar, U. D., Clarke, M. J., Kaufman, S. F., & Glass, R. I. (1999). Trends in Diarrhea-Associated Hospitalizations Among American Indian and Alaska Native Children, 1980-1995. Pediatrics, 103(1), E11.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in diarrhea- associated hospitalizations among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children and to estimate the morbidity from rotavirus. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of Indian Health Service hospital discharge records. PATIENTS: AI/AN children 1 month through 4 years of age with a diarrhea-associated diagnosis listed on the hospital discharge record. SETTING: Hospitals on or near US Indian reservations from 1980 through 1995. RESULTS: During 1980 through 1995, 21 669 diarrhea-associated hospitalizations were reported among AI/AN children. The annual incidence of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations declined by 76% from 276 per 10 000 in 1980 to 65 per 10 000 in 1995. The median length of hospital stay decreased from 4 days during 1980-1982 to 2 days during 1993-1995. Diarrhea-associated hospitalizations peaked during the winter months (October through March), especially among children 4-35 months of age, with the peaks appearing first in the Southwest during October and moving to the East in March. In the early years of the study (1980-1982), the rate of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations among AI/AN children (236 per 10 000) was greater than the national rate (136 per 10 000). By the end of the study period (1993-1995), the rate for AI/AN children (71 per 10 000) was similar to the national rate (89 per 10 000), although the rate for AI/AN infants remained higher than the national rate for infants. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrhea-associated hospitalization rates for AI/AN children have declined to a level similar to that of the national population. Rotavirus may be an important contributor to diarrheal morbidity among AI/AN children, underscoring the need for vaccines against this pathogen.  (Abstract by: Author)

1548.   Holmer, N. M. (1980). The Ojibway on Walpole Island, Ontario: A Linguistic Study. New York: A M S Press, Incorporated.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXVII (1985:158)
Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1549.   Holzkamm, T. E. (1986). Fur trade dependency and the Pillager Ojibway of Leech Lake, 1825-1842. Minnesota Archaeologist, 45(2), 9-18.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1550.   Holzkamm, T. E. (1986). Ojibwa horticulture in the Upper Mississippi and boundary waters. Papers, Algonquian Conference, (17), 143-154.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1551.   Holzkamm, T. E. (1988). Ojibwa knowledge of minerals and treaty [no.] 3. Papers, Algonquian Conference,  (19), 89-97.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1552.   Holzkamm, T. E. (1987). Sturgeon utilization by the Rainy River Ojibwa bands. Papers, Algonquian Conference, (18), 155-163.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1553.   Holzkamm, T. E., Lytwyn, V. P., & Waisberg, L. G. (1988). Rainy River Sturgeon: An Ojibway Resource in the Fur Trade Econony. The Canadian Geographer, 32(3), 194.
Notes: Source: UnCover database (Aug 1999)

1554.   Holzkamm, T. E., & Waisberg, L. G. (1993). Agriculture and one 19th-century Ojibwa band: "they hardly ever loose sight of their field". Papers, Algonquian Conference, 24, 407-424.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1555.   Honigmann, J. J. (1966). Van Stone, J. W. The changing culture of the Snowdrift Chipewyan.  [book review]. American Antrhopologist, 68(6), 1553-1554.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XIII (1969:179)

1556.   Honingmann, J. J. (1961). Dunning, R.W. Social change among the Northern Ojibwa.  Book Review. American Anthropologist, 63(2), 411-412.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. VII (1963:157)

1557.   Hood, F. m. (1962). Something for the Medicine Man. Chicago: Melmont Publishers, Incorporated.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:92), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "A Cherokee girl of the modern world has to decide what her contribution will be when she and her classmates are asked to bring a gift for an ailing medicine man.  Grades 3-5."

1558.   Hopper, M., & Power, G. (1991). The Fisheries of an Ojibwa Community in Northern Ontario Canada. Arctic, 44(4), 267-274.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Subsistence fishing provides an important source of food for the remote Ojibwa community of Webequie, located along the Winisk River in northern Ontario Canada.  Field observations during the summer of 1988 were combined with a recall survey to estimate catches from October 1987 through September 1988.  Of 133 potential fishermen, 90 were surveyed.  The total community harvest was estimated to be 83 810 fish, round weight 108 210 kg.  After adjustments, this provide 118 kg round weight/person/year, or 0.21 kg/person/day edible fish for consumption.  Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), northern pike (Esox lucius) and suckers (Catostomus commersoni and C. catostomus) were dominant in the catch.  Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) attracts special fishing effort. Older males (> 40 years old) are the primary fishermen.  Fixed gill nets take 95% of the harvest, most of which is consumed.  Commercial fishing seems to be disappearing.  Recreational fishing is a potential source of revenue.  Subsistence fishing tends to be overlooked in development and management schemes but is clearly an important activity.

1559.   Horan, J. D. (1972). The McKenny-Halll Portrait Gallery of American Indians. New York: Crown Publishers.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:52), "contains selections" of McKenny (1836-1844)

1560.   Horner, M. R., Christine, M. S., Olson, M., & Pringle, D. J. (1977). Nutritional Status of Chippewa Head Start Children in Wisconsin. American Journal of Public Health, 67(2), 185-186.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

1561.   Horr, D. A. (1975). Indians of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Southern Michigan & Southern Wisconsin: Findings of Fact & Opinion.  Garland Publishing, Incorporated.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1562.   Hosmer, B. C. (1994). Experiments in capitalism: market economics, wage labor, and social change among the Menominees and Metlakahtans, 1860-1920 (Native Americans, Wisconsin, Alaska). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin.
Abstract: This dissertation results from my desire to challenge prevailing assumptions regarding the nature of Native American adaptations to European culture. While some scholars have begun to dismantle what has been a rather static picture of what was once called 'acculturation,' many works still assume that most native peoples had just two choices when confronted with change: resist and be defeated; or capitulate and forfeit one's distinctive 'identity.' In addressing this question, I chose to compare two instances where natives attempted to adapt to the capitalistic 'market system,' and in that process, found creative ways to balance the demands of a new economic order with more traditional ways. These two areas are the Menominee Reservation, where a tribally-owned and operated lumber mill constituted the center of a vibrant reservation economy; and Metlakahtla, where, under the direction of the lay missionary William Duncan, a colony of refugee Tsimshians created a varied and nearly self-sufficient economy based on the exploitation of the resources of sea and forest. In both cases, natives labored to exploit abundant natural resources to provide a degree of economic stability. Yet while whites encouraged these efforts, it is important to emphasize that natives, in both places, supported the introduction of resource-based industries and understood them to have social as well as economic benefits. This was neither acculturation nor assimilation but an effort to preserve cultural integrity through a type of economic modernization that did not sacrifice ties with the past. In the end, this dissertation challenges the notion that confinement to diminishing parcels of land always led to cultural degeneration or economic chaos. Blessed with abundant natural resources, Menominees and Metlakahtlans combined new with old and came to grips with change by adopting a strategy of purposeful modernization. Their efforts resulted in a measure of independence not realized by most Indian societies.

1563.   Hotchkiss, W. O. (1916). Mineral land classification, showing indications of iron formation in parts of Ashland, Bayfield, Washburn, Sawyer, Price, Oneida, Forest, Rusk, Barron and Chippewa Counties. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Wisconsin, Madison.

1564.   Houghton, F. (1909). Indian village, camp and burial sites on the Niagara frontier. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, 9, 261-262, 263-374.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:53)

1565.   Houston, J. Ojibwa summer.

1566.   . (1972). J. HoustonOjibwa summer . Barre, MA: Barre Pub.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:53)

1567.   Howard, J. H. (1961). The identity and demography of the Plains-Ojibwa. Plains Anthropologist, 6(13), 171-178.
Notes: Source: Human Relations Area Files Index, Category NG6 "[as of July 1, 1975]", identified as "(M)", page 2, item 13
Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. VII (1963:1456)

1568.   Howard, J. H. (1965). The Plains-Ojibwa or Bungi: hunters and warriors of the Northern Prairies with special reference to the Turtle Mountain band. Vermillion, SD: Museum, University of South Dakota.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XII (1968:89)

1569.   Howe, C. P. (1996). Architectural tribalism in the Native American New World (Ponca tribe, Nebraska). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Michigan.
Abstract: This study proposes a theoretical framework for the production of contemporary tribal architectures which emphasizes the unique identities and traditional spiritual beliefs of Native American communities. The framework views architectures as communication systems whose social functions are to embody rhetorical messages of tribal communities. Such architectures spatially manifest the unique tribal identities of those communities, thereby promoting a  renaissance of architectural tribalism. The theoretical framework was used to develop an 'architectural code' for the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. This architectural code was tested by two graduate architecture studios (one having access to the code, the other not) at  the University of Michigan. The students proposed 17 designs for a Northern Ponca interpretive center which were evaluated through  interviews with the students and their instructors, and through voting by 35 members of the Niobrara, Nebraska, community.  Interestingly, community members consistently preferred those designs which most completely fulfilled the programmatic requirements of the hypothetical center, regardless of whether or not designers had access to the 'architectural code.' In fact, a test of the code's ability to produce Ponca architecture was confounded by the varied ways students with access to the code chose to employ it in their designs. The production of tribal architectures--ethnoarchitectonics--is shown to be dependent on the development of new 'design traditions' whereby (1) tribally specific messages are encoded into contemporary architectures and (2) procedures are implemented which enable Native American communities to ensure adherence to those traditions.

1570.   Howells, W. W. (1946). Physical types of the Northeast. Frederick Johnson (editor), Papers of the R.S. Peabody Foundation of Archaeology . Andover, MA.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)

1571.   Hrdlicka, A.(Alois Ferdinand). (1916). Trip to the Chippewa Indians of Minnesota. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 16(part 3), 263-274.
Abstract: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:53)

1572.   Hubbard, B. (1887). Memorials of a half-century in Michigan and the Lake Region ... New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:53)

1573.   . (1976). G. J. HudakWoodland ceramics from the Pedersen site  . Saint Paul : Science Museum of Minnesota.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 2290828. Bibliography: p. 20-21.

1574.   . (1975). G. J. Hudak, & E. JohnsonAn early woodland pottery vessel from Minnesota  . Saint Paul : Science Museum of Minnesota.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 2118615. Bibliography: p. 8-9.

1575.   Hughes, E. C., & Hughes, E. M. (1952). Where peoples meet: racial and cultural frontiers. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:102), "Bibliography"

1576.   . (1969). T. HughesIndian Chiefs of Southern Minnesota; containing sketches of the prominent chieftains of the Dakota and Winnebago Tribes from 1825 to 1865 [2d ed.]  ed., ). Minneapolis: Ross & Haines Old Books Company.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 11507949 ... accession: 2633926
Abstract: "Containing sketches of the prominent chieftains of the Dakota and Winnebago tribes from 1825 to 1865."

1577.   Hughes, T., 1854-1934.  (1927). Indian chiefs of southern Minnesota containing sketches of the prominent chieftains of the Dakota and Winnebago tribes from 1825-1865 . Mankato: Free Press.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 10467163

1578.   Hultgren, M. L., & Molin, P. F. (19??). To lead to serve. Hampton: Virginia Foundation for the Humanities and Public Policy.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1579.   Human Resources Planning Coalition of Greater Duluth. (1973). Duluth Indian human service directory . Duluth: Human Resources Planning Coalition of Greater Duluth.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 7662746. "Submitted to Duluth City Council."

1580.   Humphrey, B. M. (1944). Paranormal occurrences among preliterate peoples. Journal of Parapsychology, 8(3), 214-229.  15 refs.
Notes: Source: Parapsychology Abstracts International, Jun 1984:33
Abstract: This paper is an initial effort in evaluating and sifting the relevant reports of abilities of parapsychical nature in primitive peoples.  The criterion by which the cases given here are selected is that they constitute firsthand evidence; that is, they must have been reported by a witness to the event in question.  Also, since the scientifically trained observer is generally more trustworthy, the search has centered mainly on reports of anthropologists and medical men and that portion of the literature which has appeared wince 1900.  The survey includes, among others, reports of Andrew Lang, the SPR, Theodore Besterman, J. F. Hutton, Geoffrey Gorer, J. F. Laubscher (on Solmon Daba), and A. Irving Hallowell.  Most accounts provide cases of ESP although there are a few cases of physical phenomena (PK).  It is concluded that research in this area should be continued.  Some of the cases are striking and others at least thought-provoking.  The most apparent need is for follow-up and investigation, but we cannot expect anthropologists to do that.  Ultimately it will be up to the trained parapsychologtist to asnwer the question of whether or not primitive peoples possess genuine psi capacities. --DT/R.A.W.

1581.   Hungry Wolf, A. (1988). The Children of the Sun.  William Morrow & Company, Incorporated.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1582.   Hungrywolf, A. (1991). Indian Tribes of the Northern Rockies.  Book Publishing Company.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1583.   Hunt, W. B. (1954). The Golden Book of Indian Crafts and Lore. New York: The Golden Press, Incorporated.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:92), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "One of the best craft and lore books available.  Excellent directions for performing ritual dances and other information.  Easy directions showing how to make many Indian craft items."

1584.   Hurley, D. (1995). Powwow dancers . Child Life, 74(7), 4-8 [cover story].
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: "Honor the Earth" Powwows are held every July at the Lac Courte Oreilles (la-COOT-o-ray) Reservation in northwestern Wisconsin. In French, Lac Courte Oreilles means "lake of the short ears."
Jordan and many of the other kids at the powwow live on the reservation. They are Ojibwa (oh-JIB-way) Indians, and they celebrate their Ojibwa heritage by dancing at the powwow, just as their parents and grandparents did.
Their dancing costumes are bright and colorful. They are made from feathers, fur, and beads according to the customs of their tribe. The kids perform traditional dances that have been done for many years.
Centuries ago, the Native American dances were often done as spiritual ceremonies for celebrating hunts and feasts or for healing sick people. Today some Native Americans dance at powwows for fun, and they also dance to practice their traditions in modern-day life.
The festivities at the powwow are fun to see and exciting to hear. Usually six or eight people sit around a big drum. They are called singers. They beat the drum and sing traditional Native American chants. The dancers move to the sound of drums. The sounds of the dancers' bells and jingles blend with the music from the drums.
There are different types of powwow dances for boys, girls, and grown-ups. Boys and men do traditional dances, fancy dances, and grass dances. Girls and women do traditional dances, shawl dances, and jingle dances.
Some of the dance costumes are made for a certain type of dance. The shawl dancers carry shawls. Many of the shawls are made by hand, and some are handed down from grandmother to mother to daughter.
On their dresses, the jingle dancers have sewn ornaments that jingle as they dance. These jingles are made from the covers of snuff cans. Some dresses may have a hundred or more jingles. Many years ago, the jingles were made from animal bones and teeth or from seashells.
The boys' and men's costumes are also very colorful. Some are made from fur, feathers, beads, bells, and bones. Some of the men wear an eagle feather in their hair.
To the Ojibwa people, the eagle represents a messenger that carries their thoughts and feelings to their Creator.
Because of this, eagle feathers are considered sacred. The feathers must be earned with a special deed, or they are given on a special occasion, such as highschool graduation.
When Jordan Lacapa danced at the powwow, many of his friends danced also. Rachel Denn, thirteen, was a jingle dancer with many jingles on her costume. Later, she was named Miss Lac Courte Oreilles.
Starla Robertson, ten, was a shawl dancer. She likes to get exercise dancing at powwows. David Butler, twelve, is a grass dancer. He says the powwow helps him learn about his Native American culture.
Felina LaPointe, ten, wears a jingle dress that he grandmother made. She learned the jingle dance by watching others dance.
Tiny Erin Miller is just two years old, but this was her second year in the powwoe. She started dancing when she was one year old, just after she learned to walk.
The powwow is not just for dancing. There are good things to eat, such as Indian fry bread, Indian tacos, and wild rice soup. There are things to buy, such as Indian jewelry, clothing, and toys.
The powwow is like a big party where families get together and meet friends. And most important, the powwow helps the Native American kids understand the customs and traditions of their people.

1585.   Hurtado, A. (1982). Domination and intergroup relations: the impact on Chicano linguistic attitudes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Michigan.
Abstract: This study examines the relationship between ethnic identification,  political consciousness, and the attitudes of people of Mexican descent towards Spanish/English bilingualism. The data base for the study is the 1979 Chicano Survey conducted by the Institute for Social Research at The University of Michigan. Nine hundred and ninety one interviews were completed in the 1979 Chicano Survey.  The sample for this study, however, was delimited to the 429 respondents who were born in the United States and chose to take the interview in English. This purposeful sub-sample was selected because previous findings concluded that English ability facilitated exposure to the dominant ideology and nativity determined length of contact with the dominant group. Both English ability and nativity were considered critical in determining language attitudes. Multiple regression analysis was used to gauge the direct impact of socio-demographic variables, ethnic identity, and political consciousness on attitudes toward bilingualism. The results indicate that socio-demographic variables do not have a direct effect; they influence bilingualism largely through their effects on ethnic identity and political consciousness. Ethnic identity measures do have direct effects. Respondents who identified with Mexican Traditional terms  (Spanish speaker, Mexican) and Ethno-Political terms (Chicano,  raza, cholo, pocho, indian, mestiza) have positive attitudes toward bilingualism. Conversely, respondents who identify with ethnically mobile terms (Hispanic, Latin American, middle class, working class) have negative attitudes toward bilingualism. Political consciousness measures also had a direct effect on attitudes toward bilingualism. Respondents who perceived influential groups  (businessmen, policemen, etc.) as having too much power in society,  and/or perceive a great amount of discrimination directed at people of Mexican descent, have positive attitudes towards bilingualism. In summary, the investigation results show that ethnic identification as  consciousness have an impact on positive attitudes towards bilingualism.

1586.   [Huseby, O. (1909). Thief River Falls and surrounding territory, illustrated . Grand Forks, N.D.  Huseby.
Notes: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 10701729

1587.   Hussain, M., Rae, J., Gilman, A., & Kauss, P. (1998). Lifetime Health Risk Assessment From Exposure of Recreational Users to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, 35(3), 527-531.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: In order to assess the lifetime risk of skin cancer for recreational users from dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sediment samples were collected from beach sites along the St. Marys River near Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and in Hamilton Harbor and Toronto Harbor, Ontario, and analyzed for PAHs. Dermal exposure and lifetime skin cancer risk were estimated as follows: Concentrations of 11 PAHs with sufficient or limited evidence of carcinogenicity or mutagenicity were converted to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalents using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). Lifetime dermal exposure values were derived based on the BaP equivalents in the silt + clay fraction taken as representative of suspended sediment particulates to which recreational users would be exposed. The lifetime health risk of skin cancer associated with such exposures was above the negligible risk level of 1.0 x 10(-6) at offshore Rytac, Lake George Channel, and Bell Point beaches in the St. Marys River; at Pier 4 Park in Hamilton Harbor; and at Humber Bay, Sunnyside Beach, Cherry Beach, and Water Rats Sailing Club in Toronto Harbor. Risk was negligible inshore at the Rytac and Bell Point beaches and at Squirrel Island and Ojibway Trailer Park along St. Marys River, at Lax Beach in Hamilton Harbor; and at Centre Island in Toronto Harbor. Strategies to reduce risk were developed with these communities; a key recommendation was to take a bath or shower within 24 h after a swim because virtually all the PAHs on the skin would be removed.

1588.   Sketch of road from Prince Arthur's Landing, Thunder Bay, L. Superior to Lake Shebandowan as traversed by the Red River Expeditionary Force . (1870).  Great Britain. War Office. Topographical Depot.
Notes: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 17322152
Abstract: Shows road from Prince Arthur's Landing to River Matawin near River Kaministiquia. Facsimile. Publisher's no. from its catalog of nineteenth century maps of Canada and North America from the British Parliamentary papers: 31.

1589.   Hymes, D. H. (1955). Positional analysis of categories: a frame for reconstruction. Word , I (II), 10-23.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology (1955:I-594)
Abstract: A morphological construction, especially concerning the Athapascan, Hupa, Mattole, Chipewyan, Apacho Group-languages.

1590.   Ikoma, E. (1986). Anthropological study of digital and parietal hair of Canadians. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 4(69), 483-487, ill.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1591.   Ilko, J. A., Jr. (1995). Ojibwa Chiefs, 1690-1890: An Annotated Listing.  Whitston Publishing Company, Incorporated.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1592.   In The Woods, P. M. (1995). Opposing the ideology of the split: mythological synergy as resistance discourse in the novels of Louise Erdrich. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
Abstract: This dissertation explores the characterization of mixedblood protagonists in Louise Erdrich's novels, Love Medicine and Tracks, and demonstrates how these characterizations deconstruct the stereotypical figure of the mixedblood as yet another icon of doom and sacrifice in the ongoing myth of the vanishing American while exposing the impact that colonization has had on indigenous communities. Erdrich's unique approach, which utilizes cross-cultural mythologies as wellsprings for characterization, goes beyond syncretism to produce a synergistic expression of mythic resistance to mixedblood stereotypes. In addition to using mythic figures and symbols extracted from denied and/or discredited forms of knowledge such as Chippewa mythology, and the Tarot, Erdrich also draws upon and deconstructs Christian imagery which she either forces back upon itself or opens up to expose the previously subsumed non-Christian elements. This strategy allows for new interpretations which subvert traditional associations and moves mixedblood protagonists away from their spuriously assigned role of scapegoat or sacrificial victim. In order to further oppose the Euro-American notion that mixedbloods are an 'outcast' people who are by nature doomed, defective and double-crossed, that is culturally confused and therefore locked in stasis or canceled out altogether, Erdrich builds her stories around a family of characters largely composed of mixedbloods who survive more often than not,  rather than focusing on the exploits of a single mixedblood protagonist disconnected from family and community. Through her characterizations, Erdrich makes it clear that the tragedies that afflict the lives of some of the characters in Love Medicine and Tracks are directly related to the effect that colonization has had upon them, and not to biologically deterministic notions of a fatal flaw of mixed blood.

1593.   Indergaard, M. L. (1983). Urban renewal and the American Indian movement in Minneapolis a case study in political economy and the urban Indian . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University. Dept. of Sociology, Microfilm. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms, 1983. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 10901437 ... accession: 10901357

1594.   Indian Affairs, E. D. (1965). Education of Indian children in Canada. Toronto: Ryerson Press.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:102), "Bibliography"

1595.   Indian American Folklore Group (Ed.). (9999). Newsletter - Indian American Folklore Group (Vols. 19 -). Stillwater, Minn.: Indian American Folklore Group.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 6221093

1596.   . (1975). Indian Education Resources Center. Division of Evaluation, Research and DevelopmentEvaluation report of Indian Education Administrator Training Program at universities of Harvard, Penn State, and Minnesota : graphic description . Albuquerque, N.M.  Indian Education Resources Center, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Division of Evaluation, Research, and Development.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 18159336. Cover title. "April, 1975."

1597.   Indian & Free Drug Program (Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians). (1986). Will my drinking hurt my baby? : an answer : some advice. Red Lake, Minnesota : Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, Indian & Free (Drug Program).
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 17514535.  Cover title.

1598.   Indian Health Board of Minneapolis. (1989). Community lead abatement project / Indian Health Board of Minneapolis. [Minneapolis, Minn.] : Indian Health Board of Minneapolis.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 21783196

1599.   Indian Inspection Service. (Employee evaluations, White Earth Agency. M-1070, Roll 57. microfilm.  National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1600.   (1981). Edmonton, Alberta: Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Research Branch.
Notes: ERIC NO: ED220244
Abstract: The report and evaluation of Education North (a project designed to encourage parents, community members, and teachers in small, isolated, primarily Native and Metis communities in northern Alberta to work together to meet community educational needs) is comprised of three parts. Part One presents an update of Education North activities and concerns at the provincial level and an analysis of the teacher questionnaire and parent interview data collected in May and June of 1980. The survey summary indicates that: there is a major effect associated with "more" and "less" remoteness; there is teacher dissatisfaction with student attendance and commitment and with parental involvement; and parents strongly feel that they can have very little influence on school practices. Part Two provides historical background, current activities, and future plans for the local education societies (Atikameg, Fort Chipewyan, Fort Vermillion, Lac la Biche, Little Red River, Slave Lake, and Wabasca-Desmarais). The issues section (Part Three) indicates that the previously reported imbalance between accountability and responsiveness has been eliminated. Issues listed as unresolved are: the locus of power in the relationship of school and community; the dialectics of voluntary and retained leadership; Education North as a family of strategies; community conflict; and Education North's future. (BRR)

1601.   Innanen, S. E. R. (1996). Issues in environmental mercury contamination: Ontario (Canada), Finland and Sweden. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, York University (Canada).
Abstract: The present study examines the problem of environmental mercury in various sectors of Ontario, Finland and Sweden, with the objective of making recommendations on (i) how best to improve on the existing mercury policy and regulatory structure, (ii) developing a monitoring system with potential for global comparison, (iii) need for more comprehensive research in certain scientific areas, and (iv) uses of international agencies for development of global, legally binding emissions limits. Emissions estimates of environmental mercury source release to the atmosphere in Ontario was undertaken, and patterns of contamination, using Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy data for 1-kg northern pike (Esox lucius L.), were mapped using GIS technology (Chapter 2). Native Canadian populations especially vulnerable to mercury contamination because of fish intake were discussed in Chapter 3, with special emphasis on the Ojibway band Grassy Narrows. The origins of governmental mercury policy with regard to regulations governing industrial atmospheric mercury release and guidelines recommending levels of fish intake were traced in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 examines proposed sites and equipment for governmental environmental mercury monitoring. Chapter 6 set the basis for comparison between Ontario and Finland and Sweden; the three countries have many physical similarities. Chapter 7 outlined analogous Finnish and Swedish experiences to those described in Ontario in Chapters 2 through 5. Finally, Chapter 8 briefly compared Ontario with Finland and Sweden, and made thirteen recommendations as a result, including policy and regulatory recommendations, scientific and abatement recommendations, and monitoring recommendations. Environmental mercury is a global problem requiring global cooperation and solutions. More emphasis should be placed on treating it that way.

1602.   Institute for Minnesota Archaeology. (1985). The Institute for Minnesota Archaeology summary report 1982-84//Summary report 1982-84. [Minneapolis, Minn.] : Institute for Minnesota Archaeology.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 37539692
Abstract: Title from cover. Research in southern Minnesota -- Archaeological survey, Red Wing -- Excavation at the Bryan Site (21GD4) -- Research at the Adams Site (47PI12) -- Archaeological survey, the Center Creek Locality -- Experimental prehistoric garden, Winnebago, MN -- Conference on Western Oneota Ceramics -- Research in historical and northern Minnesota archaeology -- Little Falls, the MO20 project -- Prairie Island survey -- The rediscovery of Zebulon Pike's fort -- Aitkin's Post survey -- Archaeological survey at Gull Lake -- The Lost Lake Mounds (21CA119), Cass Co., Minnesota.

1603.   . (1974). Institute for the Development of Indian LawTreaties and agreements of the Chippewa Indians . Washington, D. C.: Institute for the Development of Indian Law.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:53)

1604.   International Joint Commission. (1915). Hearings on the reference by the United States and Canada in re levels of the Lake of the Woods and its tributary waters and their future regulation and control; being further public hearings at International Falls and Warroad, Minn., and Kenora, Ontario, September 7-14, 1915. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)

1605.   Irimoto, T. (1981). The Chipwyan Caribou hunting system. Arctic Anthropology, 18(1), 44-56, il., bibliogr.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXVII (1985:149)

1606.   Irimoto, T. (1981). Chipwyan ecology: group structure and Caribou hunting system. Senri Ethnological Studies, 8, 1-196, ill., maps, tabl., bibliogr.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXVII (1985:104)

1607.   Israel, M. (1962). Ojibwa. Chicago: Melmont Publishers.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:95), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "An excellent description of the life and times of the Chippewa before the coming of the white man.  Third grade reading level.  Interest level from grades 2-6."

1608.   J.R. Watkins Medical Co. (1919). Wenonah : the story of an Indian maid. Winona, Minn.,  J.R. Watkins Medical Co.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 20732612. Title from cover.

1609.   Jackson, D. D. (1999). 'Our elders lived it': American Indian identity and community in a deindustrializing city (urban communities, Michigan). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Michigan.
Abstract: Issues of 'ethnic identity' have gained increasing importance in the United States (and elsewhere) as disenfranchised 'minority groups' seek to improve their circumstances and promote positive images of themselves. These 'identity politics' in contemporary society have been paralleled by a corresponding literature in the social sciences on the nature of 'identity' as a social construct or process, in which a choice is often made between 'subjective' vs. 'objective' approaches that are ultimately rooted in Cartesian dualism. This dissertation takes a different approach to the analysis of ethnic identity--one that is rooted in the philosophy of C. S. Peirce, which transcends Cartesian dualism by offering a semeiotic notion of the self. The particular ethnic group considered is the 'urban Indian' community of Flint, Michigan. The political-economic history of Flint as a deindustrializing Midwestern city has shaped its demographics such that the contemporary American Indian population there falls into three main categories: (1) those who grew up on reservations or in other non-urban Indian home communities; (2) those who grew up in households where the parents grew up in such a community; and, (3) those who now, as adults, choose to identify themselves as Native American, but who grew up in households where the parents had no connection to an Indian home community. The dissertation argues that Native home communities constitute key sites for the formation of an American Indian identity which is then reinforced as those who grew up in such communities continue to interact with one another. Looking at both the official and informal institutions of Flint's urban Indian community, and at the Indian home communities from which some people came, the dissertation considers various kinds of 'Indianness.' Emphasis is given to the most subtle manifestations--the values, habits, and practices that characterize the daily interactions of those who grew up in non-urban Indian home communities. A semeiotic notion of the self is utilized to clarify and illuminate these highly significant, yet often overlooked, aspects ofAmerican Indian identity. An essential connection is therefore shown between identity and community.

1610.   . (1979). F. Jackson, b. 1899 or 1900 , & C. KelseyReminiscences of Frank Jackson, White Earth band of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 23017528

1611.   Jackson, L. J. (1985). Late Wisconsin environments and Palaeo-Indian occupation in the northeastern United States and southern Ontario. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Trent University (Canada).

1612.   Jackson, L., & McKillop, H. (1991). Approaches to Palaeo-Indian Economy: An Ontario and Great Lakes Perspective. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology : MCJA., 16(1), 34.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1613.   Jackson, L. (1885). Our Caughnawagas in Egypt: a narrative of what was seen and accomplished by the  contingent of North American Indian voyageurs who led the  British boat expedition for the relief of Khartoum up the  cataracts of the Nile. Montreal: W. Drysdale & co.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
Other: Brown, T. S.

1614.   (1998). R. R. Jackson, & R. A. Rozoff (written and produced by). St. Germain, WI : DeltaVision Entertainment.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October, 1999 search)
Abstract: This program examines the relationship between Wisconsin's long established tribal nations and a young, expanding United States government through the hundred years that follow the founding of the United States, on into the present day. VHS.

1615.   . (1877). W. H. JacksonDescriptive Catalogue of photographs of North American Indians . Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:53-4)

1616.   Jacobs, C. A. (1997). Artificer and bearer of the tradition: Louise Erdrich's mythopoei quartet from the North Dakota plains (novels, Native Americans). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northern Illinois University.
Notes: Louise Erdrich's quartet, Tracks, The Beet Queen, Love Medicine, and The Bingo Palace, stands as one of the most moving, humorous, and compassionate accounts of 20th century Native American life.  While other prominent Indian authors have focused their work on the displacement resulting when an Indian tries to function in the Anglo society, Erdrich eschews such topics and concentrates solely on her Indian community, the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewas.  Her novels combine the mixed voices of five generations of families who tell the stories of their lives during this century. From near decimation as a people around the turn of the century due to disease, erosion of tribal lands, and loss of hope, this Chippewa band emerges as a strong, compassionate, often raucous group of people whose stories Erdrich tells with compassion and love. Erdrich's focus is not on any individual but rather on the community,  a new focus in Native American fiction. She relates the stories of Chippewa families who fight alcohol, the BIA, the Catholic church and especially themselves in their struggle to retain their distinctive cultural heritage. Her story is that of a group of Indian people and their Anglo counterparts on the harsh North Dakota Plains who struggle against the physical and psychological ties to this particular place they hold sacred. Through the voices of individuals, of their  families, of their community, and of their tribe, a story emerges of a group of Indian people who endure. Erdrich positions herself as the  tribal storyteller relating the history of various tribal families, and their voices and histories mingle and blend to form a composite of a group of people whose will to survive is stronger than the forces that  seek their demise. Underpinning all their stories is the powerful medicine woman, Fleur, sole representative of the old ways throughout the novels whose presence binds the people together. Erdrich's quartet is not an elegy to a way of life that has died; rather, it is a loving tribute to the endurance of her people who continue to evolve and thrive into the 21st century.

1617.   Jacobson, S. F., Booton-Hiser, D., Moore, J. H., Edwards, K. A., Pryor, S., & Campbell, J. M. (1998). Diabetes Research in an American Indian Community. Image - the Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 30(2), 161-165.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: PURPOSE: To describe field experiences of a nurse-led team conducting collaborative research on diabetes with an American Indian community. Diabetes is of epidemic proportions among Indians. Methodological reports can assist nurse researchers to make important contributions to Indian health and diabetes care. ORGANIZING FRAMEWORK: Wax's stages of fieldwork: Initiation, fieldwork, post-field work. SCOPE AND METHOD: Report of key research experiences from all phases of a study with an Indian community (1988-1996). Based on review of classic literature, field notes, and team meetings. FINDINGS: Methodological literature on research with Indians and cultural tutelage by Indians were helpful but neither sufficient nor infallible. A long period of investigator presence in the community before beginning the research was extremely useful. The need for researchers to explain their presence and the contribution of research to the community was ongoing. CONCLUSIONS: Wax's conception of field work as a dialectic process was supported. A collaborative, community focus and willingness to spend much time acquiring cultural knowledge can facilitate successful research on Indian health.  (Abstract by: Author)

1618.   James, B. J. (1970). Continuity and emergency in Indian poverty culture. Current Anthropology, 11, 435-452.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:54)

1619.   James, B. J. (1961). Social-psychological dimensions of Ojibwa acculturation. American Anthropologist, 63(4), 721-743.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. VII (1963:151)
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:54)

1620.   James, B. J. (1954). Some critical observations concerning analyses of Chippewa 'atomism' and Chippewa personality. American Anthropologist, 56, 283-286.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:54)

1621.   Jamieson, J. W. (1998). The Ojibwa Woman - Landes, R. Mankind Quarterly, 38(3), 311.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999

1622.   Janke, R. A. (1977). The development and persistence of U.S. Indian land problems as shown by a detailed study of the Chippewa Indian. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.

1623.   Janssens, J. A., & Glaser, P. H. (1986). The bryophyte flora and major peat-forming mosses at Red Lake peatland, Minnesota. Canadian Journal of Botany , 64, 427-442, bibl., il.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota Biological & Agricultural Index [electronic database], Fall 1999 search

1624.   Jantz, R. L., & Meadows, L. (1995). Population Structure of Algonquian Speakers. Human Biology, 67(3), 375-386.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [full text available]
Abstract: Speakers of Algonquian languages are widely dispersed geographically but are homogeneous linguistically. We examine anthropometric differentiation among Algonquian-speaking populations distributed from New Brunswick to Montana. Head and face measurements and body measurements were analyzed separately in an attempt to address the effect of phenotypic plasticity on relationships. The head and face and body dimensions yield somewhat different pictures of relationships. From the head and face data an east to west geographic pattern can be discerned. The principal feature of the body measurements is the distinctiveness of the Ojibwa located northwest of Lake Superior. The formal correlation between the two sets of measurements is low and not significant. Only the head and face dimensions correlate significantly with geographic distances. Language distances do not correlate with anthropometric distances. The set of populations is also more strongly differentiated with respect to body measurements than to head and face measurements. We interpret this as reflecting phenotypic plasticity and possibly greater interobserver variation.

1625.   Jantzer-White, M. J. (1998). Beyond modernism: Anishinaabe abstraction, activism, and traditionalism (Native Americans, Minnesota). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Los Angeles, California.
Abstract: What accounts for the creative explosion of art by Anishinaabe artists working in the urban environment of Minnesota during the1970s? The artistic Renaissance that occurred emerged in an epistemological and political conjuncture shaped by an activism that continues unabated, if altered, today. Sparked by the creation of the National Indian Youth Council in 1961, a generational shift marked by ideologies of traditionalism ushered in a wave of creativity across a broad spectrum. In sculpture and painting, this revolution derived its sustenance from a revitalization of 'traditional' concepts and symbology. Between the pathbreaking modernism of Patrick DesJarlait's social realism during the forties and Anishinaabe abstraction of the seventies, Anishinaabe artists overturned the silence of Minnesota's art institutions toward Native American art.  In the process, art served in remapping social, political and cultural identity. Citing doodems, markers of familial and village identity, and the ideographic figurative language of Mide'wiwin, the blueprint of Anishinaabe philosophy and religion, several artists working independently drafted resources of a classical era of Anishinaabe art and knowledge from which identity may both express itself in the present, as well as project into the future.

1626.   Jarboe, M. A. (1993). Regulating Indian Gaming: Fairness or Finagling? The Bench and Bar of Minnesota Microform, 50(5), 25.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1627.   . (1974). O. M. Jarvenpa, & E. H. Huber (Minnesota. Division of Fish and Wildlife. Environment Section), Biological impact of the proposed Huot dam and reservoir on the Red Lake River, Minnesota  . Saint Paul?  Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Environment Section .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 8004082

1628.   Jarvenpa, R. (1982). Intergroup behaviour and imagery: the case of Chipewyan and Cree. Ethnology, 21(4), 283-299, tabl., bibliogr.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXVIII (1985:179)

1629.   Jarvenpa, R. (1982). Symbolism and inter-ethnic relations among hunter-gatherers: Chipewyan conflict lore. Anthropologica, 24(1), 43-76.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXVIII (1985:179)

1630.   Jarvenpa, R. (1985). Northern pilgrimage. Beaver, outfit 315(4), 54-59, ill.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1631.   Jarvis, B. D. E. (1999). A 'woman much to be respected': Madeline LaFramboise and the redefinition of a metis identity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.
Abstract: This thesis analyzes the identity presentation of one individual, Madeline LaFramboise. LaFramboise lived in early nineteenth century Mackinac and enjoyed a successful career as a fur trader and educator. Ethnically, she was metis, a term that refers to those individuals born from unions between French fathers and Indian mothers and who functioned as cultural brokers or as intermediaries in the middle ground between Euro-American and Native American cultural groups, establishing themselves as important facilitators of the fur trade. The arguments presented here attempt to demonstrate how Madeline LaFramboise succeeded in constructing a personal identity that allowed her to claim affiliations with multiple social groups and, therefore, function at various levels in a dynamic society. The theoretical model used in this thesis implements practice theory, asserting that individuals perceive cultural phenomena in traditional ways. When applied to this case study, the model argues that LaFramboise redefined traditional aspects of her metis identity in order to maintain affiliations to groups within both Ottawa and Euro-American societies. As derived from identity theory, this process of identity construction was a negotiative and evaluative process that entailed the emphasis of certain components of her identity in various contexts in order to achieve what Marshall Sahlins terms social 'interest.'

1632.   Jarvis, E. (1952). Moccasin Trail. New York: Coward-McCann, Incorporated.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:92), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "A trapper is left to die after a battle with a grizzly, and is found by the Crow Indians.  He knows no other life until he gets a letter from his brother.  Grades 7-8."

1633.   Jasper, C. R. (1988). Change in Ojibwa (Chippewa) Dress, 1820-1980. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 12(4), 17.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1634.   Jass, S. J. (1994). Protection of Native American graves in the United States : Montana and Wisconsin as case studies . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bowling Green State University.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search). Includes bibliographical references.

1635.   Jefferson, T. (President of the United States, 1801-1809). (1832). Lewis and Clarke's expedition. T. Jefferson, 1743-1826, M. Lewis, 1774-1809, J. Sibley, W. Dunbar, 1749-1810, Dr. Hunter, & 1. s. s. United States. Congress (9th (joint author), Message from the President of the United States communicating discoveries made in exploring the Missouri . Washington.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)
Abstract: Reprint of 1806 ed.; issued without map of the Washita River. Cf. Wagner-Camp 5. Message to the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States [signed: Th. Jefferson. February 19, 1806]-- Extract of letter from Captain Meriwether Lewis, to the President of the United States, dated Fort Mandan, April 17th, 1805.--A statistical view of the Indian nations inhabiting the territory of Louisiana and the countries adjacent to its northern and western boundaries. [By Meriwether Lewis]--Historical sketches of the several Indian tribes in Louisiana, south of the Arkansa River, and between the Mississippi and River Grand. [By John Sibley]--To General Henry Dearborn [account of Red River and the country adjacent, by John Sibley]--Observations made in a voyage commencing at St. Catharine's landing, on the east bank of the Mississippi, proceeding downwards to the mouth of Red River, and from thence ascending that river, the Black River, and the Washita River, as high as the hot springs in the proximity of the last mentioned river, extracted from the journals of William Dunbar, esquire, and Docter Hunter.-- Meteorological observations made by Mr. Dunbar and Doctor Hunter, in their voyage up the Red and Washita Rivers, in the year 1804.

1636.   . (1806). T. Jefferson, 1743-1826 (President of the United States (1801-1809)), Message from the President of the United States, communicating discoveries made in exploring the Missouri, Red River and Washita . City of Washington : A. & G. Way, printers.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)
Abstract: "February 19, 1806." "Printed by order of the Senate." Message to the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States / signed: Th. Jefferson. February 19, 1806 -- Extract of a letter from Captain Meriwether Lewis, to the President of the United States, dated Fort Mandan, April 17th, 1805 -- Statistical view of the Indian nations inhabiting the territory of Louisiana and the countries adjacent to its northern and western boundaries / [Meriwether Lewis] -- Historical sketches of the several Indian tribes in Louisiana, south of the Arkansa river, and between the Mississippi and River Grand / [John Sibley] -- To General Henry Dearborn [account of Red river and the country adjacent, by John Sibley] -- Observations made in a voyage commencing at St. Catharine's landing, on the east bank of the Mississippi, proceeding downwards to the mouth of Red river, and from thence ascending that river, the Black river, and the Washita river, as high as the hot springs in the proximity of the last mentioned river / extracted from the journals of William Dunbar, esquire, and Doctor Hunter --  Meteorological observations made by Mr. Dunbar and Doctor Hunter, in their voyage up the Red and Washita rivers in the year 1804. Master microform held by: ResP.

1637.   Jefferson, T., 1743-1826. (1808). Message from the President of the United States transmitting a treaty made at Detroit on the seventeenth of November, 1807 between the United States and the Ottaway, Chippeway, Wyandot and Pottowattamie Nations of Indians, "January 30, 1808 referred to the Committee of Ways and Means" . City of Washington : A. & G. Way, printers.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

1638.   Jeffries, T. W. (1976). Transmission of Indian Pharmaceutical Knowledge to Physicians. Pharmacy in History, 18(1), 28-30.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: A brief account of the methods of transmission of American Indian pharmaceutical knowledge to American educators and physicians is presented. (11 refs.) (Abstract by Paul R. Webster.)

1639.   Jenks, A. E. (1900). The childhood of Ji-shib, the Ojibwa. Chicago: Atkinson, Mentzer and Grover, Publishers.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:95), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "Chippewa child's young life is excellently told from birth to manhood.  Grades 5-7."

1640.   Jenks, A. E. (1900). Wild rice gatherers of the Upper Lakes; a study in American primitive economics. in U.S. Bureau of Ethnology.  Nineteenth Annual Report, 1897-98  (pp. part 2, 1013-1137). Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:54)

1641.   Jenks, W. L. (1912). St. Clair County, Michigan, its history and its people.  A narrative account of its historical progress and its principal interests ... Chicago and New York: The Newis Publishing Co.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:54), "Volume 1 is germane to Ojibwa concerns."

1642.   Jennes, D. (1956). The Chipewyan Indians: an account by an early explorer. Anthropologica, 56(3), 15-34.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. II (1956:2-815)

1643.   . (1935). D. JennessThe Ojibwa Indians of Parry Island, their social and religious life ...  Chap. 6,  (p. 115). Ottawa: National Museum of Canada [Ottawa Department of Mines].
Notes: Source: Human Relations Area Files Index, Category NG6 "[as of July 1, 1975]", identified as "(M)", page 1, item 1
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:55)   

1644.   Jennings, N. (1995). Country princess: rising star Shania Twain fought hard for her newfound success. Maclean's, 108(35), 54 (2).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [review]
Abstract: Twain's album 'The Woman in Me' was produced by her husband Robert John Lange and has sold over two million copies. She was born in Timmins, Ontario, is part Ojibwa, and helped raise her younger siblings after her parents were killed in a car accident

1645.   Jette, M. M. (1997). Ordinary lives: three generations of a French-Indian family in Oregon, 1827-1931. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Universite Laval (Canada).
Abstract: Recent studies in the history of metis peoples in the United States have found that French-Indian communities which developed during the fur trade era quickly passed into oblivion following the demise of the trade and the arrival of American emigrants. This paper retraces the experience of a French-Indian community in Oregon. In my attempt to determine how the transition from fur trade to farming to city dwelling played out in the lives of individuals, I have employed a non-traditional approach. I examine the French-Indians generations of my ancestral paternal family over a period of one hundred years, from 1827 to 1931. This study entails an examination of individual behavior in the face of social pressures, as well as an analysis of how that behavior changed from one generation to the next. The result is a modest portrait of the interplay between ordinary lives and larger historical changes.

1646.   Jezierski, M. (1987). Emergency Nursing in an American Indian Health Center. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 13(3), 22a-24a.
Notes: Source: Biomed (Cinahl) electronic database, Fall 1999 search.

1647.   Jiles, P. North spirit: Sojourns among the Cree and Ojibway (1996.
Notes: Source: Women’s Resources International [University of Minnesota onlinedatabas--Women’s Studies Database], August 29, 1999 search--reviewed by Jan Zita Grover in True north, magnetic north

1648.   Joffe, N. (1940). The Fox of Iowa. R. Linton (editor), Acculturation in seven American Indian tribes . New York.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)

1649.   John P. McCrady, Inc. (1986). A geotechnical evaluation of potentially acceptable sites for a high-level nuclear waste repository near the Red Lake Indian reservation. Minneapolis, Minn.  John P. McCrady, Inc.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 16963305

1650.   Johnson, B. D. (1995). Cinderella of country: Shania Twain. Maclean's, 108(51), 50 (2).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [review]
Abstract: Twain, who is part Ojibwa, grew up poor in Timmins, Canada, and began singing in bars when she was eight. She is a now a major country-western singer, and her latest album 'The Woman in Me' has sold more than three million copies. She is married to record producer Robert John Lange.

1651.   . (1979). D. C. Johnson, T. L. Close, & Minnesota. Section of FisheriesA quantitative creel census of upper Red Lake, Minnesota, 1977-78  . [Minn.] : Minnesota Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Section of Fisheries.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 37314176. Title from cover. "August 1979."

1652.   . (1980). D. C. Johnson, & Minnesota. Section of FisheriesA quantitative creel census of Upper Red Lake, Minnesota 1978 and 1979  . [St. Paul, Minn.] : Minnesota Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Section of Fisheries.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 30687928

1653.   Johnson, E. (1974). Aspects of Upper Great Lakes Anthropology: Papers in Honor of Lloyd A. Wilford.  Minnesota Historical Society Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1654.   . (1957). E. JohnsonHopewell burial mounds : Indian Mounds Park, St. Paul  . St. Paul, Minn.  The Science Museum.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 11329793

1655.   . (1955). E. Johnson, 1923- Carl Bodmer paints the Indian frontier : an analysis  . St. Paul : Science Museum.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 4425160. Bibliography: p.[4] of folder.

1656.   Johnson, E. A. (1975). Curriculum development - Native American . Menomonie: University of Wisconsin- Stout.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search).  Funded by the Wisconsin Dept. of Public Instruction and the University of Wisconsin-Stout. Bibliography : Appendix B.

1657.   . (1946). F. Johnson (editor), Man in northeastern North America . Andover, MA.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)

1658.   Johnson, F. (1929). Notes on the Ojibwa and the Potawatomi of the Parry Island Reservation, Ontario. IndianNotes, 6, 193-216.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:55)

1659.   Johnson, J. A., & Fusaro, R. M. (1998). Photosensitivity of the American Indian: Terminology and Historical Aspects [Letter]. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 39(4 Pt 1), 662-664.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

1660.   . (1979). J. Johnson, b. 1881 or 2 , & C. KelseyReminiscences of John Johnson, White Earth band of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 23017531

1661.   Johnson, M. (1997). The presence of Mother Earth in women's ceremonies: observations of Ojibway medicine woman/Wiccan practitioner. Canadian Woman Studies /Les Cahiers De La Femme, 17(1), 121-122.
Notes: Source: Women's Resources International [University of Minnesota onlinedatabases], August 1999 search

1662.   Johnson, M. E. (1995). My apprenticeship with a modern Ojibwa shaman: a personal and comparative analysis of shamanic flight. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, York University (Canada).
Abstract: Soul flight, from a comparative point of view, has not essentially changed, but the shaman's role has altered from traditional times. Soul travel has served a practical purpose in terms of the shaman providing the best possible assistance for his group whether he gathers information, observes or heals his clients from a distance. In primal cultures, every member of the society was essential to the survival of the group, but the shaman's role was critical. Due to the transition of cultures such as the Ojibwa, the shaman's role changed from one of major importance to one of minimal functioning. However, soul travel continued to be utilized. The purpose of this thesis is to create an awareness that the experience of soul travel in traditional Ojibwa culture served an essential function which has continued to the present, as well as to explain several aspects of flight. The teachings of John-Paul, a modern Ojibwa shaman, are presented for the benefit of those who may not have access to authentic information regarding modern shamanism. Soul flight is viewed from various cultural perspectives and the history of the Ontario Ojibwa is studied in order to determine the function of shamanism. A section on altered states of consciousness provides a psychological context in which to examine soul travel as one phenomena in a continuum of possible experiences. The technique of soul flight from a 'traveller's' point of view is presented to describe what is experienced during flight, and to explain one method of teaching soul flight.

1663.   Johnson, R. E., & Tuchler, R. J. (1975). Role of the Pharmacist in Primary Health Care. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 32, 162-164.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: The provision of primary health care to a rural American Indian population by a pharmacist is discussed.

1664.   . (1972). R. W. Johnson, 1923- Civil jurisdiction of Indian tribal courts, prepared for the National American Indian Court Judges Association . [Seattle].
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 41857858

1665.   Johnson, R. W. (1898). Fort Snelling from its foundation to the present time . in Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. Volume VIII.    St. Paul, Minn.: The Minnesota Historical Society.
Notes: Source: PALS online catalog (October 1999 search)
Abstract: The international boundary between Lake Superior  and the Lake of the Woods / by Ulysses Sherman Grant -- The settlement and  development of the Red River Valley / by Warren Upham -- The discovery and  development of the iron ores of Minnesota / by N.H. Winchell -- The origin  and growth of the Minnesota Historical Society / by Alex. Ramsey -- Opening  of the Red River of the North to commerce and civilization / by Russell Blakeley -- Last days of Wisconsin territory and early days of Minnesota  territory / by Henry L. Moss -- Lawyers and courts of Minnesota prior to  and during its territorial period / by Charles E. Flandrau -- Homes and  habitations of the Minnesota Historical Society / by Charles E. Mayo -- The  historical value of newspapers / by J.B. Chaney -- The United States  government publications / by D.L. Kingsbury -- The first organized  government of Dakota / by Samuel J. Albright -- How Minnesota became a  state / by Thomas F. Moran -- Minnesota's northern boundary / by Alexander N. Winchell -- The question of the sources  of the Mississippi River / by E. Levasseur. The source of the Mississippi / by N.H. Winchell --  Prehistoric man at the headwaters of the Mississippi River / by J.V. Brower  -- Charter members of the Minnesota Historical Society and its work in 1896  / by Alex. Ramsey -- History of agriculture in Minnesota / by James J. Hill  -- History of mining and quarrying in Minnesota / by Warren Upham --  History of the discovery of the Mississippi River and the advent of  commerce in Minnesota / Russell Blakeley -- Reminiscences of persons and  events in the early days of the Minnesota Historical Society / by William  H. Kelley -- Fort Snelling from its foundation to the present time / by  Richard W. Johnson -- Sully's expedition against the Sioux, in 1864 / by  David L. Kingsbury -- State-building in the West / by Charles E. Flandrau

1666.   Johnson, S. (1994 January). Pioneer, p. 6.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1667.   Johnson, T. H. (1999). Chippewa families: A social study of White Earth reservation, 1938. J FAM HIST , 24(2), 240-242.
Notes: Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999

1668.   Johnson, W. (1999). Don't Think Twice .
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [review]

1669.   Johnston, B. (1995). The Manitous: The Spiritual World of the Ojibway .  HarperCollins.
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [review]
Abstract: Ethnotogist Johnston bridges several worlds in this book that is both exemplary original scholarship and a delightfully, even charmingly written set of stories that, although written for adults, can be appreciated by those of any age, for, based in oral tradition, they read as if they have voices. From his own cultural heritage, that of the Ojibway who are called, by themselves, Anishiaubae, and by later American settlers, Chippewa), Johnston has gathered scores of tales of manitous, the spirits that are both elemental forces and divinities. In these pages we encounter Kitchi-Manitou, the genderless divine force, and Muzu-Kummik-Quae, the earth-mother, as well as the fearsome cannibal Weendigo. Many of their stories are recorded here for the first time, which by itself makes this a valuable addition to collections of Native American spirituality. Meanwhile, the wit and ease with which Johnston writes make it a good selection for general reading collections, too.

1670.   Johnston, B. (1990). Ojibway Ceremonies.  University of Nebraska Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1671.   Johnston, B. (1976). Ojibway Heritage. New York: Columbia University Press.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)
Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXII (1979:347)
Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999
Source: cited by Loew, Patty (Fall 1997).

1672.   Johnston, B. (1993). Ojibway Tales [originally Moose Meat & Wild Rice] .  University of Nebraska Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999
Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [book review]

1673.   Johnston, B. Tales of the Anishinaubaek .
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [book review]

1674.   Johnston, B. H. (1981). Tales the elders told: Ojibway legends. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)
Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXVII (1985:270)

1675.   Johnston, B. C. (1993). Plant use among the Metis near Lac la Biche, Alberta: a study of tradition and change. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado.
Abstract: This work studied change in the use of wild plants among the Metis near Lac La Biche, Alberta. The data were obtained from thirty-three residents at the Kikino and Buffalo Lake settlements during the summers of 1990 and 1991. The study had three objectives; the determination of the plant species used and their purposes, quantitative change, or retention, in the use of each of several plant categories, and the reasons for the change or retention in each category. Eighty-six plant species were identified for purposes of food, medicine, fabrication, fuel, and miscellaneous intents. These groupings were further divided into fourteen sub-categories. Respondents reported a reduction of use in all fourteen. The most substantial reductions occurred in non-berry foods, fabrication plants, tobaccos, and dyes. Reductions in the categories of berries and cherries, organic medicine, smoking woods, and decorative plants were less substantial than in other groupings. The most frequently cited reasons for change were: the economic integration of residents into the cash economy of the exterior culture, the better quality or convenience of some commercial goods, and the present occupation and consequent location of residents. In the later case, residents reported that they rarely participated in the traditional activities which once brought them into the wilderness, a location which prompted the use of traditional plant products. Modern roads and vehicles have also improved the accessibility of commercial goods. In some instances the same reasons that were given for change also served to continue the use of a few plant categories. The introduction of goods from the exterior culture has in some cases displaced previous plant uses. In others, commercial goods are used in addition to traditional plant applications. The overall reduction in wild plant use will likely continue.

1676.   Johnston, C. T., 1872-1970. (1888). Clarence Thomas Johnston photograph series. Johnston, Clarence Thomas. Papers, 1888-1941. (CStRLIN)MIUV88-A344.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)
Abstract: Donor: 5126, 5127, 5375, 5384 Photos of Johnston's personal and family life in Wyoming and Michigan, including student activities at the University of Michigan; photos of his work on water projects in the West and in Egypt; and photos of Camp Davis, the summer engineering camp of the University of Michigan. Professor of engineering at the University of Michigan.

1677.   Johnston, P. C. (1983). Eastman Johston's Lake Superior Indians. Afton, MN: Johston Publishers.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1678.   Jones, C. F. (1962). Social and cultural change in three Minnesota Chippewa Indian communities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Yale University.

1679.   . (1979). F. Jones, & J. AschenbrennerReminiscences of Fred Jones, Mille Lacs band of the Minnesota Chippewa tribe .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22906254

1680.   Jones, H. R. I. A., & Rindisbacher, P., 1806-1834. (1825). Views in Hudson's Bay : taken by a gentleman on the spot in the years 1823 and 1824 : illustrative of the customs, manners and costumes of those tribes of North American Indians amongst whom Captne. Franklin has passed in his present and former arduous undertaking : to be continued in numbers. London : W. Day.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 30452023
Abstract: In portfolio, each plate separately matted. "[R.P.] Pelly ... commissioned an artist called H. Jones, R.I.A., to copy six of [Peter] Rindisbacher's pictures ... and after getting them lithographed in London, made up books of them ..."--C. Wilson, Pelly's picture books, in The beaver, Dec. 1945, p. 36. The governor of Red River, Hudson's Bay, voyaging in a light canoe 1824 -- The Red Lake chief, making a speech to the governor of Red River at Fort Douglas in 1825 -- A gentleman travelling in a dog cariole in Hudson's Bay with an Indian guide -- The Red Lake chief with some of his followers arriving at the Red River and visiting the governor -- The governor of Red River, driving his family on the river in a horse cariole -- A Souteaux Indian, travelling with his family in winter near Lake Winnipeg.

1681.   . (1971). H. Jones (compiler), The trees stand shining; poetry of the North American Indian . New York: Dial Press.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:55)

1682.   Jones, L. (1994). Civil Rights on the White Earth Reservation. New Political Science, (28/29), 217.
Notes: Source: UnCover database (Aug 1999)

1683.   Jones, P. (1977). History of the Ojibway Indians.  Ayer Company Publishers, Incorporated.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1684.   Jones, P., 1802-1856. (uuuu). A collection of Chippeway and English hymns, for the use of the native Indians ... To which are added a few hymns. N.Y.: Phillips.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

1685.   . (1847). P. Jones, 1802-1856Ojebway nuhguhmonum : kanuhnuhguhmowahjin egewh uhneshenahbaig  2d ed. ed., ). New York : Nelson and Phillips.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
Abstract: English and Chippewa on opposite pages. Without music. Added t.p.: A collection of Chippeway and English Hymns. "A selection of hymns from the translations of Rev. James Evans and George Henry," p. [235]-285. Includes index

1686.   Jones, P., 1802-1856. (1828). Tracts in the Chippeway and English comprising seven hymns, the Decalogue, the Lord's Prayer, the Apostle's Creed, and the fifth chapter of St. Matthew. = O zhe pe e kun nun nah pun a i ee ah ne she nah pa moo mah kah toon ah sha wa ee tush ween ah gun osh she moo mah kah toon ne zhswah sweeh nah kah moo we nun kia ...  New York?  A. Hoyt.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search), "Text in Ojibwa and English. Attributed to Peter Jones"

1687.   . (1840). P. Jones [Ojibwa Chief] (ranslator), A collection of Chippeway and English Hymns for the use of the Native Indians.  Translated by Peter Jones ... to which are added a few hymns translated by Rev. James Evans and George Henry ...  Toronto: [printed for the translator].
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:55-6), "containing English and Ojibwa on facing pages, this version is based on the Jones 1829 ed., New York: Printed at the Conference Office by J. Collord.  This work was reprinted and reissued numerous times, often under various titles.  James Evans and George Henry are frequently referenced as joint translators.  (Reprinted, from an 1847 Toronto edition, Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1969."

1688.   . (1861). P. Jones [Ojibwa Chief]History of the Ojebway Indians; with especial reference to their conversion to Christianity.  By Rev. Peter Jones (kahkewaquonaby), Indian Missionary ...  London: A.W. Bennett.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:55)

1689.   (1976). Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Indian Section.
Notes: ERIC NO: ED149892
Abstract: Summarizing the analyses of testimonies presented before the Minnesota Subcommittee on Indian Education by both Indians and nonIndians concerned and/or involved with national, state, or local Indian education, this report focuses on findings at the statewide and individual site levels (Minneapolis, St. Paul, Red Wing, Cass Lake, Duluth, White Earth, and Red Lake). Additionally, this document presents: methods employed in analysis; detailed recommendations; limitations; and appendices (comprised of definitions, the content analysis code structure, table of contents--written testimonies, frequencies of responses per major categories by item names, total priorities per hearing site by major categories, priorities per major categories as indicated by total number of responses, and summary of data by races for each site). Supporting documents of graphs, charts, tables, etc. are presented both within the main text and the appendices. Specific recommendations are generalized into the following three areas: to improve existing Indian education programs; to better facilitate local, state, tribal, and Federal educational legislation and administration; and to fulfill Indian rights and equal educational opportunities guaranteed by treaty and civil rights that are sometimes unfulfilled due to conflicts with the states' roles and responsibilities per Indian self-determination, or desegregation, or the unmet special needs of Indian children. (JC)

1690.(1976). Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Indian Section.
Notes: ERIC NO: ED149891
Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 4175324.  Other: Minnesota. Dept. of Education. Division of Special and Compensatory Education. Indian Education Section. Minnesota. State Board of Education. Subcommittee on Indian Education
Abstract: Summarizing the results of the Minnesota Indian Education Hearings and the methods used to generate analysis of the transcripts for the State Board of Education and its subcommittee on Indian Education, this document presents tabular and narrative data re: content analysis; statewide findings; findings for each hearing site (Minneapolis, St. Paul, Red Wing, Cass Lake, Duluth, White Earth, and Red Lake)//and prioritized recommendations. Analysis methodology is described as involving a master content analysis code structure to identify, for computer analysis, the testifiers, the hearings' board members, staff, type of testimony, and the range of categories. Major categories are identified as: legislation; administration; research; finances; communications; training; curriculum; bilingual/bicultural; post-secondary; and rights and responsibilities. Comparisons and cross-references of these data are presented via charts, graphs, and tables. Statewide findings are presented in a prioritized format as follows: research (student supportive services and Indian school participation factors); rights/responsibilities (Indian dual citizenship rights and discriminatory factors); finances (state financing of Indian education); curriculum (Indian materials development, assessment, dissemination, and the need for state coordination and state financing efforts); administration (state); and other priority areas (communication, training, post-secondary, legislation, and bilingual/bicultural). (JC)

 

 

 

 

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