Ojibwe Bibliography – part 2

[01-19-04]

 

 

   682.   Broker, J. (Chairman). (1936). Minutes of joint meeting of the tribal executive committee of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribal Council and the Board of Directors of the Chippewa Cooperative Marketing Association, held at the Village of Cass Lake, Minnesota. Bureau of Indian Affairs Central Classified Files, Record Group 75.  National Archives, Washington, D.C.

   683.   Brook, N. How do we preserve the past?  
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 21106021

   684.   Brookings Institute for Government Research. The problem of Indian administration, report of a survey made at the request of Honorable Hubert Work, Secretary of the Interior, and submitted to him, February 21, 1928.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

   685.   Brooks, A. P. (Asa Passavant), b. 1868. (1907). The reservation : a romance of the pioneer days of Minnesota and of the Indian Massacre of 1862 . Comfrey?, Minn.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 6114695. Place of publication from NUC pre-1956, v. 78, p. 116.

   686.   . (1959). E. R. BrooksA survey of the current and potential wild rice production, processing, and marketing on the White Earth, Nett Lake, and Red Lake Indian reservations in Minnseota, and the Mole Lake and Bad River Indian reservations in Wisconisn . [Minneapolis]: University of Minnesota.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).  Contract between the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the University of Minnesota. Includes Soil inventory of Indian lands, by R. S. Farnham. 6 sections bound together.

   687.   Brosius, S. M. (1901). The urgent case of the Mille Lac Indians ... Philadelphia: Indian Rights Association.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:36)

   688.   Brousseau, M. (1993). Analyse des besoins de perfectionnement des maitres oeuvrant en milieu Amerindien au Quebec in applications pedagogiques de l'ordinateur. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Universite Laval, Canada.
Abstract: Nous avons voulu, par cette etude, faire l'analyse des besoins de pertectionnement en applications pedagogiques de l'ordinateur, aupres des mai tres tant allochtones qu'autochtones oeuvrant en milieu amerindien du Quebec. Pour ce faire, une banque de quarante-sept (47) competences a ete constituee par le biais de la litterature et de la consultation de quelques personnes ressources. Cette banque fut ensuite soumise au jugement de cent quatre-vingt deux (182) repondants, enseignants, directeurs d'ecole et quelques autres intervenants en education travaillant en milieux algonquin, attikamekw, huron-wendat, mic-mac, mohawk et montagnais. Ces repondants oeuvraient au prescolaire, primaire et secondaire.  L'analyse des besoins fut faite a partir de la mesure de l'ecart entre la situation desiree par les repondants, soit l'importance qu'ils attachaient au fait de posseder des competences en micro-informatique et la situation actuelle, soit le degre de mai trise de ces memes competences, detenu au moment de l'enquete. Nous avons utilise quatre approches de mise en priorite des besoins pour en venir a une mise en rang finale des competences contenues dans la banque. L'etude demontre qu'il existe un besoin important de perfectionnement des mai tres en applications pedagogiques de l'ordinateur et cela peu importe le milieu de travail. On constate egalement que les allochtones accordent une moins grande importance que les autochtones au fait de mai triser l'ensemble des competences questionnees en micro-informatique. De plus, il existe un plus grand besoin de perfectionnement en ce qui a trait a la micro-informatique utilisee comme outil de gestion et de preparation de classe que comme outil/objet d'enseignement.

   689.   Brower, J. V. (1898). Prehistoric man at the headwaters of the Mississippi River . in Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. Volume VIII.    St. Paul, Minn.: The Minnesota Historical Society.
Notes: Source: PALS online catalog (October 1999 search)
Abstract: The international boundary between Lake Superior  and the Lake of the Woods / by Ulysses Sherman Grant -- The settlement and  development of the Red River Valley / by Warren Upham -- The discovery and  development of the iron ores of Minnesota / by N.H. Winchell -- The origin  and growth of the Minnesota Historical Society / by Alex. Ramsey -- Opening  of the Red River of the North to commerce and civilization / by Russell Blakeley -- Last days of Wisconsin territory and early days of Minnesota  territory / by Henry L. Moss -- Lawyers and courts of Minnesota prior to  and during its territorial period / by Charles E. Flandrau -- Homes and  habitations of the Minnesota Historical Society / by Charles E. Mayo -- The  historical value of newspapers / by J.B. Chaney -- The United States  government publications / by D.L. Kingsbury -- The first organized  government of Dakota / by Samuel J. Albright -- How Minnesota became a  state / by Thomas F. Moran -- Minnesota's northern boundary / by Alexander N. Winchell -- The question of the sources  of the Mississippi River / by E. Levasseur. The source of the Mississippi / by N.H. Winchell --  Prehistoric man at the headwaters of the Mississippi River / by J.V. Brower  -- Charter members of the Minnesota Historical Society and its work in 1896  / by Alex. Ramsey -- History of agriculture in Minnesota / by James J. Hill  -- History of mining and quarrying in Minnesota / by Warren Upham --  History of the discovery of the Mississippi River and the advent of  commerce in Minnesota / Russell Blakeley -- Reminiscences of persons and  events in the early days of the Minnesota Historical Society / by William  H. Kelley -- Fort Snelling from its foundation to the present time / by  Richard W. Johnson -- Sully's expedition against the Sioux, in 1864 / by  David L. Kingsbury -- State-building in the West / by Charles E. Flandrau

   690.   Brown, D. G. (1998). Classification and boundary vagueness in mapping presettlement forest types. INT J GEOGR INF SCI , 12(2), 105-129.
Notes: Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999

   691.   Brown, J. S. H. (1987). 'I wish to be as I see you'--an Ojibwa-Methodist encounter in the fur trade country, Rainy Lake, 1854-1855. Arctic Anthropology, 24(1), 19-31.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXXIII (1991:31)

   692.   Brown, J. S. H. (1997). The Manitous - the Spiritual World of the Ojibway - Johnston, B. Canadian Historical Review, 78(2), 329-331.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999

   693.   Brown, J. S. (1992). The Ojibwa of Berens River, Manitoba: Ethnography into History.  Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

   694.   Brown, M. D., Hosseini, S. H., Torroni, A., Bandelt, H. J., Allen, J. C., Schurr, T. G., Scozzari, R., Cruciani, F., & Wallace, D. C. (1998). MtDNA haplogroup X: an Ancient Link Between Europe Western Asia and North America?. American Journal of Human Genetics, 63(6), 1852-1861.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: On the basis of comprehensive RFLP analysis, it has been inferred that similar to 97% of Native American mtDNAs belong to one of four major founding mtDNA lineages, designated haplogroups 'A'-'D.' It has been proposed that a fifth mtDNA haplogroup (haplogroup X) represents a minor founding lineage in Native Americans. Unlike haplogroups A-D, haplogroup X is also found at low frequencies in modern European populations. To investigate the origins, diversity, and continental relationships of this haplogroup, we performed mtDNA high-resolution RFLP and complete control region (CR) sequence analysis on 22 putative Native American haplogroup X and 14 putative European haplogroup X mtDNAs. The results identified a consensus haplogroup X motif that characterizes our European and Native American samples. Among Native Americans, haplogroup X appears to be essentially restricted to northern Amerindian groups, including the Ojibwa, the Nuu-Chah-Nulth, the Sioux, and the Yakima, although we also observed this haplogroup in the Na-Dene-speaking Navajo. Median network analysis indicated that European and Native American haplogroup X mtDNAs, although distinct, nevertheless are distantly related to each other. Time estimates for the arrival of X in North America are 12,000-36,000 years ago, depending on the number of assumed founders, thus supporting the conclusion that the peoples harboring haplogroup X were among the original founders of Native American populations. To date, haplogroup X has not been unambiguously identified in Asia, raising the possibility that some Native American founders were of Caucasian ancestry. [References: 45]

   695.   Brown, M. B. (1997). 'Is it not our land?': an ethnohistory of the Susquehanna-Ohio Indian alliance, 1701-1754 (Indians, colonists, French, British, Euroamericans). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma State University.
Abstract: Scope and method of study. This dissertation describes and analyzes the development, consolidation, and decline of the Susquehanna-Ohio Indian Alliance, an intercultural alliance among the Eastern Woodland Indians of the Susquehanna and upper Ohio Valleys during the first half of the eighteenth century. This includes the peoples of the Iroquois Confederacy, the Lenapes (Delawares), Shawnees, Wyandots, Miamis, Susquehannocks, and other groups. The standard colonial primary sources for this era were used, including sources recently uncovered by modern researchers in the field. The study also utilized ethnohistorical sources and tapped disciplines such as archeology, ethnography, cultural anthropology, weapons history, and material culture studies to further illuminate the history of these native peoples. Findings and conclusions. Under the direction of its greatest sachems during its first three decades, the Susquehanna-Ohio Indian Alliance was an elastic and durable structure that easily met the needs of its members for peaceful intercourse and the resolution of problems among themselves and with Euroamericans. The Alliance survived during the 1740's and early 1750's despite increasing factionalization and polarization among its peoples and the meddling of French and British colonials. The Alliance's downfall in 1754 was due primarily to the invasion of the Ohio Valley by the French and British militaries and secondarily to the inability of its leaders to modify their thinking to effectively resist such aggression.

   696.   Brown, P. (1952). Changes in Ojibwa social control. American Anthropologist, 54, 57-70.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   697.   Brown, R. E. (1969). The Planning Process on the Pine Ridge & Rosebud Indian Reservations.  University of South Dakota, Governmental Research Bureau.
Notes: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

   698.   Brown, T. T. (1930). Plant games and toys of Chippewa children. The Wisconsin Archaeologist, 9(185-186).
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:36)

   699.   Browne, A. J. (1995). The Meaning of Respect: a First Nations Perspective. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research , 27(4), 95-109.
Notes: Source: Biomed (Cinahl) electronic database, Fall 1999 search.
Abstract: A qualitative study was conducted to explore the meaning of respect from the perspective of five Cree-Ojibway key informants. Data were obtained from in-depth interviews conducted in a First Nations community in northern Manitoba. Interviews focused on key informants' understanding of the meaning of respect, and their experiences of being treated with or without respect during clinical interactions. The qualitative analysis identified characteristics of respect and lack of respect that reflected the informants' experiences as First Nations persons interacting with Western health-care providers. The features of respect reflected ethical values related to equality, inherent worth, and the uniqueness and dignity of the individual. Findings highlighted the need for nurses to be cognizant of the sociopolitical context of interactions with First Nations patients. The preliminary descriptions of respect identified in this study provide a foundation for further analysis of the concept.  (34 ref)

   700.   Bruchac, J. (1996). The creator's game (lacrosse in Native American traditions). Parabola (Work & Play Issue), 21(4), 84-87.
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: Lacrosse is regarded as a spiritually important tradition by various Native peoples from eastern North America, including the Iroquois, Cherokee and Ojibway. The game of lacrosse provides good physical conditioning and contributes to communal unity. It is sometimes performed as a healing ritual as well. The passage of a day is symbolized by the path of the lacrosse ball across the playing field. The game was sometimes played from one village to another in a community event involving hundreds of players on a field that stretched for miles.

   701.   Brumbach, H. J., Jarvenpa, R., & Buell, C. (1981). An ethnoarchaeological approach to Chipewyan adaptations in the late fur trade period. Arctic Anthropology, 19(1), 1-49.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXVIII (1985:40)

   702.   Brundige, L. F. (1999). Continuity of native values: Cree and Ojibwa (Manitoba, Ontario). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Lakehead University (Canada).
Abstract: The purpose of this thesis is to provide an understanding of the value system that constitutes one of the fundamental elements in a Canadian Native world view. In a project of this scope and with such a diverse group of people I could not hope to outline a value system that is universal for all North American Native people; thus, I restricted my research to two distinct Canadian Native groups, the Cree people from Northern Manitoba and the Ojibwa from Northwestern Ontario. My research objective was twofold. The first objective was to expand on the pioneering work of the late Dr. Clare Brant, a Mohawk psychiatrist. A number of questions had to be addressed in order to reach this goal. What are the Native values Brant proposes? Do these values correspond to the values Aboriginal peoples were demonstrating when first European contact occurred? Or, are these values a natural consequence of European influence? How are these values learned and transmitted. How does one go about defining a value system that predates European contact when Aboriginal people did not keep written documents. Finding the answer is part of my second objective: an in-depth explanation of the methodological procedure used to obtain and verify continuity of Aboriginal values. Aboriginal people have often been studied by non-Native researchers. My research is unique in that it seeks to avoid externalization by providing a thesis about Native people from the perspective of Native people.

   703.   Brunn, M. M. (1996). Technical College instructors' implementation of cooperative learning (faculty development). University of Minnesota.
Abstract: Although not a recent innovation, cooperative learning has recently been discovered by college instructors. Research reveals that cooperative learning increases student achievement, creates positive relationships between students, and promotes healthy psychological adjustment to college. Cooperative learning involves structuring the environment so that students must work together to achieve shared goals. Using the framework of educational action research, 12 volunteer technical college instructors at Chippewa Valley Technical College, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, were introduced to the elements of the 'Learning Together' model of cooperative learning. Through a faculty development effort, they were involved in the practical application of cooperative learning to their individual classrooms, revealing factors that provided challenges and factors that became enablers, assisting their implementation. Participants were involved in 10 two-hour workshop sessions held over a 14-week time span. The researcher was also the facilitator of the workshop sessions, incorporating the elements of cooperative learning and demonstrating implementation at each session. All participants including the researcher were actively teaching courses during the time of the study. Together, the participants and researcher questioned the effectiveness of their current teaching methods, while studying the process and results of implemented change. The Stages of Concern Questionnaire was utilized to determine entry-level concerns of participants and to contribute to understanding the quality of change that occurred. Additional data was gathered through individual journals, tape recorded workshop sessions, structured feedback responses, quality improvement charts, and an affinity diagram. Efforts to change teaching paradigms revealed more than a simplistic, 'how-to' modification. Instructors disclosed inner struggles, confusion, mistrust, lack of time, and the persistence of old ways, among the many barriers to implementation. Themes of change-enablers included learning-by-doing, positive student feedback, dissatisfaction with current teaching strategies, collegial support, and ongoing training. Methods utilized to conduct the research (journaling, focused faculty responses, and the collection of student feedback) became effective faculty development tools.

   704.   Bruyere, J. (1999). Understanding about Type II diabetes mellitus among the Nehinaw (Cree) (Manitoba). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Manitoba (Canada).
Abstract: Understandings about diabetes among the Nehinaw of the Opaskwayak Cree Nation of northern Manitoba are examined from an emic perspective. Diabetes is an important issue for the Nehinaw as prevalence of diabetes has doubled each decade since 1976. This investigation focuses on the role of culture and language in these perspectives. This was facilitated with use of Kleinman's Explanatory Model for the open ended interview questions. The questions used by Linda Garro, who has done extensive research among the Anishinaabeg of Manitoba, were translated into Nehinawawin (Cree language). The results indicate that the animate-inanimate concept within this language impact the understanding that Nehinaw have regarding diabetes. As well, hunter terminology plays a role in these understandings. The informants draw upon their knowledge of the life ways which existed
 prior to development and subsequent environmental disruptions around them. Resort to treatment is pragmatic, but also draws on previous understandings about Indian medicine and these vary considerably among the informants. The change from the trapping and hunting way of life witnessed by this generation of Nehinaw contribute to the understandings about causation. Diabetes is defined in a broad political perspective.

   705.   Bryan, W. L. (1996). Montana's Indians: Yesterday & Today.  American World Geographic Publishing.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

   706.   . (1891). G. Bryce, 1844-1931Surface geology of the Red River and Assiniboine Valleys : a paper read before the Society, Jan. 22nd, 1891  . Winnipeg : Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba, Manitoba Free Press.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 25433817. Cover title. Caption title: Old Lake Agassiz : surface geology of the Red and Assiniboine Valleys. Alt Title: Old Lake Agassiz Surface geology of the Red and Assiniboine Valleys

   707.   Brydon, S. (1995). Hiawatha meets the Giche Gumee Indians: the visualization of Indians in turn of the century Hiawatha pageant plays. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Carleton University, Canada.
Abstract: This thesis will examine the clothing worn in early-20th century Hiawatha pageant plays as an affirmation of Indian cultural identity.  In the 19th century, official Canadian government policy towards Native peoples centred upon assimilation programs which attempted to absorb them into mainstream society. Government policy held that the abandonment of Native dress was one of the most important indicators of successful assimilation. Although Indian agents and missionaries encouraged Indians to adopt European clothing, travellers and people living in urban areas wanted to see 'original' Indians, those who continued to wear exotic Indian dress.  In the East, Woodlands Indians had long been subjected to government policies and outwardly did not appear to be 'original' or  'genuine' Indians to the outside White population. The Plains Indian, however, corresponded to White peoples' perceptions of Indianness in the latter half of the 19th century. To satisfy the expectations of the White audience, the Anishinabe of Garden River wore the dress of the Plains Indian in their 1900 dramatization of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's 'The Song of Hiawatha.' The play enjoyed a long period of production. As the play moved from community to community throughout the Northeast, Woodlands Indians soon integrated Plains dress as cultural and political symbol of their Indianness. In the 20th century, Pan-Indian dress became one the main strategies that Woodlands people used to subvert the assimilation policies of the government and to keep their Indian heritage in the forefront of White consciousness. Recognition of this important cultural expression is due.

   708.   Bubier J. L. (1995). The Relationship of Vegetation to Methane Emission and Hydrochemical Gradients in Northern Peatlands. Journal of Ecology, 83(3), 403-420.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: 1 The bryophyte and vascular flora were described for a range of forested and open peatlands in the mid-boreal Clay Belt region of Canada, and in the subarctic region of the Labrador Trough, Quebec. The floristic patterns and their relationships to methane (CH4) emission, hydrology and water chemistry were analysed with classification (TWINSPAN), detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA).

   709.   Buckanaga, C. V., 1937- . (1979). The American Indian boxers of Minnesota : migodeinniwug . Ponsford, Minn.  Pine Point Pub.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 7614264

   710.   Buckmaster, M. M., & Padquette, J. R. (1988). The Gorto Site: Preliminary Report on a Late Paleo Indian Site in Marquette, County, Michigan. The Wisconsin Archeologist, 69(3), 101.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

   711.   Bucko, R. A. (1995). The Island of Anishnaabeg: Thunderers and Water Monsters in the Traditional Ojibwe Life-World (book reviews). Choice, 33(2), 313 (1).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [review]

   712.   . (1933). C. B. BuechnerThe Pokagons . Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search)
Abstract: Introduction.--The Potawatomi of the lake shore.--Leopold Pokagon.--Simon Pokagon.--Appendixes: I. Hazel eyes' lullaby, words. II. Translation of the Lord's prayer. III. The red man's greeting. IV. Address delivered at Elkhart, Indiana, October 9, 1894. v. Bibliography of Simon Pokagon's writings and speeches.

   713.   Buff, R. J. (1996). Calling home: migration, race and popular memory in Carribean Brooklyn and Native-American Minneapolis, 1945-1992 (New York City, Minnesota). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Abstract: This dissertation compares two festivals: West Indian-American Day Carnival in Brooklyn and urban Indian powwows in Minneapolis. Utilizing interviews with festival participants and community leaders and archival research into public policy and local newspapers, the study focuses on the emergence of collective cultural identities among Caribbean immigrants and Native American migrants to these cities in the post-World War II period. The sources employed facilitate an understanding of racial and ethnic identities as complex processes involving hemispheric economies  and state policy as well as cultural innovation and memory. The research that forms the basis for this dissertation indicates a great disparity between the histories related in these transmigrant festivals and those told in official national accounts. The experiences of transmigration generate stories that negotiate the terrains of exile and relocation. These counternarratives reconceptualize key ideas about citizenship, nationality, and public policy. The dissertation is organized into four comparative chapters and two case studies. The four comparative chapters introduce the main themes that connect the festivals as transmigrant practices: (neo)colonialism, migration, and the development of a global mass culture industry. Together, these chapters historicize the development of Carnival and powwows in reservation and Caribbean communities, as well as in their contemporary urban settings. These comparative chapters also provide an analysis of the public policies that brought Indian and Caribbean transmigrants to these cities in large numbers after World War II. Both of these festivals emerge in their contemporary forms along with highly contested narratives of pan-Indian and pan-Caribbean identities. Each case study investigates a component of these 'imagined communities,' looking at how alternative nationalities are constructed. The case studies, by focusing on Brooklyn steelbands and the role of princesses at powwows, provide contexts to consider the practice and the contradictions of counternarratives. Both chapters analyze the roles of gender and generation in the creation and transmission of social identities.

   714.   . (1979). P. Buffalo, & T. G. RoufsReminiscences of Paul Buffalo, Chippewa Leech Lake band of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22891900

   715.   Buffalohead, P. (1983). Farmers, Warriors and Traders: A Fresh Look at Ojibway Women. Minnesota History , 48, 236-244.
Notes: Source: Women’s Resources International [University of Minnesota online database--Women Of Color And Southern Women Database, August 29, 1999 search

   716.   Buffalohead, R.introduction. W. W. Warren (History of the Ojibway [sic] People).
Abstract: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

   717.   Buffalohead, W. R. (1983). The Indian New Deal : a review essay . Minnesota History, 48(8), 339-341.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 10811587

   718.   Bulla, C. (1953). Eagle Feather. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:92), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "The story of a modern Navaho Boy's love for his family and his hogan, and of his experiences in teh white man's school for Indian children.  Grades 2-5."

   719.   Burd, L. (1994). Prevalence of Prone Sleeping Position and Selected Infant Care Practices of North Dakota Infants: a Comparison of Whites and Native Americans. Public Health Reports , 109(3), 446-449.
Notes: Source: Biomed (Cinahl) electronic database, Fall 1999 search. (16 Ref)
Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: A cross-sectional prevalence study was done in four primary care clinics (two rural and two urban sites) and four Native American clinics serving members of the Chippewa, Sioux, Hidasta, Arikara, and Mandan tribes, all in North Dakota, to determine the prevalence of prone, supine, and side sleeping position in white and Native American infants. Questionnaires for 325 infants (259 whites and 66 Native Americans) between birth and 6 months of age were completed by the infants' mothers. They reported that 69 percent of the infants slept prone, 17 percent slept supine, and 14 percent slept on their side. Native American infants, who are at 3.2 times the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome compared with other North Dakota infants, slept prone 46.9 percent of the time compared with 74.4 percent of white infants (X2 = 23.61; 1 df; P<.OOO1). No differences were observed in the prevalence of the side sleeping position. Eighteen percent of the infants slept in the position reported due to advice from a physician or nurse, 8 percent of the infants slept with more than two blankets, and 5 percent slept with a pillow. Native American infants in North Dakota did not have a higher prevalence of exposure to prone sleeping position.  (16 ref)

   720.   Burg. (1934 November). [Letter to Bureau of Indian Affairs].
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

   721.   Burke, G. (1993). Native American women's perspectives on alcohol abuse and fetal alcohol syndrome: a comparison of on- and off-reservation in Michigan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.
Abstract: This research seeks the perspective of Native American women of child-bearing age on alcohol abuse among women and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. The first objective is to determine their level of knowledge about the effects of alcohol during pregnancy and whether this knowledge differs among on- and off-reservation women. The second objective is to establish two points from the emic perspective; first, the reasons that women abuse alcohol during pregnancy and second, women's perceptions about the meaning of  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome to their culture. According to the research findings, there is a high level of awareness of the effects of alcohol during pregnancy among both on- and off-reservation women. In their explanations for women's alcohol abuse, the predominant  theme was that of abusive drinking as a culturally patterned behavior. They also cited poverty, lack of educational opportunity, and discrimination. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.)

   722.   Burns and Roe, I. (1964). Mineral Resources Study: Indian Reservations, Minnesota and Wisconsin. New York: Burns and roe, Inc.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:36)

   723.   Burns, M., Daily, J. M., & Moskowitz, H. American Indian Survey. Rutgers: Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers, the State University, Smithers Hall, Busch Campus, Piscataway, NJ 08854.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: The American Indian Survey is designed to assess the drinking habits and attitudes of Indians who have moved to a large urban community. The instrument focuses on the following areas: (a) demographic data (e. g., place of birth, whether parents and spouse are Indian, parents' tribe, marital status, language spoken in the home, education, job skill, military service, number of different employers the respondent has had in the last three years, yearly income, whether Indian customs are followed, voting in tribal elections and in the last presidential election); (b) family use of alcohol (e. g., parents' use and attitudes towards alcohol, relatives with drinking problems); (c) first drink (e. g., circumstances, attitude); (d) changes in drinking patterns that occurred when the respondent came to a large urban area (e. g., changes in frequency and beverage type); (e) abstainers (e. g., reasons for abstinence such as: 'don't like taste' or 'not good for health'; feeling about others' consumption); (f) alcohol use (e. g., frequency of wine, beer, and liquor use; occasion of last drink; type of beverage; companions; the most ever consumed at one time; frequency of drinking during weekends and during the week; drinking companions; location); (g) reasons for drinking (e. g., importance of reasons such as: 'I drink because I need it when tense and nervous' or 'A drink helps me gain self-confidence'); (h) consequences of drinking (e. g., passing out, having a hangover, getting into fights, trouble with the law); (i) treatment (e. g., seeking help, nature of help, results of treatment), (j) beliefs about alcohol use (e. g., feeling about children drinking, whether drinking is believed to be a problem for Indians, comparison of drinking patterns among Indians who reside on reservations versus ones who live in urban communities, good and bad qualities about drinking, opinions about what should be done to help Indians who have drinking problems). The survey is composed of checklists and questions that are multiple-choice, yes/no and open-ended. The American Indian Survey--Re-Interview is a related follow-up instrument.

   724.   Burns, M., Daily, J. M., & Moskowitz, H. American Indian Survey--Re-Interview. Rutgers: Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers, the State University, Smithers Hall, Busch Campus, Piscataway, NJ 08854.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: American Indian Survey--Re-Interview is designed to be used as a follow-up to the American Indian Survey. This instrument primarily focuses on changes in drinking patterns and the consequences of those changes. Specifically, the survey gathers the following information: (1) changes between the first and present interview (e.g., comparison of the amount and frequency of wine, beer, and liquor consumed), (2) history of use (e.g., friends' use of alcohol during the respondent's growing up years, circumstances of use, how abstainers were regarded, when the respondent began drinking regularly, first intoxication, circumstances), (3) alcohol use at its heaviest (e.g., description of that use, location, circumstances, companions, reason for such heavy consumption), (4) comparison of past and present reasons for drinking (e.g., '...as a means to escape problems'), (5) consequences of use (e.g., harmful effects, objection by family, friends, or employer), (6) comparison of past and present use (e.g., changes in occasions, companions, location, whether changes were deliberate of gradual), (7) others' reaction to changes, (8) personal feelings about changes (e.g., if miss drinking, positive things about former drinking habits, whether the respondent feels that old drinking habits might resume), (9) life changes as a result of drinking changes (e.g., how it has affected the family, friends, job), and (10) opinions about alcohol use (e.g., whether it is acceptable for women to drink the same as men, whther there are any specific ages when drinking might be least or most harmful, advice the respondent would give others who wish to cut down). While a few items are checklists, the vast majority are open-ended questions.

   725.   Burns, M. L. (Coordinator).
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995), worked for the B.I.A. at Red Lake

   726.   Burns, M. L. (1944 April). [Letter to Commissioner of Indian Affairs].
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

   727.   Burr, H. M.(Hanford Montrose), b. 1864. (1912). Around the fire ; stories of beginnings . New York : Association Press.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search)
Abstract: Illustrated cover. The Fire Spirit.--The first potter.--The first gang.--The first chief.--The smoke way.--The first milkman.--Rang, the red man.--Rang of the thinking hand.--The first sailor.--The garden of Ulma.--Let, the first artist.--Sax, the first musician.--The call of the Great Water.--The story of Lup.-- The wooing of Senna.--Hune, the hunter of white men.--The lake dwellers.--How men found the Great Spirit.

   728.   Burt, H. E., Garrigan, A., Beaulieu, P. H., Morrison, A., & Graves, P. (1934 November). [Letter to Bitney, Raymond H. Agency Superintendent Red Lake MN].
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

   729.   Burton, F. R. (1909). American Primitive Music, with Especial Attention to the Songs of the Ojibways ... New York: Moffat, Yard, and Co.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:36)

   730.   Burton, F. R. (1969). American Primitive Music, with Especial Attention to the Songs of the Ojibways ... Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:36)

   731.   Bushnell Jr., D. I. (1905). An Ojibway ceremony. American Anthropologist, 7, 69-73.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:37)

   732.   Bushnell Jr., D. I. (1917). Ojibway habitations and other structures. in Smithsonian Institution, Annual Report  (pp. 609-617). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:37)

   733.   Bushnell Jr., D. I. (1940). Sketches by Paul Kane in the Indian Country, 1845-1848. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 99, 1-25.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:37)

   734.   Business Committee. Final Report. Lake Mohonk Conference .
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

   735.   Business Men's Treaty Committee (Hibbing, Minn.). (1914). The Indian treaty of 1855 : statement of fact and protest to Hon. Franklin K. Lane, Secretary of the Interior . Hibbing, Minn : Business Men's Treaty Committee .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 13507534. Cover title.

   736.   Butterfield, S. A. (1985). The relationship between tribal politics and American Indian educational leaders in Wisconsin. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Wisconsin--Madison.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between tribal politics and American Indian educational leaders in Wisconsin. The major areas of interest included, (1) the discretion of American Indian educational leaders, (2) the job security of American Indian educational leaders, and (3) the American Indian educational leaders' perceptions of their effectiveness. Twenty respondents were interviewed. All were American Indians, educational leaders, and knowledgeable about this topic. Nearly all the respondents had advanced degrees. Nineteen questions, mostly open-ended, were posed to the respondents to get at the areas of interest. A qualitative research design was employed. The major findings of the study were: (1) Tribes do not have comprehensive educational policies developed for more than one or two programs.  (2) Education was listed among the top three priorities for tribes; however, most respondents felt education could use more than nominal support from tribal governing bodies. (3) Tribal politics impacted most on the discretion of Indian educators who were employed close to or on the reservation. (4) Tribal allocation of higher education scholarship monies presently goes more to tribal members living close to or on their reservation than to tribal members living in urban areas. (5) Job security was more likely to be affected if the respondents lived or worked on or near the reservation. (6) When rating themselves, Indian educational leaders rated themselves above average to very effective. (7) Nearly all the respondents felt Indian educators should involve themselves in tribal politics if they desired. (8) Lastly, the respondents felt the survival of other Indian educational leaders depended as much on their knowledge of the Indian community as it did their professional expertise. It was suggested that this study could be replicated in another state with a significant Indian population to see if these findings hold for other states.

   737.   Buttner, J. K. (1997). First Nation people and Great Lakes aquaculture. Aquaculture Magazine (Asheville);  23(1), 27-40.
Notes: Source: FishLit [University of Minnesota online databases], August 1999 search

   738.   Butts, M. T. (1993). Galvanized Yankees on the Upper Missouri: a history of the first United States volunteer infantry regiment (first U.S. volunteer infantry regiment, prisoners of war, Confederates, Missouri River). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of New Mexico.
Abstract: In response to the Santee Uprising of 1862 and Dakota harassment  of whites on the Upper Missouri, the War Department authorized the construction of forts along the Dakota frontier to protect steamboats and the northwestern route to the mining region. Sent to garrison the Upper Missouri forts were the First United States Volunteer Infantry Regiment, Confederate prisoners of war who had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States and enlisted for federal service. This regimental history examines the motivations for enlistment in U.S. service, the regiment's missions in the East and in the Northwest, garrison life on the Upper Missouri in 1864-1865, and the overall performance and reliability of the enlisted prisoners of war. Despite opportunities to leave the Point by other means, over one thousand prisoners elected to join the first regiment of Galvanized Yankees. Although limited at first to guard duty of the defenses of Norfolk and Portsmouth, the First U.S. Volunteers successfully completed three raids in Virginia and North Carolina.  After the regiment lost several men to the enemy and desertion, General Ulysses Grant transferred the regiment to General John Pope's Department of the Northwest, which diverted four companies to garrison the Minnesota frontier. Under the command of Colonel Charles A. R. Dimon, the remaining six companies constructed and garrisoned Fort Rice on the Upper Missouri. Disease, Indians, and the Dakota weather contributed to the battalion's death rate of 16 percent. Constantly harried by the Dakotas, the First U.S Volunteers fought the Battle of Fort Rice on 28 July 1865. By carrying out the letter of the law, Colonel Dimon antagonized the Indian agents and traders, resulting in his replacement. Having officially requested to be mustered out after the Civil War ended, in September the battalion became insubordinate, and many men deserted. When Colonel Dimon returned and their muster out orders arrived, however, the First U.S. Volunteers proceeded down river to Fort Leavenworth without incident. Despite their fading commitment, the First U.S. Volunteers had protected emigration and trade and held the Dakotas in check as the federal presence on the Upper Missouri.

   739.   Byers, D. S.The environment of the northeast. F. Johnson (editor), Man in northeastern north America . Andover, MA.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)

   740.   Bylander, C. B. (1989). The Development Dilemma on Mille Lacs. The Minnesota Volunteer, 52(306), 42.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

   741.   Caduto, M. J., & Bruchac, J. (1994). Keepers of the night : Native American stories and nocturnal activities for children . Golden, Colo.  Fulcrum Pub.
Notes: Source: PALS Online Catalog (November 1999 search), Bib-Record-Id: 00-29796708
Abstract: How the bat came to be (Anishinabe--Eastern woodland) -- Moth, the fire dancer (Paiute--Great Basin) -- Oot-Kwah-Tah, the seven star dancers (Onondaga--Eastern woodland) -- The creation of the moon (Din‚--Southwest) -- Chipmunk and the owl sisters (Okanagan [Colville]--Plateau) -- The great lacrosse game (Menominee--Eastern woodland) -- How grizzley bear climbed the mountain (Shoshone--Great basin)

   742.   Cadzow, D. A. (1926). Bark records of the Bungi Midéwin Society. Indian Notes, 3, 123-134.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:37)

   743.   Cain, T. (1978). [Chippewa language book] . Red Lake, Minn.: Red Lake High School, Red Lake, Minn.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).  Title from acknowledgement. Dedicated to the students of R. L. H. S. and the Red Lake Tribe members.

   744.   Caine-Hohman, C. A. (1984). Normative typological and systemic approaches to the analysis of north central Minnesota ceramics. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Abstract: A decade of survey and excavation at Mille Lacs in north central Minnesota has revealed data pertaining to the entire ceramic sequence of that area. Of particular importance are ceramic changes which take place during the 'Transitional Period' (Middle to Late Woodland) and may accompany a shift from a diffuse to a focal subsistence system relying upon wild rice. This research analyzes ceramics from this period through methods derived from two theoretical perspectives: the normative and the systemic. As the result of the normative type/variety analysis, the 'Onamia' ceramic series is redefined to include two 'St Croix' types. A systemic stylistic analysis appropriate to Minnesota ceramics is developed and applied to the Mille Lacs sample. Four tentative styles are defined for use in tracing relationships among north and central Minnesota ceramic types. A comparison of the results of the two different approaches to ceramic analysis reveals that the normative type/variety approach is appropriate for broad delineation of temporal/spatial units but that more fine-scale stylistic analysis is needed to compare and relate pottery groupings to each other. As a result of these analyses, a number of hypotheses are generated to help direct future research.

   745.   Calkins, H. (1855). Indian nomenclature of northern Wisconsin, with a sketch of the manners and customs of the Chippewa. Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1, 119-126.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:37), "The Calkins article was presented at the 1854 meeting of the society."

   746.   Callender, C. (1962). Social organization of the central Algonkian Indians. Milwaukee Public Museum Publications in Anthropology, Milwaukee, 7.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)

   747.   Came, B., & Steele, S. (1995). Glimmer of hope: Oka's Mohawks fight lawlessness in their backyard. Maclean's, 108(33), 14 (2).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [review]
Abstract: Authorities destroyed 16 fields of marijuana plants on land owned by the Mohawk Indians in Kanesatake, Quebec in Jul 1995. Newly-elected chief James Gabriel supported the operation. Some members of the tribe alleged that Grand Chief Jerry Peltier knew about the fields and did nothing.

   748.   Cameron, D. (1890). A sketch of the customs, manners, way of living of the natives in the barren country about Nipigon. in L. F. R. Masson (editor), Les Bourgeois de la compagnie du Nord-Ouest, Récits de voyages, lettres et rapports inédites relatifs au Nord-Ouest Canadien ... Vol. 2 (pp. 229-300). Quebec: Imprimerie Générale A. Coté//A Cote et Cie.
Notes: Source: Human Relations Area Files Index, Category NG6 "[as of July 1, 1975]", identified as "(M)", page 2, item 18, listing title as "The Nipigon country"
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:37), "[Biographical data is provided on pp. 231-35.]  (Facsimile reprint, New York: Antiquarian Press, Ltd., 1960)"

   749.   Camp, G. S. (1990). Working Out Their Own Salvation: The Allotment of Land in Severalty and the Turtle Mountain Chippewa Band, 1870-1920. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 14(2), 19-38.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   750.   Camp, G. S. (1987). The Turtle Mountains Plains-Chippewas and Metis, 1797-1935 (North Dakota; Indians). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of New Mexico.
Abstract: The Turtle Mountain people--both past and present--possess a rich and diverse cultural background. An important element of their past included the struggle for recognition and survival. From their beginnings in the forests of Minnesota, to the establishment of a prairie home in the Turtle Mountains of north-central North Dakota, these Chippewa peoples faced a variety of challenges. The first of these challenges was their dependence on the fur trade. The second challenge was the Chippewa adaptation of the plains culture after spending several years in the Red River Valley of the North. For at  least one small group of 'Plains-Chippewas,' the transition was cemented with their move to the Turtle Mountains. Another group, also involved with the fur trade, was to play a pivotal role in history of the Turtle Mountain band, as well. The Turtle Mountain people's fortunes were tied to the Canadian metis, or mixed-bloods, and the American mixed-bloods. The development of a sense of metis  nationalism in the early and mid-19th century caused problems for the less numerous Turtle Mountain full-bloods and metis (Mechif).  This band's contact with the United States government, however, proved equally difficult. Negotiations to settle the Turtle Mountain band's ten million acre claim followed on the heels of the establishment of a reservation in 1882. The result was the 'Ten Cent Treaty,' an agreement that provided $1 million in monetary compensation and the elimination of many mixed-bloods from tribal rolls. Despite of the negative impact of this agreement, and the subsequent fee patent era, the Turtle Mountain people have survived. The Turtle Mountain people have survived the transition of cultures and the problems of economic dependence. They confronted the difficulties presented to them in the mixed-blood controversies of the mid-19th century and managed to retain their identity in the face of opposition from many quarters. Their greatest challenge, however, came from the United States government and its suffocating paternal policies. Their tenacious ability to surviveS was--and is--one of the Turtle Mountain people's greatest strengths.

   751.   Campbell, K. F. (1996). Afrikan/Native American art and resistance: a description of the dual heritage informing the art of Edmonia Lewis (African-American). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bowling Green State University.
Abstract: The main purpose of this dissertation is to analyze the cultural traditions that informed the art and life of Edmonia Lewis. A secondary purpose is to describe Edmonia Lewis' apparent seminal influence on the development of Afrikan American Art. Supporting theorists, i.e., Weber, Pareto, Berger and Luckmann, Levine, Cress Welsing and Geertz, etc. sustain the application of Durkheim's theory in accordance with Schwaller de Lubicz's notion of virtuality or natural (living) symbol, to discuss how Lewis' dual heritage informed her life and art. It is this author's contention that Durkheim's theory of anomic division of labor is most appropriate for identifying Lewis and her political milieux as forces countering the racialized bias of American society to procure social justice through cultural and political activities. Durkheim's notion of anomie--the state of normlessness that may occur during periods of intense conflict or rapid social change--explains how this study views the Neoclassical works of Lewis as counter to Neoclassicism and her ascribed American social identity. It also proffers a social cultural analysis of the consequence of her Afrikan Chippewa identity and its impact on her artistic expressions. This discussion utilizes the myths and values of Lewis' dual heritage to identify the subversive and political nature of the role model she became.  Edmonia Lewis became an artist archetype emulated by artists in succeeding generations. The evolution of this study has presented strong evidence that the same 'Maroon' values, which characterized Native American and Afrikan American alliances, settlements and liberation struggles, informed the art of both Edmonia Lewis and the artists who mimicked her archetype. A need to examine the historical connections and interactions that generates the Afrikan American Indian legacy is directly noted.

   752.   Campbell, L. (1997). Amerind Personal Pronouns - a Second Opinion. Language, 73(2), 339-351.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

   753.   Campbell, M. (1973). Halfbreed.  University of Nebraska Press.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

   754.   . (1905-1912). CanadaIndian Treaties and surrenders, from 1680 to [1903] Vol. 3 volumes in 2). Ottawa: S. E. Dawson Print.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:38)

   755.   Canada. Dept. of Secretary of State. (1870). Return to an address of the House of Commons, dated 24th February, 1870; for Reports of Superintendents of Roads, from Thunder Bay to Fort Garry on the Red River; and detailed statement shewing the length of road constructed east of Lake of the Woods and west of said lake ... Ottawa.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 28131559.  Caption title. Binder's title: Roads in Manitoba. On wrapper (bound in at end): 3d sess., 1st Parliament, 33 Victoria, 1870. Return to an address of Commons dated 23d February.

   756.   . (1878). Canada. Dept. of the Secretary of StateCopies of all reports of engineers, memorials, &c., relating to the survey and location of the line of the Pacific railway between the Red River and Battleford and not heretofore laid before Parliament: and also all reports, &c., relating to the proposed line of said railway between the same points, but south of Lake Winnipeg . Ottawa.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 25191035

   757.   . (1859). Canada. Provincial Secretary's OfficePapers relative to the exploration of the country between Lake Superior and the Red River settlement; presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty, June, 1859 . London: Printed by G.E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode, printers to the Queen's most excellent Majesty. For Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).  Presented to both houses of Parliament by command of Her Majesty, June, 1859. Expedition under the direction of G. Gladman. S. J. Dawson, surveyor. Papers by S. J. Dawson, H. Y. Hind, and G. Gladman.  Gladman, George. Dawson, S. J. (Simon James), 1820-1902. Hind, Henry Youle, 1823-1908. ... accession: 14870216. ... accession: 13962915: 16 p., [1] leaf : ill., 4 fold. maps ; 33 cm. First edition: Wagner-Camp 331. Official report by the geologist of the Canadian government's 1857 Red River Expedition under the direction of George Gladman. Includes papers of S. J. Dawson, surveyor, H. Y. Hind, and G. Gladman. Original blue printed wrappers. Other: Gladman, George. Dawson, S. J. (Simon James), 1820-1902. Hind, Henry Youle, 1823-1908. ... accession: 25295581. ... accession: 25295579 ... accession: 33054716. ... accession: 35636825.

   758.   Canada. Provincial Secretary's Office. (1858). Report on a topographical & geological exploration of the canoe route between Fort William, Lake Superior, and Fort Garry, Red River; and also of the valley of Red River, north of the 49th parallel, during the summer of 1857. Toronto: Printed by S. Derbishire & G. Desbarats.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 18581849.  At head of title: 21 Victoriae. Appendix (no. 3.) A.1858. 2d pt. has t.-p.: Report on the exploration of the country between Lake Superior and the Red River settlement ... Toronto, J. Lovell, printer, 1858. Expedition under the direction of G. Gladman. S.J. Dawson, surveyor.  Other: Gladman, George. Dawson, S. J. (Simon James), 1820-1902. Hind, Henry Youle, 1823-1908.

   759.   . (1858). Canada. Provincial Secretary's OfficeReport on the exploration of the country between Lake Superior and the Red River settlement . Toronto: J. Lovell, printer.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).  Expedition under the direction of G. Gladman. Final report of H. Y. Hind, geologist and naturalist: p. 136- 425.  Other: Hind, Henry Youle, 1823-1908. Gladman, George. Canada. Legislature. Legislative Assembly. ... accession: 13853455. ... accession: 25365959. ... accession: 35639584.
Abstract: The report includes reports of George Gladman (in charge of the expedition), S.J. Dawson, surveyor, H.Y. Hind, geologist and naturalist, W.E. Napier, engineer. In June, 1859, this report was presented to the British Parliament, and was printed as a parliamentary paper, entitled 'Papers Relative to the Exploration ... '

   760.   Canine, J. K. (1979). The American Indian and the community college: a study of educational experiences of American Indians at a community college in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University Teachers College, Microfilm. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms International, 1979. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 10699930  ... accession: 7543887 ... accession: 5348653

   761.   Cannariato, S. B. (1992). Recursive time in the works of Louise Erdrich. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Houston.
Abstract: The works of Louise Erdrich, a German-American and Chippewa, study recursive familial memories in the search for self-identity.  Chapter 1 covers Erdrich's background and honors and surveys the significance of family relationships in her works. Chapter 2 focuses on Erdrich's early poems in Jacklight. Chapter 2 presents the search for self-awareness of Lipsha Morrissey after the death of his mother in Love Medicine. Chapter 3 studies the search for family love by the Adares after their abandonment by their mother in The Beet Queen. Chapter 4 investigates recursive family-centered themes in Tracks. Chapter 5, covering Baptism of Desire, analyzes the mother's role in the family structure. Chapter 6 concludes with an examination of the role of the family in the discovery of the self in The Crown of Columbus and several of Erdrich's short stories.  Erdrich uses recursive familial memories as an aid to awareness.

   762.   Cannon, E. M. (1998). What violent violets want: female desire in contemporary women's fiction (women writers, women characters, bonding, feminism). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.
Abstract: My dissertation examines the female desire propelling the protagonists of the contemporary American female Bildungsroman and situates it within second wave feminism. The works of Margaret Atwood, Louise Erdrich, Toni Morrison, Paula Martinac, Sally Miller Gearhart, Candis J. Graham, Rebecca Brown, and Artemis OakGrove envision this desire driving toward subjectivity, toward an awareness of self as subject. In doing so, they explore the need for female bonding in successful subject formation and insist that female desire often manifests itself in literal and metaphorical forms of violence. Female bonding is a central concept in much second wave feminist theory, and in my study it becomes the primary location for the subject formation process. Its role is clarified by what Jessica Benjamin defines as an intersubjective mode: within this bond, women become subjects through recognizing the subject position of the other. Theorizing female desire as violent, however, is currently uncommon, even though critics have identified the violent desire of men. Although historically some feminists have explored issues of female violence, the majority voice of the 1970s and 1980s suppressed this coupling and spoke instead of women as nurturers. I argue that the political question is no longer what happens if we represent women as violent but what happens if we ignore the  inevitability of violence in female desire. The introduction shows  further how this desire is a legacy of second wave feminism and how  issues of subjectivity, female bonding, and violence play out in a representative feminist novel, Lady Oracle. My subsequent chapters explore in depth how female desire constructed in different cultural contexts also uses violence and female bonding in its drive for subjectivity. Chapter 2 juxtaposes an individual desire for subjectivity with a desire for Anishinabe nationality. Chapter 3 theorizes black female desire against the backdrops of jazz and the New Negro of the Harlem Renaissance. Chapter 4 highlights how a  lesbian identity both helps and hinders a desire for subjectivity. And, finally, chapter 5 shows how lesbian bonds can erupt violently when they threaten subjectivity.

   763.   Every name index to the 1911 plat book of Red Lake and Pennington counties, Minnesota : with reprints of township maps . (1991). St. Paul, Minn.  Minnesota Genealogical Society.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 23346840. "Plat book originally compiled and published by George A. Ogle and Company, Chicago."

   764.   Cantor, J. C., Bergeisen, L., & Baker, L. C. (1998). Effect of an Intensive Educational Program for Minority College Students and Recent Graduates on the Probability of Acceptance to Medical School. JAMA, 280(9), 772-6.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: CONTEXT: Increasing the number of minority physicians is a long-standing goal of professional associations and government. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of an intensive summer educational program for minority college students and recent graduates on the probability of acceptance to medical school. DESIGN: Nonconcurrent prospective cohort study based on data from medical school applications, Medical College Admission Tests, and the Association of American Medical Colleges Student and Applicant Information Management System. SETTING: Eight US medical schools or consortia of medical schools. PARTICIPANTS: Underrepresented minority (black, Mexican American, mainland Puerto Rican, and American Indian) applicants to US allopathic medical schools in 1997 (N =3830), 1996 (N = 4654), and 1992 (N =3447). INTERVENTION: The Minority Medical Education Program (MMEP), a 6-week, residential summer educational program focused on training in the sciences and improvement of writing, verbal reasoning, studying, test taking, and presentation skills. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Probability of acceptance to at least 1 medical school. RESULTS: In the 1997 medical school application cohort, 223 (49.3%) of 452 MMEP participants were accepted compared with 1406 (41.6%) of 3378 minority nonparticipants (P= .002). Positive and significant program effects were also found in the 1996 (P=.01) and 1992 (P=.005) cohorts and in multivariate analysis after adjusting for nonprogrammatic factors likely to influence acceptance (P<.001). Program effects were also observed in students who participated in the MMEP early in college as well as those who participated later and among those with relatively high as well as low grades and test scores. CONCLUSIONS: The MMEP enhanced the probability of medical school acceptance among its participants. Intensive summer education is a strategy that may help improve diversity in the physician workforce.  (Abstract by: Author)

   765.   Carbone, M. A., MacKay, N., Ling, M., Cole, D. F. C., Douglas, C., Rigat, B., Feibenbaum, A., Clarke, J. T. R., Haworth, J. C., Greenberg, C. R., Seargeant, L., & Robinson, B. H. (1998). Amerindian Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency Is Associated With Two Distinct Missense Mutations. American Journal of Human Genetics, 62(6), 1312-1319.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: We characterized the pyruvate carboxylase (PC) gene by PCR amplification, subcloning, and sequencing. The coding region has 19 exons and 18 introns spanning apprx 16 kb of genomic DNA. Screening both the cDNA and the gene of individuals with the simple A form of PC deficiency revealed an 1828G fwdarw A missense mutation in 11 Ojibwa and 2 Cree patients and a 2229G fwdarw T transversion mutation in 2 brothers of Micmac origin. Carrier frequency may be as high as 1/10 in some groupings. The two point mutations are located in a region of homology conserved among yeast, rat, and human PC, in the vicinity of the carboxylation domain of the enzyme. These data provide the first characterization of the human PC gene structure, the identification of common pathogenic mutations, and the demonstration of a founder effect in the Ojibwa and Cree patients.

   766.   Carley, K. e. (1962). As red men viewed it; three Indian accounts of the uprising. Minnesota History, 38, 126-149, illus.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 19321203

   767.   Carlson, N. S. (1960). The Tomahawk family. New York: Harper and Row Publishers.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:92), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "A brother and sister discover what it is like to lead both the traditional life and the modern American one."

   768.   Carlson, P. H. (1998). The Plains Indians.  Texas A & M University Press.
Notes: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

   769.   Carpenter, R. A., Lyons, C. A., & Miller, W. R. (1985). Peer-Managed Self-Control Program for Prevention of Alcohol Abuse in American Indian High School Students: Pilot Evaluation Study. International Journal of the Addictions, 20(2), 299-310.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: A peer-managed self-control program to teach responsible drinking was tested with 30 American Indian teenagers at high risk for problem drinking.

   770.   Carr, R. (1997). With reluctance, Thompson brings hearings to an abrupt end. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 55(43), 2660-2662.
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: Senator Fred Thompson announced, on Oct. 31, 1997, an end to the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee hearings on campaign finance violations after the hearings received little public attention and were hampered by bickering between Democrats and Republicans. A report will cover the violations exposed by the hearings. Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt denied allegations that Chippewa Indians were not allowed to build a casino because of rival tribes' donations to the Democratic Party.

   771.   . (1977). M. B. CarriganCaptured by the Indians  Rev. ed. ed., ). New York : Garland Pub..
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 2798283. "During the month of January, 1903, this story was published in serial form in the Buffalo Lake news." Reprint of the 1912 ed. published by News Print, Buffalo Lake, Minn. Issued with the 1907 ed. of this work. New York, 1977.

   772.   Carroll, J. L. (1990). Dams and Damages: The Ojibway, The United States, and the Mississippi Headwaters Reservoirs. Minnesota History, 52(1), 2.
Notes: Source: UnCover database (Aug 1999)

   773.   Carson, W. (1917). Ojibwa tales. Journal of American Folk-Lore, 30(118), 491-493.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   774.   Carufel, D., Sr. (1998). Gaytay-Ojiber-Wug: The Ancient Ojibwe. Cobblestone, 19(8), 2.
Notes: Source: UnCover database (Aug 1999)

   775.   Carufel, D., Sr. (1998). The Ojibwe of Today. Cobblestone, 19(8), 38.
Notes: Source: UnCover database (Aug 1999)

   776.   Carver, J. (1778). Travels through the interior parts of North America, in the years 1766, 1767 and 1768 ... London: [printed for the author].
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:38), "Carver's work contains fictionalized accounts, but experts have yet to reach a consensus on what is and is not factual.  The Travels should, therefore, be read with a critical eye and used with great caution."

   777.   Casagrande, J. B. (1955). John Mink, Ojibwa informant. The Wisconsin Archaeologist, 36, 106-128.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:38)
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   778.   Casagrande, J. B. (1960). John Mink, Ojibwa informant. J. B. Casagrande (editor), In the company of man  (pp. 467-488). New York.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   779.   Casagrande, J. B. (1952). Ojibwa bear ceremonialism: the presistance of a ritual attitude. in S. Tax (editor), Acculturation in the Americas: proceedings and selected papers of the XXIXth International Congress of Americanists ... Vol. 2 (pp. 113-117, illus.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:38)
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   780.   Casagrande, L. B., & Ringheim, M. M. (1980). Straight tongue: Minnesota Indian art from the Bishop Whipple collections: an exhibition at the Science Museum of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, October 17, 1980 to April 30, 1981. St. Paul: Science Museum of Minnesota.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXVI (1983:38)

   781.   Case, J. H. (1921). Minnesota history; an account of the Redwood and Yellow Medicine Indian agencies. Hastings, Minn.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 19291695
Abstract: "Andrew Robertson built the first two government buildings at the Yellow Medicine agency in 1854." Text in six parallel columns. Reprinted from Hastings gazette, July 1st and 8th, 1921. With this are bound: Ms. letter from the author, and two clippings from the Hastings gazette, of March 19 and April 2, 1921, with titles: Pioneers in the township of Nininger, and Indian trading post at Oliver's Grove.

   782.   Casiro, O. G., Stanwick, R. S., & Walker, R. D. (1988). The Prevalence of IgA Nephropathy in Manitoba Canada Native Indian Children. Canadian Journal of Public Health.  Revue Canadienne De Sante Publique, 79(5), 308-310.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: IgA glomerulonephritis, while seemingly uncommon in North America, is often reported in renal reviews from Japan, Australia and France.  A five year retrospective review of all children under 17 years of age with persistent renal disease in Manitoba, Canada, identified 16 patients with IgA nephropathy.  All had significant mesangial deposits of IgA on renal biopsy.  Nine were Native Indians, 6 were Caucasians and 1 was Oriental.  There were no significant differences in age of onset or clinical characteristics of the disease between Native Indians and non-Native Indians.  However, the prevalence of IgA nephropathy in Native Indian children was 25.4/100,000 and only 2.3/100,000 in non-Native Indian children (p < .001).  Of note, the observed increased frequency of IgA nephropathy in Manitoba Ojibway, Cree and Salteaux Indian children is similar to that reported for the Pueblo and Athabascan Indians of New Mexico. Genetic and/or environmental factors might explain the observed differences in prevalence.

   783.   Casper, M., Rith-Najarian, S., Groft, J., Giles, W., & Donehoo, R. (1996). Blood Pressure, Diabetes, and Body Mass Index Among Chippewa and Menominee Indians: the Inter-Tribal Heart Project Preliminary Data. Public Health Reports, 111(Suppl. 2), 37-39.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: THE HEART DISEASE MORTALITY RATES of the Chippewa and Menominee, who reside in the upper Midwest, are higher than the rates of most other tribes in the United States. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity among these communities. The Inter-Tribal Heart Project (ITHP) was designed to determine the prevalence of risk factors for heart disease and to implement community-based heart disease prevention programs. Age-stratified random samples of active users of the tribal-Indian Health Service (IHS) clinics, ages 25 and older, were drawn from three communities within the Bemidji Service Area. Between September 1992 and June 1994, 1396 people completed an extensive questionnaire and underwent a physical exam for heart disease risk factors. Preliminary data indicate mean blood pressure levels of 126 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 74.4 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Mean SBP and DBP were higher among men than women. Mean body mass index (BMI), which did not vary by gender, was 30.6 mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension was 33%; and diabetes, 33%. Men had a higher prevalence of hypertension than women, but there was little gender difference in the prevalence of diabetes. These preliminary data suggest that the prevalences of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity in these communities are higher than the recent estimates for the total United States. The next stage of the ITHP will focus on policies and programs to prevent and treat these conditions.  (Abstract by: Author)

   784.   Casselman, B. (1997). Leafing through maple lore. Canadian Geographic, 117(5), 25 (1).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: The word maple comes from 'mapeltreow,' an Old English term for maple tree. Its Proto-Germanic root, 'mapl,' means 'nourishing mother tree.' The tree is a frequent figure in Ojibwa folk tales and in Canadian humor.

   785.   Cassilman, A. V. Winning the Winnebago.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)

   786.   Castellano, M. B. (1989). Women in Huron and Ojibwa Societies. Canadian Woman Studies /Les Cahiers De La Femme, 10(2/3), 45-48.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Source: Women’s Resources International [University of Minnesota online database-- Women's Studies Database], August 29, 1999 search

   787.   . (1974). B. H. CastleThe Grand Island Story . Marquette, MI: The John M. Longyear Research Library.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:38)

   788.   Castle, H. A. (Henry Anson), 1841-1916. (1915). Minnesota, its story and biography. Chicago, Ill.  Lewis Publishing Co.
Notes: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 12819395
Abstract: Paged continuously. Vols. 2-3 contain biographical sketches. Index: v. 1, p. ix-xxviii. Microfilmed from original in Cox Library. With: United States biographical dictionary and portrait gallery of eminent and self-made men -- History of the bench and bar of Minnesota / prepared under the direction of Hiram F. Stevens -- Personal recollections of Minnesota and its people / by John H. Stevens -- Men of Minnesota -- Little sketches of big folks, Minnesota 1907 -- The book of Minnesotans -- Commemorative biographical records of the upper lake region -- Illustrated album of biography of Southwestern Minnesota -- History of the Minnesota Valley -- History of the upper Mississippi Valley -- Illustrated album of biography of the famous valley of the Red River of the North and the park regions.

   789.   Castner, L. S. (1967). Report on administration of justice and the Minnesota Indian . Minneapolis: Minnesota Civil Liberties Union Foundation.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 7510844

   790.   Catlin, G. (1848). Catlin's notes of eigtht years' travel and residence in Europe, with his North Amerikcan Indian collection.  With anecdotes and incidents of the travels and adventures of three parties of American Indians whom he introduced to the Courts of England, France and Belgium. London: [printed for the author].
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:39)

   791.   Catlin, G. (1842). Letters and notes on the manners, customs and condition of the North American Indians ... London: Tilte and Bogue.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:39)

   792.   Catlin, G. (1888). Notes on the History, Customs, and Beliefs of the Mississagua Indians. Journal of American Folklore, 1, 150-160.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:39)

   793.   Catlin, G. (1889). Tales of the Mississaaguas [I]. Journal of American Folklore, 2, 141-147.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:39)

   794.   Catlin, G. (1889). Tales of the Mississaaguas [II]. Journal of American Folklore, 3, 149-154.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:39)

   795.   Caudill, W. A. (1948). Psychological characteristics of acculturated Wisconsin Ojibwa children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Chicago.

   796.   Caudill, W. A. (1949). Psychological characteristics of acculturated Wisconsin Ojibwa children. American Anthropologist, 51, 409-427, diagrs.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   797.   Caudill, W. A. (1956). TATs of 88 Ojibwa children. Primary Records in Culture and Personality, 1(11).
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   798.   Caughnawaga Historical Society (Ed.). (196u). Bulletin - Caughnawaga Historical  Society (Vols. Began publication in 196-.). Lachine, Que.: Caughnawaga Historical  Society.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

   799.   Cavender, C. C. (A history of the Indian Advisory Committee to the Minneapolis Public Schools). (1969). Archive/Manuscript Control.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 11357525. Title from caption. Signed: Chris C. Cavender.

   800.   Cervenka, J., & Shapiro, B. L. (1970). Cleft Uvula in Chippewa Indians: Prevalence and Genetics. Human Biology, 42(2), 47-52.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

   801.   Chamberlain, A. F. (1906). Cree and Ojibwa literary terms. Journal American Folk-Lore, 19, 346, 347.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   802.   Chamberlain, A. F., 1865-1914. (1888). Tales of the Mississaguas.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
Caption title. Signed: A.F. Chamberlain.

   803.   Chambers, C. (1997). Income Derived From Indian Tribal Lands Was Taxable to Tribal Member: Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians v. United States. The Tax Lawyer : Bulletin of the Section of Tax ..., 50(4), 849.
Notes: Source: UnCover

   804.   Champagne, D., Flynn, L.-L., Kehoe, A. B., Loeb, B., Mauzé, M., Silverstein, C., Slater, D., & Tiberini, E. S. (1995). North American Indians: culture in motion. Uomo, VIII(1), 17-160.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XLI (1996:167)
Abstract: Collection of 8 articles

   805.   Champagne, J. M. (1992). Lac la Biche: un communaute metisse au XIXeme siecle (French text). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alberta (Canada).
Abstract: After the trading posts initially founded near Lac La Biche in Northeastern Alberta by numerous fur trade companies at the turn of the nineteenth century had been abandoned, former employees remained in the area, marrying with native women and establishing families. This group known as Metis developed an active community, based on a strong free trader economy, without the influence of any outside institutions. To control this illegal trade, the Hudson's Bay Company returned to the community in 1853. At the same time, the missionary order, 'oblats de Marie-Immaculee', decided to set up a mission to serve as a private shipping depot for its northern missions. The subsequent pressure on the resources available in this boreal forest site, especially hay to feed the livestock and horses used in transportation, made it difficult for all the entrepreneurs active in the area. At the end of the century, changes in this Metis community were effected by the decimation of the buffalo, the decline of the fur trade and the new opportunities for employment in the developing North.

   806.   Chapeskie, A. J. (1990). Indigenous law, state law and the management of natural resources: wild rice and the Wabigoon Lake Ojibway Nation. Law and Anthropology, 5, 129-166.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   807.   Chapin, E. V. (1985). The angle of incidents : the story of Warroad and the Northwest Angle . Warroad, Minn.  Warroad Historical Society.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search).  "Published under the auspices of the Warroad Area Historical Society." Photographs vary form 1970 printing.

   808.   Chapleau, F., & Cooper, J. A. (1992). Variation in the Preoperculomandibular Canal of the Johnny Darter Etheostoma-Nigrum With Associated Zoogeographical Considerations. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 70(12), 2315-2321.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: A total of 1267 specimens (from 87 stations) of the johnny darter, Etheostoma nigrum, were studied to examine the geogrpahic variation in the numbers of pores on the preoperculomandiublar canal. The pore count is bimodal for the total sample.  These modes correspond to distinct geographic regions.  Fishes from northern Ontario (west and north of Lake Nipigon), Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Canada Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan USA usually have 7 or fewer pores (mode = 6).  Populations from northern Ontario (east and south of Lake Nipigon), southern Ontario, Quebec, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Maryland, Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan have 8 or more proes (mode = 9).  The differentiation between morphs predates their present distribution and the morphs probably occupied distinct geographic areas within the Mississippi refugium during the last glaciation.  Etheostoma nigrum dispersed north, following two postglacial routes: (i) via the Mississippi River to Lake Agassiz (12,800 years BP) then eastward to the Hudson Bay and James Bay drainages via Lake Barlow-Ojibway (9500 years BP), and (ii) via a northeastern spread from the Great lakes and Ohio River drainages to the St. Lawrence River and Ottawa River drainages (12,000 years BP).

   809.   Chapleski, E. E., Gelfand, D. E., & Pugh, K. E. (1997). Great Lakes American Indian Elders and Service Utilization: Does Residence Matter?  Journal of Applied Gerontology : the Official Journal ..., 16(3), 333.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

   810.   Chatterjee, P. (1997). Toxic racism: Chippewas resist deadly dumping. Dollars & Sense, 211, 13 (3).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: Native Americans have been busy blocking mining operations that threaten the environment. For instance, the plan of INMET, a Canadian mining firm, to dump sulfuric acid in Wisconsin as a means of unearthing more copper came under protest from Walt Bresette and his Chippewa followers. Bresette is the chairman of the indigenous subcommittee of the EPA's National Environmental Justice Advisory Panel.

   811.   Chavkin, A. R., 1950-. (1999). Chippewa Landscape of Louise Erdrich. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999
Source: Library Of Congress Online Catalog [Library of Congress, 101 Independence Ave., SE, Washington, DC 20540] (October 1999 search). Includes bibliographical references and index.
Abstract: Contents: Introduction / Allan Chavkin -- Against all odds: games of chance in the novels of Louise Erdrich / John Purdy -- From sacred hoops to bingo palaces: Louise Erdrich's carnivalesque fiction / Robert Morace -- Life into death, death into life: hunting as metaphor and motive in love medicine / Robert F. Gish -- Vision and revision in Louise Erdrich's love medicine / Allan Chavkin -- Narrative and ethos in Erdrich's "A wedge of shade" / William J. Scheick -- Of vision quests and spirit guardians: female power in the novels of Louise Erdrich / Annette Van Dyke -- Ethnic signs in Erdrich's tracks and the bingo palace / Catherine Rainwater -- Indi'n humor and trickster justice in the bingo palace / Nancy J. Peterson -- Afterword / Lavonne Brown Ruoff -- Selected bibliography / Allan Chavkin and Nancy Feyl Chavkin -- Contributors -- Index.

   812.   Chesser, B. E. (1978). Trafficking with spirits: a cross-cultural examination of the biosociocultural concomitants of spirit encounters. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
Notes: Source: Parapsychology Abstracts International, Dec 1986:39-40
Abstract: Gods, demons, witches, ghosts, spirit helpers, and other supernaturals abound not only in traditional societies but somewhat surreptitiously in ones like our own.  They have dealt with us throughout written history and perhaps from the beginnings of the human mind.  In all cultures knowledge of these "concept beings" stems ultimately from experiential contact with them, yet encounters with spirits are usually recorded and analyzed as folklore or myth even when they are the actual experiences of the informant.  It is this experiential aspect that makes strucxtural analysis per se an inadequate means of comprehending such data.
  Despite anthropological devotion to their social consequences, the experiential aspects of "face-to-face" contacts with the supernatural have been given insufficient attention because such encounters (apart from possession) have been seen as falling within the realm of the subjective and thus not amenable to study, or to be a matter for psychological analysis alone. Also, few societies have been as negative as our own with regard to dealings with the Spirit World, and we can seldom consider such activities experiential (apart from "fantasy") or untinged with pathology in any cultural context.  Extensive cross-cultural data suggest, however, that spirit encounters, or the psychic products so perceived, are not only universal but cannot be seen as pathological in and of themselves.  They may or may not be culturally sanctioned idioms of cognition but it is felt that they most probably represent holistic "right brain" or hemispherically integrative solutions, whether magical, realistic, culturally prescribed, or psychotic, to problems not readily resolvable by the processes of the normally dominant logical, verbal hemisphere.  The great time depth and universal use of altered states of consciousness to contact the Spirit World, particularly in times of stress, is held to support this view, as is the cross-culturally recognized transforming effect of spirit encounters on individuals, and on occasion, their societies.  Experiential contact with the Spirit World plays a major role in initiating personal and social change in traditional societies and its influence on others, including our own, is not negligible.
  Anthorpologists and psychologists are not concerned with quite the same dimensions of behavior, and anthropologists need to understand the manipulation and control of feelings and behavior by symbols within their own perspective, whether in the particular instance these symbols exist as cultural constructs or arise with varying degrees of sponteneity from the unconscious of the individual.  Knowledge of the range and nature of subjective mental phenomena is crucial to understanding the genesis of religious  belief and nonwestern thereapeutic and philosophic systems in which they are extensively utilized.
  Chapter One discusses anthropological and psychological theories of the origins of spirits, and in particular those of Tylor, Durkheim, Freud, and Jung, in terms of how well they reflect experiential data.  None of these theories is seen to fully reflect the spectrum of spirit phenomena encountered at the experiential level, but the theoretical framework that appears most capable of being developed to contaim it is that of Jung.  Chapter Two further examines the phenomenological aspects of spirit encounters, which are conceived as being of two types: intrusive, in which ego awareness is retained, and possessive, in which it is not.  Focus is on the first type and especially on visual phenomena.  Chapter Three deals with the social and psychobiological functions of spirit encounters.  Institutionalized spirit encounters are viewed as atttempts at utlization of a peculiarity of brain functioning via altered states of consciousness to bring about a creative act which may result in a higher level of personal integration or problem resolution.  Chapter Four considers problems in determining the frequencies of spontaneous and induced spirit encounters and the effects of envioronmental conditions, genetic factors, and belief systems in bringing them about.  In addition to ethnographic data from a variety of cultures, material is presented in the chapters above and the appendix from 64 field informants drawn from the general population of Los Angeles. DAI

   813.   Chevalier, H. E. (Henri Emile), 1828-1879. (1858). L'Iroquoise de Caughnawaga. Montreal: J. Lovell.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search), Reproduction of original in: National  Library of Canada. Microfiche. Ottawa : Canadian Institute for Historical  Microreproductions, 1982. 1 microfiche (19 fr.) ; 11 x 15  cm. (CIHM/ICMH Microfiche series = CIHM/ICMH collection de  microfiches ; no. 33275)

   814.   Chick, N. L. (1999). Becoming flower: gender and culture in contemporary ethnic American women's literatures (Toni Morrison, Maxine Hong Kingston, Judith Ortiz Cofer, Louise Erdrich). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia.
Abstract: Canonized by such writers as William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser, and Nathaniel Hawthorne, the metaphor of the flower has been shaped into a cultural icon of idealized womanhood that consists of pristinely lily-white skin, innocently blushing rosy cheeks, and soft, rose-red lips. This conventional symbol extends true womanhood only to pure, virginal, pedestalled, white femininity. After an introductory chapter that examines this tradition and positions my study, my dissertation analyzes the works of Toni Morrison, Maxine Hong Kingston, Judith Ortiz Cofer, and Louise Erdrich as they respond to and revise the exclusion of their race, class, gender identity, and culture by appropriating the metaphor of the flower to redefine womanhood. Chapter One explores Toni Morrison's Sula which confronts the ideal of femininity constructed by an ethnocentric aesthetic. Sula is marked by a black rose, situating her in the shadow of the binarial construction of the rose of white beauty and virginity. In Chapter Two, I discuss Fa Mu Lan, Brave Orchid, and Moon Orchid from Maxine Hong Kingston's The Woman Warrior. Kingston portrays a dynamic process of cultural and gender negotiation in which Chinese American women contend with two traditions: the ancient mythology of the tiny  lily feet that symbolize Confucian roles for women, and a new one in which negotiating gender roles is no longer punishable by death. Chapter Three examines Judith Ortiz Cofer's The Line of the Sun and Silent Dancing: A Partial Remembrance of a Puerto Rican Childhood. With the rose and other flowers, Ortiz Cofer excavates the Taino Indian, African, and Spanish cultural heritage of Puerto Rico to reflect a syncretic portrait of womanhood. Finally, Chapter Four examines Fleur Pillager in Louise Erdrich's The Beet Queen, Tracks , and The Bingo Palace. Fleur is an enigmatic Ojibway trickster who reconceptualizes the history of Euro-American contact and presents an alternative mode of becoming flower that looks back to indigenous American syncretism.

   815.   Child, B. J. (1998). Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900-1940.  University of Nebraska Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

   816.   Child, B. J. (1994). A bitter lesson: Native Americans and the government boarding school experience, 1890-1940 (boarding schools). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Iowa.
Abstract: Historians have generally placed the beginning of the government boarding school era for Native Americans in 1879, the year Carlisle Institute was founded in Pennsylvania. In the late nineteenth century, Lieutenant Richard Pratt recruited students from the western states to Carlisle, and Chippewas and other tribes attended the school during its early years. More children from tribes in the upper mid west were sent away to boarding schools when the system expanded. In 1899, twenty-five residential schools were in operation, including several institutions selected for this study.  Haskell Institute was founded in 1884 in Lawrence, Kansas and often listed Chippewas as the second largest tribe enrolled at the school. In 1893, the Flandreau Indian School opened in South Dakota, and was primarily attended by Chippewa and Lakota students. The Pipestone Boarding School in Minnesota also began admitting pupils in 1893. The Haskell and Flandreau records proved to be especially rich sources of information about boarding school life during the assimilation years. The boarding school records, largely untouched over the years, preserved hundreds of letters written by Indians. These exceptional documents, left by Native students in the schools and their families at home, provide the foundation for this study. The boarding school letters, sometimes poignant and always candid, establish a very complex history of the Native Americans who were involved with residential school education. In part, it is the history of people who experienced forced assimilation, and who to varying degrees lost control over important aspects of their own lives. This was true for students in the schools, and it was also true for parents and other family members in the community who repeatedly clashed with school authorities and sometimes were forced to submit to the will of the bureaucracy that governed Indian schools. At the same time, Native students andresisted and frequently triumphed over that bureaucracy, and they often used government boarding schools for their own advantage.

   817.   Chomsky, N. (1985). The bounds of thinkable thought. The Progressive,  28-31.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

   818.   Chretien, A. (1997). 'Mattawa, where the waters meet': the question of identity in Metis culture (Ontario). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ottawa (Canada).
Abstract: This thesis is about Metis music and the Metis people. Its purpose is to examine the intimate connections between the two and how music constitutes an inherent component of Metis identity(ies). The premise of this study is that Metis identity is fluid and flexible and that Metis musical traditions do not merely reflect these characteristics but are instrumental in its construction. In the same vein, I am arguing that multiple Metis identities have emerged from several specific factors, including individuality, regionalism, socio-economic conditions, historical events, political manipulations, various metissages, and spiritual beliefs and values. The goal of this study is to acknowledge the multiple Metis identities which are experienced and articulated among Metis through the examination of their musical practices. This study is based on an in-depth ethnography of the musical practices of the Metis community in Mattawa, Ontario. This community provides a case-in-point from which Metis identity can be studied. It features a wide and diverse range of musical practices typical of the Metis communities in Ontario, and it enacts the internal divisions which have undermined its official representation at the local as well as the regional and national levels.

   819.   Christie, S. (1997). Trickster Gone Golfing: Vizenor's Heirs of Columbus and the Chelh-ten-em Development Controversy. The American Indian Quarterly , 21(ie), 359.
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [full text available]
Abstract: Gerald Vizenor does not use the image of the trickster correctly in his novel, 'Heirs of Columbus.' The book's events are situated in the Coastal Salish region of Washington state, yet does not refer either to the local trickster tradition nor of the golf course development in the northern Puget Sound that endangers Lummi Indian salmon fishing practices. Postmodern narratives provide relevant opportunities for political trickster discourse, yet the tribal interests in Vizenor's novel should be expressed in local rather than political terms

   820.   Chute, J. E. (1987). A century of native leadership: Shingwaukonse and his heirs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, McMaster University (Canada).
Abstract: Two conflicting schools of thought have arisen regarding proto-Ojibwa society and leadership, as well as social-organizational changes which have taken place within Ojibwa bands during the historic era. Proponents of the first theoretical perspective hold that territorially-based clans and clan chiefs existed in the Upper Great Lakes region until social breakdown occurred as a consequence of indirect colonialism and the fur trade. A second view stresses the persistence among the Ojibwa of an ethos of egalitarianism characterized by conceptions of 'power' and 'control' distinct from Western notions of competitive, self-interested action. Both approaches are examined in the light of oral and historical evidence pertaining to the activities of the noted Ojibwa chief Shingwaukonse and his successors during the nineteenth century. The study concludes that Native leadership underwent substantial elaboration during the colonial period in response to external commercial, government, and missionary agencies, and yet remained sensitive to band goals and aspirations by maintaining a social environment conducive to the preservation of cherished Native values. The tradition of leadership established by Shingwaukonse survived into the twentieth century at Garden River, Ontario, since, with a fair degree of success, chiefs and band have continually sought to protect and develop potentialities inherent in traditional group prerogatives, including a specific interest in land and resources.

   821.   Chute, J. E. (1998). Shingwaukonse - a Nineteenth-Century Innovative Ojibwa Leader. Ethnohistory, 45(1), 65-101.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Abstract: Information derived from an ethnohistorical analysis of Shingwaukonse's leadership career is used to assess a prevailing ethnographic contention that self-interested action characterized leadership among the Ojibwa by the mid-nineteenth century. It is argued that while the above position may be appropriate with regard to southwestern Ojibwa groups defiantly resisting white western expansionism, leaders in the northeastern sector of the Upper Great Lakes were seeking creative ways in which to assist bands in preserving the spirit of reciprocity traditionally characterizing relations between leader and group. Recent anthropological studies have demonstrated that the Ojibwa view of power relationships differs substantially from western conceptions of competitive self-interest, a finding that provides a convenient point of departure for a historical investigation not only of Shingwaukonse's career but also of certain important political, social, and economic developments that arose as a legacy of this chief's ideas and actions. [References: 70]

   822.   Chute, J. E. (1997). A Unifying Vision + Canadian Indian policy in the 19th-century - Shingwaukonse's Plan for the Future of the Great-Lakes Ojibwa (Canadian Indian Policy in the 19th-Century). Journal of the Canadian Historical Association-Revue De La Societe Historique Du Canada, 7, 55-80.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999

   823.   Cismoski, J., & Sheridan, M. (1993). Availability of cigarettes to under-age youth in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. Wisconsin Medical Journal, 92(11), 626.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

   824.   . (1979). G. Clark, J. L. Clark, & C. KelseyReminiscences of George and Josephine Clark, Leech Lake band of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22891910

   825.   Clark, J. S., & Royall, P. D. (1996). Local and Regional Sediment Charcoal Evidence for Fire Regimes in Presettlement North-Eastern North America. Journal of Ecology, 84(3), 365-382.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: 1. Presettlement fire regimes in northeastern North America and their dependence on climate, fuels, and cultural patterns are poorly understood due to lack of relevant historic or palaeoecological data. Annual records of sediment charcoal accumulation were compiled from seven sites spanning the last 2000 years and representing important climate, vegetation, and cultural settings. Results were compared across sites and across changes in Indian cultures to determine whether fire patterns might be explained by one or more of these variables. 2. Clearly interpretable fires were restricted to the western (most xeric) portion of our study region in Pine Hardwoods of Minnesota, a single fire in Northern Hardwoods of northern Wisconsin, and cultural burning near an Iroquois village in southern Ontario. Other sites in Northern Hardwoods and Hardwood-Hemlock forests did not show clear evidence of fire. Spectral analysis suggested instances in which local fire regimes departed from regional ones. 3. Our interpretation suggests substantially longer intervals between fires than reported in previous sediment charcoal studies. We did not find evidence for fire in mixed oak forests, where it has been speculated that fire might be necessary for oak recruitment, suggesting need for further analysis. 4. A single site in northern Wisconsin was the only Algonquin site showing a clear increase in charcoal suggesting local fire. Algonquin use of fire for hunting may not have affected our sites. A single site in Sioux territory experienced such frequent fire that cultural effects were not evident, even when Sioux were replaced by Chippewa (Algonquin) in the 18th century. One of two Iroquois sites showed clear increases in charcoal during occupation. The second site may not have had settlements nearby.
Author's Abstract: COPYRIGHT 1996 British Ecological Society (UK)

   826.   . (1979). J. Clark, b. ca. 1880, & J. AschenbrennerReminiscences of John Clark, Mille Lacs band of the Minnesota Chippewa tribe .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22906246

   827.   . (1979). J. L. Clark, & C. KelseyReminiscences of Josephine Loudon Clark, Leech Lake band of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22891915

   828.   Clarke, C. C. (1990). Summative evaluation report : preservice training project for Indian social work aides, 1987-90 .  C.C. Clarke.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 23851070. Caption title. "July 11, 1990."
Abstract: Preservice training project for Indian social work aides, 1987-90

   829.   Clarke, M. L. (1998). Reconstructing the fur trade community of the Assiniboine Basin, 1793 to 1812 (Manitoba). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Manitoba (Canada).
Abstract: Scholarship on Metis and fur trade history has tended to categorize French Metis and English mixed blood groups as separate ethnicities without accounting for the frequent cross-marriages between the groups. Studies have examined ethnic change in later Red River society from the standpoint of the (paternal) European ethnicity or of aboriginal heritage. In this examination of a fur trade community in the Assiniboine River basin, an analysis of the ethnic origins of fur trade employees and the intermarriages of their children is combined with the narrative of cross-company cooperation between the Northwest Company employees and the Hudson's Bay Company men. By reconstituting the community of the Assiniboine basin Margaret Clarke tested the hypothesis that cross-cultural intermarriages were explainable by membership in a geographically bond community and found that for specific fur trade employees, categorized as 'stayers', the hypothesis was true.

   830.   Clarkson, E. (1980). Many-Forked Branch.  NAL Dutton.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

   831.   Clemens, S. L. (1884). The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

   832.   Clements, F. E. (1932). Primitive concepts of disease. Vol. 32 (pp. 185-252).  University of California, A. & E.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)

   833.   Cleve, H., & Patutschnick, W. (1977). The Vitamin D Binding of the Common and Rare Variants of the Group-Specific Component (Gc). An Autoradiographic Study. Human Genetics, 38(3), 289-296.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: The vitamin D3 binding properties of the common and rare Gc variants were examined. Vitamin D3 labeled with 14C was added to serum. Gc phenotypes were demonstrated autoradiographically following separation by immunofixation electrophoresis on agarose. This qualitative analysis did not reveal differences in vitamin D3 binding by the group-specific components of the common types Gc 1-1, Gc 2-1, and Gc 2-2. The double-band variants Gc Darmstadt, Gc Y/Ab, Gc Toulouse, Gc Norway, and Gc Caucasian were examined; the phenotypes Gc Ab-Ab, Gc Ab-1, Gc Ab-1, Gc Ab-2, Gc T-1, Gc T-2, Gc Norw-2, and Gc 1-Cau showed normal D3 binding. The double bands of Gc Darmstadt in the phenotype D-2 appeared somewhat weak. The single-band mutants Gc Wien, Gc Chippewa, Gc Opava, and Gc Z were analyzed; the phenotypes Gc W-1, Gc W-2, Gc Chip-1, Gc Chip-2, Gc 1-Op, Gc Op-2, Gc 1-Z, and Gc 2-Z showed normal D3 binding. A mutant in the Gc system with clearly defective vitamin D3 binding properties remains to be delineated.

   834.   Clifford, J., & Marcus, G. E. (1986).  Writing culture: the poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

   835.   . (1978). T. L. Close, & Minnesota. Section of FisheriesA quantitative creel census of upper Red Lake, Minnesota, 1976- 77  . [Minn.] : Minnesota Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Section of Fisheries.
Notes: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 37314077. Title from cover. "April 1978." Includes bibliographical references (p. 16).

   836.   Cloud, H., & Cain, T. (1944 August).
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

   837.   Clouse, R. A. (1997). Fort Snelling, Minnesota: intrasite variability at a nineteenth century military post (United States Army). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Abstract: The construction of Fort Snelling, Minnesota (21HE99) began in 1820 at the junction of the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers. Fort Snelling served as a military presence in securing the fur trade for American companies, preventing conflict between the Ojibwe and Dakota Indians, and keeping White settlement out of 'Indian land' in the recently acquired Louisiana Territory. During its 125 years of active existence, the fort underwent a number of physical alterations due to changing army needs and repair and replacement of facilities. Historic maps, photographs and official records document buildings that served as living quarters, defensive structures, and support facilities. This thesis draws on this extraordinary record and examines the archaeological patterns by which the historically documented structure, events, and activities are expressed at Fort  Snelling. The military complex is in many ways a highly structured and regimented microcosm of the larger society which created it, with a well delineated division of labor and social boundaries well defined. The Fort Snelling archaeological collections and historical records offer an opportunity to examine the social and economic dimensions of life in a nineteenth century military post. Produced over 27 seasons of extensive archaeological excavation, the artifact distribution patterns and the rich documentary record delineate patterns in the functional, social, and economic meaning assigned to different areas of the fort. The results help define functional distinctions within the military complex as elements of the social structure of the setting and enhance the anthropological understanding of economic and social status differentiation in nineteenth century military posts.

   838.   Cloutier, J. L. (1998). Popular theatre, education and inner city youth. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alberta (Canada).
Abstract: This narrative study employs the pedagogy of popular theatre to engage in a long-term participatory action research project with a small group of Edmonton's former street youth. The researcher spent over seven years facilitating popular theatre programs in Edmonton's inner city. Through the use of popular theatre, the youth in this study were able to understand and take self-empowering steps to transform lives characterized by a lack of formal education, homelessness, substance abuse, physical violence, and a strong undercurrent of structural violence. Many inner city, Metis, and First Nations youth face a reality unknown to the average child. Through the use of popular theatre, the youth in this study were able to identify issues that blocked their development. But awareness was not enough. The youth also struggled to identify and use the tools that they needed for their development. Through this six year process, some of the youth have moved from living life on Edmonton's inner city streets to taking part in a weekly popular theatre program and then, at their request, creating a series of plays that explored the issues and realities of their lives. The plays focused on problems such as substance abuse, family violence, and racism. After coming to terms with many critical issues that dominated their lives, through the use of the popular theatre process, most of the youth began to take responsibility for and give direction to their lives. Over the length of this project, adaptive behaviours such as substance abuse, violence, and other values of a street culture were shaved away. Through the popular theatre process, the youth entered into a world based on the values of trust, respect, cooperation, and non-violence. After the first play was created, the participants in this study wanted to perform their plays for, and enter into discussion with, the greater community. This study was grounded in hope. It has illuminated the strength, courage, and resiliency of a small group of young people and showed that the youth lived in a world dominated by structural violence and the forces of reproduction. The study has also shown that these forces, while all-pervasive and powerful can be overcome. Many of the youth continue the struggle on a daily basis. It is that struggle, their new-found confidence, and a degree of conscientization that prompted several of the participants to return to school. After an unsuccessful attempt in the traditional school setting the youth requested that this project be expanded to include a high school as part of its programming. This development shifted the project into another phase, that of providing the participants and a growing number of inner city youth with a high school education. The youth in this study have used popular theatre to engage in critical social analysis of their reality and identify their own developmental needs. Through the collective long-term nature of the project the youth developed a sense of ownership which empowered them to create a supportive community among themselves. The ongoing relationships created in this project, and the growing degree of conscientization realized by some of the youth underscores the value of and need for long-term popular theatre projects and education programs that are sensitive to their needs.

   839.   Clum, H. R. Report.  November 15, 1871.

   840.   Coates, C. M. (1992). The boundaries of rural society in early Quebec: Batiscan and Sainte-Anne le Perade to 1825. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, York University, Canada.
Abstract: This study examines the history of the seigneuries of Sainte-Anne de la Perade and Batiscan, situated on the north shore of the St. Lawrence Valley half-way between Quebec and Trois-Rivieres, from the time of initial contact between French and Amerindians to 1825. After earlier explorations by Jacques Cartier and Samuel de Champlain, the French state divided up the area into seigneuries in the seventeenth century. French settlers arrived in the 1660s. The thesis applies some approaches of the history of mentalites to the analysis of social relations within this relatively small-scale rural society. Using the concept of 'boundaries' as a conceptual focus, it looks at the ways in which local society was structured: by seigneurial boundaries and the distinction between wilderness and 'civilisation,' by the economic and demographic horizons of the local population, and by the inner structures represented by hierarchy and community. After a short-lived focus on fur trading, the local French population began to create a European landscape in the area in the late seventeenth century. The seigneuries were relatively prosperous, but the local population grew rapidly. In the last few decades of the French regime, a relatively high rate of out-migration was apparent.  This exodus slowed in the half-century after the Conquest, but with negative consequences for some locals. The process of rural accumulation led certain families to grow richer, but it also created a potential work force for small- and large-scale industry. In fact, the Batiscan Ironworks, one of the largest rural industries in the colony, operated from 1798 to 1814. State policies had an important impact even in this relatively isolated area. Still, the internal dynamics of society focussed on issues of hierarchy and family. A sense of united community developed slowly, being primarily apparent in response to policies of the colonial assembly in the 1820s. The local petty bourgeoisie provided leadership at this time. This study is based on judicial, church, seigneurial, government, and notarial documents.

   841.   Coates, K. (1995). The Ojibwa of Western Canada, 1780-1870 - Peers,L. Journal of American History, 82(3), 1192.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

   842.   Coatsworth, E. (1960). Indian encounters. New York: The MacMillan Company.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:92), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "An anthology of Indian stories and poems by a renowned author of Indian stories and life.  Grades 5-8."

   843.   . (1957). E. S. CoatsworthThe Indians of Quetico, from field notes and research by Robert C. Dailey . Toronto: Published for the Quetico Foundation by University of Toronto Press.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. III (1959:3-1991)
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:39-40)

   844.   Cobb, N., & Paisano, R. E. (1998). Patterns of Cancer Mortality Among Native Americans [See Comments]. Cancer, 83(11), 2377-2383.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Native Americans have been reported to have lower cancer incidence and mortality than other racial groups in the U.S., although some have questioned whether this was due to racial misclassification. This study provides improved estimates of cancer mortality, determined from a sampling of people who live on Indian reservations. METHODS: The authors reviewed death certificates from U.S. counties that contain Indian lands, excluding certain areas with known problems of racial misclassification. Age-adjusted mortality rates for specific types of cancer were calculated using U.S. Census population figures, and these rates were compared with rates for all races in the U.S. RESULTS: This sample included 38% of the American Indian and Alaska Native populations. The age-adjusted annual mortality rate for all cancers combined was 148.2 per 100,000 for both genders, 133.1 for females, and 167.2 for males. The rates for males and for both genders combined, but not for females, were significantly lower than the U.S. rates for all races (P < 0.05). Females had significantly lower rates of death from carcinoma of the lung and breast and significantly higher rates of death from carcinoma of the cervix and gallbladder (P < 0.05). Males had significantly lower rates of death from carcinoma of the lung, colon, and prostate, and significantly higher rates of liver carcinoma. Both genders combined had significantly lower rates of death from lung and colon carcinoma and significantly higher rates of death from stomach, liver, kidney, and gallbladder carcinoma. Geographic differences were substantial, with the Northern and Plains regions experiencing much higher mortality from lung, colon, and breast carcinoma than the Southwest region. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the general U.S. population, Native Americans experience quite different patterns of cancer mortality. Cancer prevention and control programs should be designed specifically for this minority population.  (Abstract by: Author)

   845.   Coble, D. W. (1966). Dependence of total annual growth in yellow perch on temperature. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 23(1), 15-20.
Notes: Source: Fish & Fisheries Worldwide database, FishLit [University of Minnesota onlinedatabases], August 1999 search

   846.   Coe, C. L. (1998). Changes in methods for self-identification as exemplified by characters in the novels of Louise Erdrich. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California State University, Fresno.
Abstract: Louise Erdrich's four novels, Tracks, The Beet Queen, Love Medicine, and The Bingo Palace, are set in an area where two verydifferent cultures live side by side. A Chippewa reservation in North Dakota where most of the Chippewa live and a nearby town called  Argus where most of the European Americans live create an environment where Erdrich's characters illuminate some of the changes in self-perception brought about by the influence of European American ideology on the Chippewa. By describing the psychological changes brought about by the Euromerican influenceon Chippewa ideology, this thesis shows how methods for self-identification have changed among the Chippewa by examining the stories of four of Erdrich's characters, Nanapush, Pauline Puyat, Marie Lazarre, and Lipsha Morrissey.

   847.   Coggins, K., Williams, E., & Radin, N. (1997). The Traditional Tribal Values of Ojibwa Parents and the School Performance of Their Children: An Exploratory Study. Journal of American Indian Education, 36(3), 1.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

   848.   Cohen, F. G. (1996). Chippewa Treaty Rights: The Reserved Rights of Wisconsin's Chippewa Indians in Historical Perspective  (book reviews). The American Indian Quarterly, 20(1), 139 (3).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [review]
Abstract: A book as important as Chippewa Treaty Rights merits a more timely review than this one. Indeed, Chippewa Treaty Rights also merits a wide readership, because it presents a compelling and highly readable account of the historical events surrounding the Wisconsin Chippewa's struggle to preserve their rights to land and resources. The book conveys extensive information about Wisconsin history and current debate which has important connections to related situations in other regions in North America and throughout the world; thus this case study increases our understanding of contemporary efforts to affirm and protect indigenous rights.
Author Ronald Satz, Dean of Graduate Studies and Research, University of Wisconsin at Eau Claire, was assisted by graduate students Laura Apfelbeck, Jason Tetzloff, Anthony Gulig, Timothy Spindler, Tracy Hemmy and Lara Evert. The presence of their names on the title page (instead of the more customary thanks in an acknowledgments section) indicates that the book was a team effort producing not only an excellent result, but also contributing to the professional development of future scholars. Satz received an award of merit for distinguished service to history from the State Historical Society of Wisconsin for Chippewa Treaty Rights in 1992. The book was reprinted in 1994.
The book contains nine chapters--six largely historical and three focused on contemporary events and prospects for the future--and an array of illustrations and maps that provide fuller background and context to the narrative than is often found in books of this nature. These paintings photographs, maps, and other documents enhance the qualify of the narrative significantly. There is no index, although one would have been helpful. The book also contains a series of interesting appendices, such as the journal of the 1837 treaty proceedings. Thus a unique quality of Chippewa Treaty Rights is that it brings together materials in one volume that scholars otherwise could utilize only if they had access to many historical archives and primary sources.
The treatment of the historical material is fascinating. Satz and his team provide an intriguing account of the historical process. I found the analysis of the treaty negotiations, the meaning of silence among different participants in those cross-cultural encounters, and the history of delegations to Washington particularly illuminating. The description of non-Indian support for the Chippewa people of Wisconsin against the political forces urging their removal westward was extremely interesting, differing as it did from the history in other states.
In contrast to the cogent quality of the six historical chapters, the last three chapters are somewhat problematic. Perhaps the difference is attributable to the unavoidable challenges in writing about complex and volatile controversies as they unfold. These chapters provide important information and convincing conclusions, and the illustrations are excellent. However, the narrative describing the complex series of Lac Courte Oreilles court rulings and the various responses to them would have benefited by greater clarity. Also, the treatment of the larger legal context within which these rulings were made is deficient. Describing the pivotal case of United States v Washington (also known as "the Boldt Decision") on pp. 104-105, Satz states "the State of Washington promptly appealed the decision but the U.S. Supreme Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upheld Boldt (1975) and the U.S. Supreme Court declined to review the case (1976)." Although this statement is true, there was a second appeal, in which the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals reviewed aspects of Boldt's ruling in the case of Puget Sound Gilnetters Association v United States District Court (1978). Further, the U.S. Supreme Court reviewed and substantially upheld Judge Boldt's decision in State of Washington v Washington State Commercial Fishing Vessel Association and Washington Kelpers Association; State of Washington et al v United States et al and Puget Sound Gilnetters et al v United States District Court the Western district of Washington (1979). This legal history is important because some of the reasoning in the Wisconsin cases is based on the United States Supreme Court's 1979 consideration of the Washington cases. It is also relevant to Satz's discussion of the importance of moving toward co-management in Wisconsin, because the dynamics of implementing the court decisions through cooperative resource management in Washington over the past decade (pp. 104-5 and 121-2) were strongly influenced by the United States Supreme Court ruling and by the continuing jurisdiction of the federal court, along with other factors supportive of tribal treaty rights.
If one suggestion could be given consideration for a third printing of this book, it would be to modify the contemporary section by drawing clearer connections between Chippewa treaty rights in Wisconsin and related situations in other states such as Washington, Oregon, Michigan, and Minnesota. Although there are many differences--treaty language, geography and natural resources, culture, politics--there are important shared elements as well; these have become an increasingly important basis for understanding both the nature of Indian treaty rights and their translation into public policy and practice.
This book is recommended to all readers interested in the struggle of the treaty tribes to affirm and implement their rights to their traditional livelihoods within the contemporary setting. The historical chapters are excellent, indeed unique in the literature. The contemporary discussion has the potential to add to the growing national and international consideration of the meaning and implications of the rights of Indian tribes and other indigenous peoples.

   849.   Cohen, F. G. (1973). The Indian Patrol in Minneapolis : social control and social change in an urban context . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Microfilm of typescript. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms, 1973. -- 1 reel ; 35 mm.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 4295215 ... accession: 3672120

   850.   Cohen, F. Handbook of Federal Indian Law.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

   851.   Cole, S. (1995). Women's Stories and Boasian Texts: The Ojibwa Ethnography of Ruth Landes and Maggie Wilson. Anthropologica, 37(1), 3.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

   852.   Coleman, B., Frogner, E., & Eich, E. (1962). Ojibwa myths and legends. Minneapolis: Ross and Haines.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. VIII (1963:93)

   853.   Coleman, B. Eagle Wing. New York: Greenwich Book Publishers, Incorporated.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:95), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "The story of the Chippewa Indians before the contact with the white man, as told by a young member of the tribe.  the story takes place in the Mille Lacs Reservation area.  Excellent.  Grades 2-5."

   854.   Coleman, B., Sister. (1947). Decorative designs of the Ojibwa of northern Minnesota. Catholic University of America Anthropological Quarterly, 12, 1-125.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:40)

   855.   Coleman, B., Sister. (1948). Decorative designs of the Ojibwa of northern Minnesota. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Catholic University of America.

   856.   Coleman, B., Sister. (1953). The Ojibwa and the wild rice problem. Anthropological Quarterly, XXVI(n.s.,v.1), 79-88.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:40)
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   857.   Coleman, B., Sister. (1937). The religion of the Ojibwa of Northern Minnesota. Primitive Man, 10, 33-57 [33-37, 2 illus.].
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:40)
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   858.   Coleman, B., Sister. (1967). Where the water stops: the Fond du Lac Reservation. Duluth, MN: College of St. Scholastica.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:101), "Bibliography"
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:40)

   859.   Coleman, B., Sister, Frogner, E., & Eich, E. (1962). Ojibwa myths and legends. Minneapolis: Ross and Haines.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:40)

   860.   Coleman, B., Sister, LaBud, V., & Humphrey, J. (1968). Old Crow Wing, history of a village. Duluth, MN: College of St. Scholastica.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:40)

   861.   Coleman, C.-L. (1994). An examination of the relationship of structural pluralism, news role and source use with framing in the context of a community controversy (Wisconsin). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Wisconsin--Madison.
Abstract: Several issues are explored in the study of effects on news coverage: the role of the community in shaping news, the use of sources, and the difference in coverage among mainstream and advocacy press. These issues are set against the backdrop of a proposed copper mine near Indian lands in Wisconsin. The study examines macrosocial and microsocial effects on coverage. Community pluralism has been associated with some types of news coverage. While some studies found a linear association between level of community pluralism and coverage, the current findings suggest a curvilinear relationship. News stories from communities with a moderate degree of pluralism are those more likely to use story frames that embrace conflict, that reflect traditional views, and that employ oppositional views. In terms of offering predictive power of framing, however, pluralism is not as strongly associated with story framing as is the editor's perception of the newspaper's role in the community. The editor's views concerning role are conceptualized as the degree to which each individual editor views the newspaper's function in the community as actively involved in social change and as embracing a watchdog or adversarial role. The study finds that editors' endorsement of change are positively associated with greater conflict coverage and with the use of oppositional frames, but negatively associated with traditional and legitimacy frames. Coverage also varies across mainstream and advocacy newspapers. Just as editors among mainstream press endorse different degrees of social change, so do advocacy editors from Native American, environmental, counter-culture and mining press. In addition, advocacy news stories frame the mining issue differently, using less conflict and more oppositional frames when reporting on the mine. Finally, the study supports previous findings that official and bureaucratic sources are those most likely to be used in conflict coverage, but not necessarily in predictable ways. While some official sources are more likely to be quoted in communities with low pluralism, other sources are more likely to be quoted in medium and highly pluralistic communities. A pattern emerges showing that communities with lower pluralism were less likely to use a range of sources.

   862.   Collier, J. (1940 July). [Letter to Buckler, R. T. United States House of Representatives].

   863.   (1934). (Report No. B.I.A. number 81641 82069).
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

   864.   Collins, W. F. (1998). John Tipton and the Indians of the Old Northwest (Indiana). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Purdue University.
Abstract: John Tipton, soldier, Indian agent, and United States senator. Tipton fought at the Battle of Tippecanoe, War of 1812, and became a major general in the Indiana militia. As Indian agent he enforced federal Indian policy, regulated trade, and conducted land treaty negotiations. Tipton obtained land for the Wabash Canal and Michigan Road and led the development of northern Indiana. As United States senator, Tipton fought for settlers' preemption rights,  brought federal-sponsored internal improvements to Indiana, and continued land negotiations.  While supporting President Jackson's policy of Indian removal he introduced a comprehensive Indian territorial bill to protect Indian emigrants. John Tipton was a key figure in United States western expansion.

   865.   Colman, S. M., Forester, R. M., Reynolds, R. L., Sweetkind, D. S., King, J. W., Gangemi, P., Jones, G. A., Keigwin, L. D., & Foster, D. S. (1994). Lake-Level History of Lake Michigan for the Past 12,000 Years - the Record From Deep Lacustrine Sediments. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 20(1), 73-92.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Collection and analysis of an extensive set of seismic-reflection profiles and cores from southern Lake Michigan have provided new data that document the history of the lake basin for the past 12,000 years. Analyses of the seismic data, together with radiocarbon dating, magnetic, sedimentologic, isotopic, and paleontologic studies of core samples, have allowed us to reconstruct lake-level changes during this recent part of the lake's history.

   866.   Colson, E. (1969). Landes, R. Ojibwa religion and the Midewiwin. [book review]. Man, 4(I), 155-156.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XV (1971:120)

   867.   Colton, C. (1833). A tour of the American lakes, and among the Indians of the North-West Territory in 1830: disclosing the character and prospects of the Indian race ... London: F. Westley and A. H. Davis.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:41)

   868.   Comeau, B. G. (1992). The process of religious mediation: a transpersonal analysis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Calgary (Canada).
Abstract: The present thesis is an attempt to analyze the process of religious meditation from the transpersonal perspective of Washburn's dynamic-dialectical paradigm. Religious meditation is shown to be of two distinct types, concentrative and receptive. In Chapter One, the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali are taken to be descriptive of concentrative meditation, while in Chapter Two the techniques of the Ojibwa shaman are understood as being exemplary of receptive meditation. Both of these religious systems are used as illustrations throughout the remainder of the thesis. In Chapter Three religious meditation is shown to be a technique which, when practiced consistently over a period of time, serves to suspend the usual, socialized processes of the person's mental ego. Chapter Four shows how the practice of religious meditation enables the person to access all previously repressed materials of the unconscious, and allows them to flow directly into consciousness. Upon activation of the final layer of unconscious materials, religious meditation is also able to secure release of the power of the Dynamic Ground, that noumenal energy which is responsible for all life in the phenomenal plane. It is concluded that Washburn's dynamic-dialectical paradigm is a valid instrument with which to study religious meditation as a process. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

   869.   Community Health and Welfare Council of Hennepin County. Committee to Study the Delivery of Social Services to Urban American Indians in the Greater Minneapolis Area. (1974). A study of the delivery system of social services to the American Indian in the greater Minneapolis Area. Minneapolis: Community Health and Welfare Council of Hennepin County.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 13235745. Cover title: Services to urban American Indians. Includes bibliographical references

   870.   Community Relations--Social Development Commission in Milwaukee County. (1977). Final report : feasibility study for a comprehensive services facility for the Native American population in Milwaukee .  Milwaukee, Wis.  Social Development Commission in Milwaukee County.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)

   871.   Community Relations--Social Development Commission in Milwaukee County. (1977). The Native American population of Milwaukee : feasibility study for a comprehensive services facility for the Native American population in Milwaukee : phase I .  Milwaukee, Wis.  Community Relations-Social Development Commission in Milwaukee County.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search).  Includes bibliographical references.

   872.   Community Welfare Council (Hennepin County, Minn.). Indian Committee. (1956). The Minnesota Indian in Minneapolis : a report of the Indian Committee. Minneapolis, Minn.  Community Welfare Council.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 12146148. Title from cover. "November, 1956."

   873.   Con Davis, R., & Schleifer, R. (editor). (1989). Contemporary literary criticism: literary and cultural studies.  New York & London: Longman.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

   874.   Conlin, M., & Moukheiber, Z. (1998). Saving the seed corn Up & Commers.(financial management of the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe . Forbes,  78a (1).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: Growing up on the Ojibwe Indian Reservation near Minneapolis in the 1940s, Marge Anderson lived with her seven siblings in a one-room tar- paper shack. They had no heat or running water. To stay off welfare, the family stitched baskets out of birch bark and sold them for a nickel to tourists along the road. "My parents taught me to never, ever take a handout, especially from the federal government," says Anderson, her choppy, nasal Ojibwe accent still strong at 67.
The Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe no longer need basket weaving or checks from Uncle Sam to keep food on the table. A gambling casino on their reservation has made them rich. But Anderson, now the Mille Lacs' first female chief, hasn't gotten over her aversion to handouts.
Some tribes simply dole out gambling revenues to tribe members on a per capita basis. That's just another form of social welfare, Anderson insists. The 3,000-member Mille Lacs Band nets 25% on the $200 million in revenues from its two northern Minnesota casinos. Every penny gets reinvested.
Anderson and the other four members of the tribal council pour the proceeds into new businesses, schools, roads, sewers, wastewater treatment plants and medical clinics. The only freebie is a $500 Christmas bonus. "If you want a check, there's a four-letter word that comes with it," Anderson says quietly. "Work."
Two decades ago the Band was virtually dependent on the dole. Unemployment on the reservation was 80%. Alcoholism was so rampant that on Mondays no one showed up at tribal headquarters because employees were sleeping off weekend benders.
Anderson was the bookkeeper for a tiny fishing resort the Band owned. She was good at figures, so the elders approached her about running for one of five tribal government seats.
Launched into politics, Anderson quickly earned respect for her straight-arrow personality. In April 1991, a week after the casinos opened, the Band's chief died suddenly, and Anderson was the natural choice to succeed him. Once in office, she taught herself the intricacies of gambling management--and its touchy politics.
One thing she learned was that casino money isn't forever. Years ago Anderson saw the pressure building from Washington and Minnesota to tax Indian casinos or open state-owned ones. That would wipe out 40% of the Mille Lacs' business, putting the Band back where it started--dependent on the federal government. While the good luck lasted, she would use the money to earn more, rather than to finance members' lifestyles.
Band-owned enterprises now include a chain of pizza parlors, a gas station and a Subway franchise. Entrepreneurs, funded with tribal seed money, have started more than a dozen businesses that include a hair salon, a septic-tank-servicing outfit and an art gallery. Two years ago the Mille Lacs paid $3.4 million in cash for Woodlands National, becoming the first Indian Band in America to own a federally chartered bank. Anderson is also the first chief to pledge casino revenues to back redevelopment bonds. The Band has issued more than $80 million worth to build roads, water systems and expansions for the casino.
This year Anderson has invested $10 million of the Band's cash to become a 40% shareholder in a new Sonoma, Calif.-based bottled-water company called Indian Wells, headed by James Stevens, the former Coca- Cola Enterprises executive who brought Perrier to America and then built Suntory into the second-largest bottled-water company in the U.S. The company will take water from springs on Indian reservations, bottle it there and distribute it nationally.
So far Anderson has created 3,000 jobs. Unemployment is 8%, far below the 35%national reservation average. Alcoholism on the reservation has declined 80%. To help keep it there, the casinos serve nothing stronger than coffee and Cokes.
Human nature being what it is, not all the Mille Lacs applaud. Members have seen the fancy homes and fast cars of the Mdewakanton Sioux down in Minneapolis, who each pocket an estimated $600,000 a year from their casino. Most of the Mille Lacs still drive clunkers and live in government-built shanties.
In an August election, two of Anderson's backers were unseated by candidates who favor more lavish handouts. If the five-member council loses another seat to the handout crowd in the 2000 election, Anderson's program could crumble. "This is the only economic development opportunity that has worked for us," she sighs. "But we need ten more years of this to make it."
Full Text COPYRIGHT 1998 Forbes Inc.

   875.   Connor, M. (1993). Corruption on the reservation: cause for concern? Gaming & Wagering Business, 14(10), [cover story].
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

   876.   Conway, J. J., b. 1856 , & Wack, H. W., 1869-1954.  (1893). Stories told for revenue only . St. Paul : St. Paul Press Club .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 6409412
Abstract: Cover title: For revenue only. Editors: Jno. J. Conway, Harry W. Wack. "Contributions to this volume demanded by necessity, exacted by a committee, published by the Club." "As you like it" / by Henry A. Castle -- How Orpheus won / by A.E. Chantler -- A Mormon convert / by Ruth Kimball -- Mr. Wilkes of Harvard / by Harry W. Wack -- Chinese White : a society story / by John Henderson Garnsey -- John Harcourt's adventures / by Franklyn W. Lee -- The astralization of Jones / by Franklyn W. Lee -- Old Holmes / by John Joseph Conway -- Lib / by Mary Harriman Severance -- Yannay / by Ed. A. Paradis -- Our twins / by Irving Todd -- Private Potter / by J.S. Vandiver -- Mario / by Luigi D. Ventura --Arrowatha : an Indian legend / by H.T. Black -- The Rev. Mr. Morrow / by W. Wettleson --A psychological effect / by F.A. Johnson -- Erinnerungen von Paris und Napoleon / von Carl Neuhausen -- The reporter's protege / by DeWitt Kenneth Cochran --Thornton's redemption / by J.M. Hawks -- Nell and I / by J.E. Gemmel. (continued) Poets of one poem / by Moses Folsom -- A waif of the trains : a story of a Minnesota massacre and a Costa Rica funeral / by Lewis Baker -- History of the St. Paul Press Club / by Harlan P. Hall (p. [331]-341) -- A misdemeanor / by J.L. Stack and Elmer H. Dearth

   877.   Conway, T. (1992). Conjuror's lodge: celestial narratives from Algonkian Shamans. Earth and Sky: Visions of the Cosmos in Native American Folklore  (pp. 236-259). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   878.   Conway, T. (1985). Halley's comet legends among the Great Lakes Ojibwa Indians. Archaeoastronomy, 8(1-4), 98-105, ill.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   879.   Conway, T. (1984). Rare Oneota pipes from the Whitefish Island site in Sault. Ste. Marie, Ontario. Arch Notes, 84(3), 15-17.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   880.   Conway, T. (1980). Two stone plummets from the Lake Superior region. Man in the Northeast, (20), 120-123, ill.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   881.   Cook, R. C. (1935). The results of a remediation program, which used the activity unit technique, on subject matter accomplishments and on certain attitudes of a group of third and fourth grade Indian children at the Red  Lake agency school ... Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.

   882.   Cooke, W. R., Mrs. (1943). A Michigan Indian project. Michigan History Magazine, 27, 492-499.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:41)

   883.   Coombs, L. M., & et al. (1958). The Indian child goes to school.  The Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:101), "Bibliography"

   884.   Cooper, J. M. (1937). Nothes on the ethnology of the Otchipwe of Lake of the Woods and Rainy Lake. Catholic University of America Anthropological Series, 3, 1-29.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:41)

   885.   . (1994). R. Cooter, & W. Fikentscher, 1928-Is there Indian common law? : the role of custom in American Indian tribal courts  Rev. draft ed., ). Berkeley, Calif.  University of California School of Law, Center for the Study of Law and Society.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 39918279. Cover title. "July 1994." Includes bibliographical references.

   886.   Copway, G. (Chippewa Chief). (1847). The life and travels of Kah-ge-ga-gah-bowh.  Albany: Weed and Parsons.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

   887.   Copway, G.[Ojibwa Chief]. (1858). Indian Life and Indian History. Boston: A Colby and Co.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:41), "same as The Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the Ojibway Nation ..."

   888.   Copway, G.[Ojibwa Chief]. (1851). The traditional history and characteristic sketches of the Ojibway Nation.  By G. Copway, or Kah-ge-ga-gah-bowh, Chief of the Ojibway Nation. London//Boston: C. Gilpin//B.F. Mussey and Co.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:41)

   889.   Corrigan Samuel W. (1992). Readings In Aboriginal Studies: Volume 1: Human Services. Dept. Of Native Studies, Brandon, Manitoba, Canada, R7A 6A9: Bearpaw Publishing.
Notes: Source: Family Studies database [University of Minnesota onlinedatabase], August 29, 1999 search
Abstract: Contents include: Part I: introduction: aboriginal people and human services. Part II: the aboriginal population. 1. 1981 census coverage of the native population in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. 2. Judicial recognition of aboriginal customary law in Canada: selected marriage and adoption. Part III: housing services for aboriginal people. 3. On the rail-line in northwestern Ontario: non-reserve housing and community change. 4. Native housing conditions in Winnipeg. Part IV: health services for aboriginal people. 5. Canadian Indian health: a needs assessment project. 6. The impact of resource development on the health of native people in the northwest territories. 7. The provision of primary health care services under band control; the Montreal Lake case. Part V: educational services for aboriginal people. 8. Conflicting perceptions of deviance at a Canadian native school. 9. Unique features of a band--controlled school: the Seabird Island Community School. Part VI: services for aboriginal children and families. 10) child protection and the native child: a case study. 11. Status of Metis people within the child welfare system. 12. Native children in treatment: clinical, social and cultural issues. 13. Children: an analysis of cases decided pursuant to the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. 14. A death in the family: the strategic importance of women in contemporary Ojibwa society. Part VII: justice services and aboriginal people. 15. Devalued people: the status of the Metis in the justice system. 16. Native women and crime: a theoretical model. Part VIII: evaluation and aboriginal people. 17. The implications of the mismeasurement of native students' intelligence through the use of standardized intelligence tests. 18. The James Smith Reserve Cree counterbalance IQ. test. Copyright, National Council on Family Relations (NCFR) 1992

   890.   Cory, D. M. (1955). Within Two Worlds. New York: Friendship Press.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:101), "Bibliography"

   891.   . (1957). D. M. Cory, 1903-  (editor), Kanawake Teieriwakwata (the Caughnawaga  hymnal) . Brooklyn, N.Y.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
Abstract: Cover title. Includes three hymns. Includes the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, the Ten Commandments,  the Kyrie, and the Prayer of Chrysostom.

   892.   Cosens, B. A. (1997). The 1997 Water Rights Settlement Between the State of Montana and the Chippewa Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Reservation: The Role of Community and of the Trustee. UCLA Journal of Environmental Law & Policy, 16(2), 255.
Notes: Source: UnCover
Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [full text available]
Abstract: INTRODUCTION Established on September 7, 1916 "for Rocky Boy's Band of Chippewas and ... other homeless Indians,"(1) the Rocky Boy's Reservation is home to over 3,000 Tribal members. The Reservation's annual population growth rate is in excess of three percent.(2) The Reservation has an estimated seventy percent unemployment. Forty-nine percent of the population lives below the poverty line.(3) Although economically dependent on agriculture and ranching, the Reservation's irrigable land receives only twelve inches of precipitation per year.(4) Water right settlement negotiations began in 1992 among the Chippewa Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Reservation, the State of Montana and the United States as part of the state-wide adjudication of water rights. The State held an initial public meeting to inform off-Reservation(5) water users of negotiations at which several hundred citizens expressed concern that the process could not effectively consider their needs. A few expressed their desire for termination of the Reservation and their belief that government representatives were part of an undefined conspiracy. On January 9, 1997, the Tribal Council of the Chippewa Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Reservation passed a resolution approving the water rights compact between the Tribe and the State of Montana, thus settling the Tribe's claims to water within the State of Montana. The Compact passed the Montana Senate on a 50-0 vote, and the Montana House of Representatives on a vote of 91-8. Despite Rocky Boy's Reservation location in an area that has experienced fractious race relations for over 100 years, it received the broad-based support of the Tribe, off-Reservation irrigators on all drainages shared with the Reservation, including downstream irrigators on the heavily used Milk River, surrounding communities, local legislators, county commissioners, and rural water users who, as an outgrowth of the Compact, have joined with the Tribe to solve the drinking water quality and supply problems in the region as a whole. On April 14, 1997, Montana Governor Marc Racicot signed the Compact into State law.(6) The United States Department of the Interior ("Interior") opposed the Compact, despite involvement in the negotiations.(7) Some individuals regarded the federal opposition as a failure of the United States to fulfill its trust responsibilities. Others saw the federal stance as symptomatic of a breakdown in the federal process for participation in negotiations to settle Indian reserved water rights.(8) To most observers it is merely another example of the inability of Interior to effectively participate in the negotiation of Indian water rights settlements under the rigid, and to some, inappropriate guidelines set forth in the Criteria and Procedures for Negotiation of Water Rights Settlements.(9) Furthermore, Congress has not ratified a single Indian Water Rights Settlement during the Clinton administration. The failure of the federal government to effectively participate in and support settlement discussions calls into question its ability to fulfill its role as trustee to the many Indian Tribes still struggling to settle their water rights.(10) This paper is an exploration of the Compact, the process that led to this historic agreement, and the breakdown in the federal participation ...
Barbara A. Cosens, Legal Counsel, Montana Reserved Water Rights Compact Commission. J.D. 1990, University of California, Hastings College of the Law. M.S. Geology, 1982, University of Washington. B.S. Geology, 1977, University of California, Davis. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the Montana Reserved Water Rights Compact Commission. The author would like to acknowledge Gene Etchart, Chris Tweeten and Jack Salmond of the Commission, Susan Cottingham, Bill Greiman, Bob Levitan, Joan Specking, Andy Anderson, Craig Bacino and Dolores Eustice of the Commission staff, Paul Russette, Jr. and Jim D. Morsette of the Tribal Staff, and Yvonne Knight and Kim Gottschalk of the Native American Rights Fund, attorneys for the Tribe, Bob Larson of the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Tom Sheehy of the Bear Paw Resources Alliance, and Kathy Bessette and the Hill County Commissioners for the considerable technical work, creative problem solving and patience. It is their efforts which made this historic agreement possible.

   893.   Costa, A., 1925- . (1955). Nneohtsini ron tek'etseti edekle kattlodi  koddene kke'en = Catechism in Slavey-beaver Indian language for Hay Lakes  District.  La Survivance Printing  Co.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
"Prepared by a missionary of the  District [i.e. Alessandro Costa] with the help of our school  children, boys and girls, in accordance with the pure Slavey  catechism printed in 1911 ... and with the help of the pure  Beaver catechism printed in 1926 ... "--p. 4. Includes some text in English.

   894.   Costa, D. J. (1995). The Miami-Illinois language (Indiana). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
Abstract: In this thesis I present an extensive synchronic and diachronic study of the phonology and morphology of Miami-Illinois, an Algonquian language originally spoken in what is now Indiana and Illinois. Its closest relatives are Fox-Kickapoo and Ojibwa-Potawatomi,  originally spoken to its north in Michigan. The historical development of the Proto-Algonquian consonants and consonant clusters in Miami-Illinois is seen to be most similar to that of Ojibwa-Potawatomi and Fox-Kickapoo, though the language shows a more advanced merger of clusters than is observed in those languages. The vowel system of Miami-Illinois can be seen as transitional between Ojibwa and Fox-Kickapoo, in retaining some but not all instances of PA *e. Additionally, Miami-Illinois has a system of stress and accent with parallels in its sister languages. It has a rule which stresses even-numbered syllables starting from the beginning of the word, which is of crucial importance in thebdevelopment of front vowels and in explaining vowel devoicing. It is also quite similar to the rule which determines which vowels are deleted in modern Ottawa and Potawatomi. Alongside this, the language also has an accent rule, which usually places accent on penultimate vowels. These rules are very helpful for confirming the existence of phonemic vowel length in Miami-Illinois, which is not consistently indicated in the records. Next, I turn to the inflectional morphology. Though Miami-Illinois noun morphology is quite similar to that of Fox-Kickapoo, there are certain features unique to Miami-Illinois. Most notably, in Miami-Illinois consistently distinguishes the obviative singular suffix from the inanimate plural, differently from virtually every other Algonquian language. In its verb morphology, Miami-Illinois is very conservative in the shape of the basic dependent (conjunct) paradigm, where it retains both the Proto-Algonquian theme sign configuration and the passive paradigm basically intact. Overall, its basic verb inflection shows as many similarities to Ojibwa as to Fox-Kickapoo. Finally, I give a detailed discussion of the use of initial change and the different verb orders in Miami-Illinois, using examples from texts. It can be seen that in Miami-Illinois, changed dependent verbs are the favored default verb type, with unchanged verbs and independent verbs being used for various semantic or stylistic purposes.

   895.   Cottam, S. B. (1996). Federal/Provincial disputes, natural resources and the Treaty No. 3 Ojibway, 1867-1924 (Ontario, Manitoba, boundary disputes). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ottawa (Canada).
Abstract: This dissertation argues that the Ontario-Manitoba Boundary Dispute (1870-1889) and its aftermath limited the ability of the Ojibway of northwestern Ontario to maintain and develop their interests in the lands and resources to which they were entitled by the terms of Treaty #3, signed in 1873. In particular, their rights to the mineral and timber resources on their reserves were threatened Furthermore, once the Boundary Dispute was resolved in favour of Ontario, their reserve lands were found to be in the province, which therefore gained the right to confirm the reserves. Continuing disputes between the province and the Dominion resulting from this retroactive decision delayed this confirmation until 1915. Once the reserves were confirmed, however, the nature of the Indian interest in them prior to 1915 was questioned by the province. In this and other ways, the fiduciary responsibilities of the federal government toward the Ojibway were encroached upon by the province of Ontario. The governments and individuals involved in the lawsuits generated by the Boundary Dispute overlooked the fate of an increasingly marginalized and politically inconsequential group in the pursuit of their own agendas and interests. The courts squeezed the concepts of Aboriginal title to the land and its resources into narrow nineteenth century perceptions that still limit the rights of First Nations peoples. Placing these cases, in particular the 'Indian Titles' case, R. v. St. Catharines Milling & Lumber Co., and its 'corollary' Ontario Mining Company v. Seybold et al., into their historical context contributes to understanding the complex problems still faced by the Ojibway of Treaty #3. The dissertation concludes with an exploration of the continuing attempts made by the Ojibway to assert their rights in light of these events.

   896.   . (1897). E. Coues (editor), New light on the early history fo the Greater Northwest.  The manuscript journals of Alexander henry, fur trader of the Northwest Company, and of David Thompson, official geographer and explorer of the same company, 1799-1814.  Explorations and adventures among the Indians on the Red, Saskatchewan, Missouri and Columbia Rivers ...  New York: P. Harper.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:41)

   897.   Couture, S. L. (1997). The American Indian Movement: a historical perspective (Minnesota). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of St. Thomas (St. Paul).
Abstract: This is a true story about the issues, challenges, problems, and processes associated with conceiving, constructing, delivering, and sustaining an educational program of study tours in Indian America aimed at adult lifelong learners. It is a story of engagement, collaboration, exchange, trial, error, and reflection as told by a non-Indian educator working within a large public university. It recounts a search for approaches and working methods in which (1)  partnership and dialogue with tribal communities shape program content, presentation, and faculty selection, (2) power and control are shared in order to preserve cultural integrity and dismantle stereotypes both in tribal communities and the academy, (3) tribal communities and their members take authority for deciding which aspects of their cultures are shared with outsiders and how and where that sharing takes place, and (4) the resulting programs further these communities' economic, cultural, and political goals for tourism. This story is written with the intention that the research, thought, and feeling that inform it will improve and enrich the educational program that is its subject, and that it will be useful to tribal communities and educational institutions that wish to develop similar educational and cultural programs. There is an artifact associated with this story. This artifact is American Indian Lives, Lands, and Cultures (AILLC), a program of study tours 'owned' and operated by the University of Minnesota. The goal of this program is to broaden and deepen knowledge about continuity and change in American Indian cultures by providing a variety of tourist-students access to historical Indian lands and contemporary tribal communities, and opportunities to learn from living American Indian educators, scholars, artists, and elders. This story is complemented, countered, and contextualized with quotations from  American Indian writers, artists, and philosophers, and with excerpts from the author's visual and written travel journals.

   898.   Cozzetto, D. A. (1995). The Economic and Social Implications of Indian Gaming: The Case of Minnesota. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 19(1), 119.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

   899.   Cozzetto, D. A., & LaRocque, B. W. (1996). Compulsive gambling in the Indian community: a North Dakota case study. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 20(1), 73-86.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search
Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [review]
Abstract: The high rate of pathological gambling among the Indians of North Dakota demands a proactive role of the tribal leaders in devising strategies to curb it. A study of the Turtle Mountain Chippewa and Devils Lake Sioux tribes of North Dakota shows that compulsive gambling behavior is prevalent among Indian women below thirty and among men of all age groups. The rate of compulsive gambling is found to be 6% in the North Dakota region, as compared to the national rate of 3.5% to 4.5%. The Indian residents are found to be more prone to gambling than other residents of the region.

   900.   Crabb, B. B. (1990). Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Sokaogon Chippewa Indian Community, Mole Lake Band of Wisconsin, St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin, Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, plaintiffs, vs. State of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Natural Resources Board, Carrol D. Besadny, James Huntoon, and George Meyer, defendents, and Ashland County ... [et.al.] intervening defendants, and Wisconsin Broadcasters Association ... [et.al.] proposed intervenors in the United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin, order 74-C-313- C. Madison, Wis.  United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22289812.  "Entered this 30th day of January, 1990." Includes photocopies (5 p.) from 596 Federal Supplement, pp. 1166-1170. Photocopy. Madison, Wis. : United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin, 1990. 28 cm.
Other: Besadny, Carrol D. Huntoon, James. Meyer, George. Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Sokaogon Chippewa Indian Community. Mole Lake Band of Wisconsin. St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin. Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Wisconsin. Natural Resources Board. United States. District Court (Wisconsin : Western District) Wisconsin Broadcasters Association. Ashland County (Wis.). ... accession: 21884203, accession: 24007424

   901.   Crabb, B. B. (1988). Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Sokaogon Chippewa Indian Community, Mole Lake Band of Wisconsin, St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin, Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, plaintiffs, vs. State of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Natural Resources Board, Carrol D. Besadny, James Huntoon, and George Meyer, defendants, in the United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin, opinion and order 74-C-313- C. Madison, Wis.  United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 27213909.  "Entered this 11th day of January, 1988. Photocopy. Madison, Wis. : United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin, 1988. 28 cm.
Other: Besadny, Carrol D. Huntoon, James. Meyer, George. Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Sokaogon Chippewa Indian Community. Mole Lake Band of Wisconsin. St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin. Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Wisconsin. Natural Resources Board. United States. District Court (Wisconsin : Western District)

   902.   Crabb, B. B. (1989). Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Sokaogon Chippewa Indian Community, Mole Lake Band of Wisconsin, St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin, Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, plaintiffs, vs. State of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Natural Resources Board, Carrol D. Besadny, James Huntoon, and George Meyer, defendants, in the United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin, opinion and order 74-C-313- C. Madison, Wis.  United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 27213847.  "Entered this 3rd day of March, 1989." Photocopy. Madison, Wis. : United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin, 1989.
Other: Besadny, Carrol D. Huntoon, James. Meyer, George. Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Sokaogon Chippewa Indian Community. Mole Lake Band of Wisconsin. St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin. Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Wisconsin. Natural Resources Board. United States. District Court (Wisconsin : Western District)

   903.   Crabb, B. B. (1990). Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Sokaogon Chippewa Indian Community, Mole Lake Band of Wisconsin, St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin, Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, plaintiffs, vs. State of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Natural Resources Board, Carrol D. Besadny, James Huntoon, and George Meyer, defendents, and Ashland County ... [et.al.] intervening defendants, and Wisconsin Broadcasters Association ... [et.al.] proposed intervenors in the United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin, order 74-C-313- C. Madison, Wis.  United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 24007424.  "Entered this 11th day of October, 1990. Photocopy. Madison, Wis. : United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin, 1990. 28 cm.

   904.   . (1991). B. B. Crabb (Federal Judge, U.S. District Court, Madison, WI), Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Sokaogon Chippewa Indian Community, Mole Lake Band of Wisconsin, St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin, Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, plaintiffs, vs. State of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Natural Resources Board, Carrol D. Besadny, James Huntoon, and George Meyer, defendants, and Ashland County, Burnett County, Florence County, Langlade County, Lincoln County, Marinette County, Washburn County, and the Wisconsin County Forests Association, Inc., intervening defendants, in the United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin, opinion and order 74-C-313-C.
 PLACE: Madison, Wis.
  Madison, Wis.  United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 27213677.  Photocopy. Madison, Wis. : United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin, 1991.
Other: Besadny, Carrol D. Huntoon, James. Meyer, George. Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Sokaogon Chippewa Indian Community. Mole Lake Band of Wisconsin. St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin. Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Wisconsin. Natural Resources Board. United States. District Court (Wisconsin : Western District)
Source: cited by Loew, Patty (Fall 1997).

   905.   Craig, B. (1994). Jurisdiction for Aboriginal health in Canada. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ottawa (Canada).
Abstract: The purpose of this thesis is to determine which level of government has jurisdiction for Aboriginal health in Canada--the federal or the provincial. As background to the consideration of jurisdiction for Aboriginal health in Canada, three things are examined: the existing legal and policy frameworks for Aboriginal health; the development of the delivery of health services to Aboriginal people; and the current health status of Aboriginal people in Canada. The distribution of exclusive legislative powers between the federal and provincial legislatures contained in sections 91 and 92 of the Constitution Act, 1987 is examined and the 'peace, order and good government' power of the federal Parliament is considered. Legislative jurisdiction over health is considered. The extent of the federal power over 'Indians, and Lands reserved for the Indians' as a result of subsection 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867 is explored. Parallels are drawn between labour relations and health jurisdictional issues, in an attempt to determine where legislative jurisdiction for Aboriginal health rests. The spending power of Parliament, the Crown-Indian treaty process and the nature of Indian treaties, and the fiduciary relationship between First Nations and the federal and provincial governments is examined. The final conclusion is that Aboriginal health is a double aspect matter, to which valid legislation of both levels of government can apply. Although there are spheres of exclusive provincial jurisdiction, e.g. regulation of health practitioners and hospitals, there is no exclusive federal sphere. However, the federal government does have concurrent jurisdiction with the provinces over the public health of Aboriginal people. The doctrine of paramountcy applies to give valid federal legislation pre-eminence over inconsistent provincial legislation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
[footnote:] In this thesis, the term 'Aboriginal' is intended to have the same meaning it does in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35. Section 35(2) states: 'In this Act, 'aboriginal peoples of Canada' includes the Indian, Inuit and Metis peoples of Canada.' It is my submission that 'Indian' as it is used in section 35 includes both status and non-status Indians.

   906.   Craig, G. W. (1969). Indian housing in Minneapolis and Saint Paul . Minneapolis, Minn.  University of Minnesota, Training Center for Community Programs.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 25448659. Includes appendix.  Other: Harkins, Arthur M. Woods, Richard G., 1933- University of Minnesota. Training Center for Community Programs. University of Minnesota. Office of Community Programs.

   907.   Craig, W., & Blessing, F. K. (1937). An Ojibwa vocabulary. Minnesota Archaeologist, III, 74-78.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   908.   Crawford, D. A., Peterson, D. L., & Wurr, V. (1967). Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers. St. Paul, MN: Upper Midwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:42)

   909.   Creative Research Services, Inc. (1971). Water quality management plan, interim. [Minneapolis]: Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Division of Water Quality.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search)
Abstract: v. 1. Cedar River Basin.--v.2. Des Moines River basin.--v. 3. Lake Superior basin.--v. 4. Lower-Upper Mississippi River Basin.--v. 5. Minnesota River Basin.--v. 6. Missouri River basin.--v. 7. Rainy River basin.--v. 8. Red River of the North basin.--v. 9. St. Croix River basin.--v. 10. Upper-Upper Mississippi River basin.

   910.   Cressman, L. S. (1981). The Sandal & the Cave: The Indians of Oregon.  Oregon State University Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

   911.   Crinion, G. P. (1996). Environmental Law and Indian Lands. Wisconsin Lawyer : Official Publication of the ..., 69(9), 14.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Abstract: The authors discuss the jurisdictional authority of the federal, state and tribal governments to regulate activities affecting the environment on tribal lands. They also describe the jurisdictional authority conveyed to state and tribal governments through the federal government's delegation of authority to implement federal environmental programs that apply to tribal lands.

   912.   (1990). [Audiovisual]. R. Croce, 1951-  (writer, Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center), & L. Lilligren. (director). Minneapolis, MN : Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 25029286

   913.   Crogan, J. (1995). Los Angeles priest speaks for urban American Indians. National Catholic Reporter, 31(12), 26 (1).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: Ojibway is an Ojibwa and a Franciscan, and has led the L.A. Archdiocesean Native American ministry for five years. He also serves on the L.A. City/County Indian Commission, using both posts to illuminate, and solve problems for the region's 100,000 Native Americans.

   914.   Crook, C. B. (1997). Maple moon . Toronto : Stoddart Kids.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

   915.   . (1979). E. Crooks, & H. T. HooverReminiscences of Edith Crooks, Mdewakanton Community of Prior Lake, Minnesota .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 23179954

   916.   . (1979). N. Crooks, & H. T. HooverReminiscences of Norman Crooks, Mdewakanton Community of Prior Lake, Minnesota .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 23179957

   917.   Crow, S. M. (1987). The works of Leslie Marmon Silko and teaching contemporary Native American literature . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Michigan.
Abstract: The dissertation contains a review of secondary sources, a brief biographical sketch, and three chapters of interpretation of the structure and content of Silko's works: Laguna Woman, Ceremony,  and Storyteller. Secondary sources by Indian and non-Indian authors have been selected from scholarship that demonstrates a personal knowledge and heart-felt understanding for the realities surrounding Indian life and all of humanity today. The final section of Chapter IV about Ceremony discusses the special experience which American Indian and Vietnam veterans have shared through their service to America during wartime followed by their mistreatment by American society after returning from combat. The final chapter,  dedicated to the memory of Dr. Marvin Felheim, discusses a survey course in contemporary Native American literature taught in the American Culture Program at The University of Michigan between 1979 and 1981. Silko's works, like the literary works of other Indian authors, have a consistent theme: Indian artists are as concerned for the survival of all people on our planet as they are for the existence and future of Indian people and all life forms on Earth.  Indian people and Indian artists know that all life forms are connected; this belief functions as part of a core theme (love, respect and gratitude for all people and things) throughout Indian literature in America. Consequently, contemporary Native American literature, properly read and handled, comes to us as an intensely compassionate and humane literature with roots in traditional experience as well as modern and contemporary reality. In my dissertation, I have tried to sustain this overall attitude as I discuss Silko's works and contemporary Native American Literature.

   918.   Crumpton, Z. (1965). [letter]. Common Sense in the Nation's Fight Against Communism, (447).
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
[published in Union, New Jersey; reprint of letter originally published in the Christian Science Monitor]

   919.   Culin, S. (1907). Games of North American Indians. Bureau of American Ethnology, Annual Report, 24, 267-346.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)
published Washington, D.C.

   920.   Culleton, B. (1984). April Raintree .
Notes: Source: Women’s Resources International [University of Minnesota online database--Women's Studies Database], August 29, 1999 search--reviewed by Lenore Keeshig-Tobias in Resources For Feminist Research /Documentation Sur La Recherche Feministe, March 1986

   921.   Cummins, J. R., Ireland, M., Resnick, M. D., & Blum, R. W. (1999). Correlates of Physical and Emotional Health Among Native American Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24(1), 38-44.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: PURPOSE: To examine the risk and protective factors among Native American youth that are correlated with both physical and emotional health. METHODS: The study was based upon the National American Indian Adolescent Health Survey (n = 13,454), conducted using students self-categorized into a ranked variable of physical health ('poor,' 'fair,' 'good,' or 'excellent') and a continuous variable of emotional health based upon a nine-item unidimensional scale (overall Cronbach's alpha of .74). Twenty-nine variables derived from resilience theory encompassing both risk and protective factors were selected. Associations with physical and emotional health were examined using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Identified protective factors explained approximately 30% of variance for emotional health, with family caring explaining nearly 15% of variance for both genders. The most significant associations for emotional health for females were family caring, body pride, feelings about school, and worries or concerns particularly about violence. For males, most significant protective factors included family caring, body pride, parental expectations, and type of sexual attraction. For physical health, the identified variables explained only 16% of variance for both genders. Body pride was the most significant association, explaining 10% of variance. CONCLUSIONS: Connection to family remains a consistently powerful factor in the lives of these youth. Other associations including body pride and parental expectations may help in the exploration and buffering of emotional health among American Indian youth.  (Abstract by: Author)

   922.   Cunningham, L. S. (1995). A super superego (lawyer Pat Lyons) . Commonweal, 122(10), 46 (1).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search [review]
Abstract: Pat Lyons was well known in the Duluth, MN, area for his kindness to young boys, Native Americans, and people in general. Lyons served his community as a scoutmaster, a choir director, and a pro bono attorney for Chippewa Indians. A deathbed encounter with Lyons is described

   923.   . (1978). M. Cunningham, 1916- The Cherokee tale-teller  . Minneapolis: Dillon Press.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search)
Abstract: Atagahi, the wonderful lake.--Selu Corn Woman and the crows.--Deer song.--Princess of the deer.--The monster utlunta.--Desata and the forever boy.--The fire watcher.--The red bird.--Tlanuwa, the great hawk.--The Nunnehi, the gentle people

   924.   Curtiss-Wedge, F. (1919). History of Houston County, Minnesota. Winona, Minn.  H. C. Cooper, Jr.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 10521973

   925.   Cyr, K. A. S. (1979). Dress of the Chippewa (Ojibwa) Indians: an analysis of change from 1640-1940. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Michigan.

   926.   Cyterski, M. J., & Spangler, G. R. (1996). Development and Utilization of a Population Growth History of Red Lake Walleye, Stizostedion Vitreum. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 46(1), 45-59.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: An environmental growth history of commercially harvested walleye, Stizostedion vitreum, in Red Lakes, Minnesota, was constructed for the years 1944-1992. This was accomplished using a linear model which was fitted to annular scale increment measurements. Increment size was separated into one component due to a combination of environmental factors, an environmental growth coefficient, and one due to the age of the fish. Our hypothesis was that variables such as air temperature, walleye year-class strength, catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of walleye, and CPUE of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, affect walleye growth, and therefore a historical series of these variables would show coherence to the series of walleye growth coefficients. Multiple regression techniques were used to test these hypotheses. Significant predictors of the growth of walleye after age one were average February temperature, cumulative degree days in July, walleye year-class strength, and growth of young-of-the-year (YOY) walleye. We hypothesized that YOY walleye respond to a different set of factors than walleye after age one, thus, a series of YOY growth measurements would show coherence to a different set of environmental factors. Significant predictors of YOY walleye growth were May, June, and August cumulative degree days, as well as the growth of older walleye. We expected the set of factors which affect freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens, to include factors that affect walleye, such as temperature, shared prey availability, and abundance of both walleye and drum. As a lest, environmental growth coefficients computed by Pereira (1992) for freshwater drum were compared to walleye growth coefficients. The growth coefficients of drum were significantly positively correlated with the walleye coefficients, and the significance increased if the poorest walleye growth years were excluded. [References: 30]

   927.   Cyterski, M. J., & Spangler, G. R. (1996). A tool for age determination.  North American Journal of Fisheries Management (Bethesda), 16(2), 403-412.
Notes: Source: Fish & Fisheries Worldwide database, FishLit [University of Minnesota onlinedatabases], August 29, 1999 search

   928.   Cyterski, M. J., & Spangler, G. R. (1996). Development and utilization of a population growth history of Red Lake walleye, Stizostedion vitreum. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 46(1), 45.
Notes: Source: UnCover database (Aug 1999)

   929.   Czerny, M., & Stogre, M. (1981). Ancient Ways Made New: Health Among the Chippewa of Rama. Chac Review, 9 (3), 4-12.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

   930.   Dabelea, D., Hanson, R. L., Bennett, P. H., Roumain, J., Knowler, W. C., & Pettitt D. J. (1998). Increasing Prevalence of Type II Diabetes in American Indian Children. Diabetologia, 41(8), 904-910.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Until recently, Type II diabetes was considered rare in children. The disease is, however, increasing among children in populations with high rates of Type II diabetes in adults. The prevalence of Type II diabetes was determined in 5274 Pima Indian children between 1967 and 1996 in three 10-year time periods, for age groups 5-9, 10-14 and 15-19 years. Diabetes was diagnosed using World Health Organisation criteria, based on an oral glucose tolerance test. The prevalence of diabetes increased over time in children aged 10 years and over: in boys from 0 % in 1967-1976 to 1.4% in 1987-1996 in the 10-14 year old age group, and from 2.43% to 3.78% for age group 15-19 and in girls from 0.72 % in 1967-1976 to 2.88 % in 1987-1996 in the 10-14 year old age group, and from 2.73 % to 5.31 % for age group 15-19 years. Along with the increase in the prevalence of Type II diabetes (p < 0.0001), there was an increase in weight (calculated as percentage of relative weight, p < 0.0001), and in frequency of exposure to diabetes in utero (p < 0.0001). The increasing weight and increasing frequency of exposure to diabetes in utero accounted for most of the increase in diabetes prevalence in Pima Indian children over the past 30 years. Type II diabetes is now a common disease in American Indian children aged 10 or more years and has increased dramatically over time, along with increasing weight. A vicious cycle related to an increase in the frequency of exposure to diabetes in utero appears to be an important feature of this epidemic.  (Abstract by: Author)

   931.   Dahl, J. A. (1933). Tales from Lake Agassiz (The red river valley of the north) . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Colorado State Teachers College, Department of History and Political Science.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 24459767

   932.   Dailey, R. C. Alcohol and the North American Indian Interview Schedule. Rutgers: Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers, the State University, Smithers Hall, Busch Campus, Piscataway, NJ 08854.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Alcohol and the North American Indian Interview Schedule is an instrument designed to be used as part of a structured interview in order to assess both the alcohol problems of Indians, as well as the socio-cultural factors that might influence said problems. Socio-cultural factors are measured through questions that focus on areas such as the respondents' tribal affiliation, religion, language, basic diet, adequacy of diet, dwellings, principal diseases, medical services, personal hygiene, principal causes of death, record of suicides and homicides, juvenile delinquency, and conviction records. While respondents are asked about the use of drugs, the instrument primarily focuses on the use of alcohol. Specifically, interest lies in the following areas: when alcohol is consumed, age when boys and girls should start to drink, parents' attitude toward their children's use, attitude toward the social use of alcohol by members of the opposite sex, number of Indians who have been treated for alcohol abuse, and the extent to which alcohol is considered to be a problem. The instrument is composed of multiple-choice items and open-ended questions.

   933.   Dalgeish, A. (1954). The courage of Sarah Noble. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:92), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "True story of Sarah Noble, who lived in colonial Connecticut, who goes with her father to build a home in the wilderness.  She stays with some Indian people while her father goes after the rest of the family.  Grades K-4."

   934.   Dally, N. (1931). Tracks and trails; or, incidents in the life of a Minnesota Territorial pioneer. Walker, MN: The Cass County Pioneer.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:42)

   935.   Damrell, J. (1989). Some Observations and Interpretations of the Ojibwa Treaty Rights Struggle. Humanity & Society, 13(4), 386.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

   936.   Danforth, R. J. (1995). The madtown singers: an ethnography of leisure and learning on a woodland Indian social drum (Wisconsin). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Wisconsin--Madison.
Abstract: This dissertation reveals the nature and meaning of singing and socializing on a Woodland Indian Drum, a group of Indian people that comes together to make music and have fun during practice sessions, community events and intertribal pow-wows. Over the years (1974-94) the Madtown Drum has been an important leisure tradition within the Madison Indian community. This study was enhanced by the author's personal involvements with Madison Indians. Over seventeen years he made many Indian friends and acquaintances, learned to sing Woodland songs, traveled the regional pow-wow 'circuit,' worked in Indian education and participated in numerous community events. This ethnography follows Malinowski's (1961) advice to learn the native idiom, 'camp in their villages,' and describe and interpret social discourse in association with 'intimate touches' and the 'imponderabilia' of native life (p. 18). Fieldwork strategies forwarded by Schatzman and Strauss (1973) greatly facilitated the research effort. Systematic fieldwork (1989-91) included community based participant observations and interviews with six Woodland Indian singers. The study focused on the nature and meaning of becoming a singer, the participation of tribal elders in individual learning projects and on the Drum, community life and learning and teaching within Woodland Indian settings. An interpretive aspect of the report connected singing with concepts of play, leisure and informal learning. Learning and enjoyment have been interrelated and important on the Madtown Drum. Drumming, singing and socializing have enabled Madison Indians to connect meaningfully with one another, tribal elders and Woodland Indian traditions. Other leisure traditions may be equally interesting and significant. Voluntary associations including clubs, amateur sports teams, friendship groups and family reunions may be studied using the approach forwarded in this report. Leisure based learning and teaching enable people to make sense of the world and enjoy themselves. This study concludes that learning through leisure should be a more central focus within continuing and adult education.

   937.   Danielson, S. V. 1937- . (1972). Bibliography of local Indian history. Bloomington, Minn.: Bloomington Historical Society.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 26385606. Title from cover.

   938.   Daniloff, J. K., Noll, J. D., Fristoe, M., & Lloyd L. L. (1982). Gesture Recognition in Patients With Aphasia. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 47(1), 43-49.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: The integrity of gestural communication abilities in subjects with aphasia was studied. To define the ability of subjects to interpret symbolic gestures, an Amer-Ind Recognition Test (ART) was developed which required no verbal response from the examiner or subject. The relationships between impairment of Amer-Ind signal recognition and severity of aphasia, listening and talking abilities, and the type of response picture used were investigated. Whether subjects more often chose related foils than unrelated foils in a forced-choice format was also examined. Two training tests and the ART are described. Results from administration to 15 aphasic subjects indicated that all subjects performed equally well, regardless of their aphasia severity classification; action picture recognition was related to listening ability; action pictures were easier to identify than object pictures; and on error responses, subjects overwhelmingly chose related over unrelated foils. The possibility that gestural abilities were relatively well preserved among the subjects tested, in the presence of a wide range of listening and talking deficits, is also discussed.

   939.   Danzinger Jr., E. J. (1978). The Chippewas of Lake Superior. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)
Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXIV (1981:120)
Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

   940.   Darnell, R. (1l992). Inadvertent muffling of Native voices in the southwestern Ontario media. Papers, Algonquian Conference, 23, 91-106.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   941.   Daum, R. W. (1980). A film study of some aspects of urban and  rural communities of a twentieth century American Indian  group : the Mohawks of Caughnawaga and New York City .
Notes: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search), Title of videorecording: To be an Indian. Photocopy lacks accompanying videorecording. Thesis (Ed. D.)--Teachers College, Columbia University, 1976. Bibliography: leaves 80-85. Photocopy. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms  International, 1980. 21 cm.

   942.   Daviault, D. (1987). Aperçu de la morphologie verbale dans la grammaire du Père Nicolas. Papers, Algonquian Conference, (18), 69-94.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   943.   Daviault, D. (1988). Aspects of the historical evolution of obviative marking in Ojibwa. Papers, Algonquian Conference, (19), 17-29.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org  via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   944.   Davidson, J. A. (1986). What's the Status of Diabetes Mellitus in Minorities? Pharmacy Times, 52, 38-40.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Cases of diabetes in minorities are reported to be high in the Pima Indians, Black Americans and Mexican-Americans.

   945.   Davidson, J. F. (1945). Ojibwa songs.  Journal of American Folklore, 58, 303-305.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:42)

   946.   Davies, W. D. (1985). Choctaw Verb Agreement & Universal Grammar.  Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

   947.   Davis, D. M. (1967). Bibliography of Resrouces on the American Indian. Minneapolis: Curriculum Resource Center, Minneapolis Public Schools.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:101), "Bibliography," notation: "mimeographed"

   948.   Davis, D. J., 1924- . (1975). Attitudes of American Indian parents with children in traditional Minneapolis public schools compared with attitudes of American Indian parents with children in alternative schools . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Microfilm. Ann Arbor, Mich. : Xerox University Microfilms, 1976. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 10698312

   949.   Davis, J. W. (1934). A history of the Pipestone Reservation and quarry in Minnesota. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado, Filmed with: History of Houston County, Minnesota. Thesis (M.A.)--University of Colorado, 1934. Bibliography: leaves 77-81. Microfilm. Mankato, Minn. : Mankato State College, [196-]. on 1 microfilm reel ; 16 mm.  Microfilm. [Saint Paul] : Minnesota Historical Society, 1974. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 10502225 ... accession: 10318775 ... accession: 7921288

   950.   Davis, M. B. (1999). The Chippewa landscape of Louis Erdrich. LIBR J , 124(6), 94-94.
Notes: Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999

   951.   Davis, P. M. (1832). The four principal battles of the late war. Being a full detailed account of the battle of Chippeway, fall and destruction of the city of Washington, battles of Baltimore, and New Orleans. Harrisburg: Printed by J. Baab.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
Abstract: Forms a part of his "Authentic history of the late war," first published in 1829. Contains also an account of the battle of Lundy's Lane, here called the battle of the Cataract, preceded by Gen. Brown's report of this battle.

   952.   Davis, S. M., & Reid, R. (1999). Practicing Participatory Research in American Indian Communities. [Review] [37 Refs]. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69((4 Suppl.)), 755s-759s.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to explore the historical issues that affect research in American Indian communities and examine the implications of these issues as they relate to culturally sensitive, respectful, and appropriate research with this population. Methods include review and analysis of the literature and examination of our collective experience and that of our colleagues. Recommendations are given for conducting culturally sensitive, participatory research. We conclude that research efforts must build on the establishment of partnerships between investigators and American Indian communities to ensure accurate findings and analyses and to implement culturally relevant benefits.  (37 Refs)  (Abstract by: Author)

   953.   . (1949-1950). W. D. Davis(William Doyle), 1909- Valuation study of the Red River Valley of the North : area ceded by the Red Lake and Pembina Bands of Chippewa Indians, October 2, l863  . Kansas City, Mo.  Farm Management Associates.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search) ... accession: 17788410.  Spine title: Lands ceded by Red Lake and Pembina Chippewa. Originally published: Kansas City, Mo. : Farm Management Assoc., 1949. This vol. produced from microfiche contained in the published collection, The expert testimony before the Indian Claims Commission. Includes bibliographical references.
Abstract: "Made for the Red Lake Band of the Chippewa Indians and ... their exclusive use in connection with the presentation of evidence in Case no. 18 against the United States of America before the Indian Claims Commission." Includes bibliographical references.

   954.   Davis, W. M. (1899).
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

   955.   Dawes. Lake Mohonk Conference of Friends of the Indian .
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

   956.   Dawson, C. A. (1963). "Dog Pete" stories : a collection of anecdotes and remembrances about Dog Pete, legendary old timer and fisherman of the White Earth Indian Reservation in Minnesota, and some of his own stories . Fargo, N.D.  Dawson.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 5178028

   957.   Dawson, K. C. A. (1982). Northern Ojibwa of Ontario. Proceedings - Annual Conference of the Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary, (13), 81-96, il.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   958.   Dawson, S. J. (Simon James), 1820-1902. (1869). [Last two reports] on the line of route between Lake Superior and the Red River settlement.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 9880965
Abstract: Reports signed: S.J. Dawson. Reproduction of original in: Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto Library. Report on the line of route between Lake Superior and the Red River settlement--Report of 1st May, 1869, on the line of route between Lake Superior and the Red River settlement.

   959.   . (1859). S. J. Dawson (Simon James), 1820-1902Report on the exploration of the country between Lake Superior and the Red River settlement and between the latter place and the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan . Toronto: J. Lovell, printer.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search) ... accession: 11542923, 12496974, 13851525.  Reprint of the 1858 ed. issued as part of Appendix no. 36, A. 1859 (Appendix to the seventeenth volume of the Journals of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada) Bound with Hind, H. Y. [North-west territory. New York, 1968].  Other: Canada. Provincial Secretary's Office. ... accession: 25655605. ... accession: 32733084. ... accession: 36339710. ... accession: 36097262. ... accession: 36081454: At head of title: 22 Victoria. Appendix (No. 36) A. 1859. Contains "General report on the progress of the Red River Expedition." From the Journals of the Legislative assembly of the province of Canada, v. 17, appendix, v. 4.
Abstract: Issued also as part of Appendix no. 36, A. 1859 (Appendix to the seventeenth volume of the Journals of the Legislative assembly of the province of Canada...session 1859).  "Printed by order of the Legislative Assembly." Tables.
Relief shown by hachures. Sheets lithographed by J. Ellis, Toronto. Sheet showing road and navigation includes distance list. Plan shewing the region explored by S.J. Dawson and his party between Fort William, Lake Superior, and the great Saskatchewan River from 1st of August 1857 to 1st November 1858. Scale [1:633,600]. 10 miles to an in. -- Map showing the route by road & navigation for connecting the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans : to accompany S.J. Dawson's report on the Red River Expedition. Scale [ca. 1:10,000,000] - - Profile of route by the Grand Portage and Pigeon River from Lake Superior to Rainy Lake ; Profile of route between Lake Superior and Rainy Lake by the Kaministiquia and Riviere La Seine / S.J. Dawson, c.e. in charge, Rio River Expedition. Scale [1:253,440]. 4 miles to 1 in. Vertical scale 200 ft. to 1 in. [2 profiles on 1 sheet].

   960.   Dawson, S. J. (Simon James), 1820-1902, & Canada. Parliament. House of Commons. (1868). Report on the line of route between Lake Superior and the Red River Settlement. Ottawa: Printed by order of the House of Commons, Hunter, Rose & Company.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search) ... accession: 11935522, 10572389. ...accession: 14958474. ... accession: 35639740.
Abstract: "The following maps are annexed ... the country between Thunder Bay and Lac des Milles Lacs : a plan of ... the country between Height of Land and Fort Frances : a plan ... showing the country between Fort Frances and Fort Garry : a map in profile showing ... Pigeon River and the Kammistaqiua"--p. [7] Tables. Includes index. Maps wanting. ... At head of title: 31 Victoria. Sessional papers (no. 81) A. 1868. "Return to an address of the House of Commons, dated 4th May, 1868 ...

   961.   Dawson, S. J. (Simon James), 1820-1902, Canada. Parliament. House of Commons, & Canada. Dept. of Public Works. (1869). Report of the line of route between Lake Superior and the Red River settlement. Ottawa?  I.B. Taylor.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 11935565, accession: 21947007, accession: 36830908.
Abstract: "I would invite notice to the maps which are hereunto annexed ... : a plan ... exhibiting the position of the lakes ... and the deviation from the Dog Lake road : a map ... shewing the relative position and length of the Canadian and United States route to the Red River settlement : a plan in profile shewing the relative altitude of the lakes between Lake Superior and Fort Francis ... : a plan in profile shewing the routes by Pigeon River and Riviere la Seine"--p. [7]-8. Includes index. Maps wanting.

   962.   Dawson, S. J. (Simon James), 1820-1902, & Hind, H. Y., 1823-1908.  (1858). Report on the exploration of the country between Lake Superior and the Red River settlement. Toronto: J. Lovell.
Notes: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 13013110.  "Printed by order of the Legislative Assembly." Published also in French under title: Rapport sur l'exploration de la contree situee entre le lac Superieur et les etablissements de la riviere Rouge (see CIHM no. 44218).   Other: Dawson, S. J. (Simon James), 1820-1902. Hind, Henry Youle, 1823-1908. Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition (1857) Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition (1858). ... accession: 13852649: Spine title: Dawson's explorations. Running title: 21 Victoria. Appendix (No. 3) A. 1858.

   963.   Dawson, S. J. (Simon James), 1820-1902, Hind, H. Y., 1823-1908, & Gladman, G., 1800-1863. (1858). Rapport sur l'exploration de la contree situee entre le lac Superieur et les etablissements de la riviere Rouge [Report on the exploration of the country between Lake Superior and the Red River settlement]. Toronto?  J. Lovell.
Notes: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 13078374.  "Imprime par ordre de l'Assemblee Legislative." "Traduction". Published also in English under title: Report on the exploration of the country between Lake Superior and the Red River settlement (see CIHM no. 44219).  Other: Expedition canadienne de la Riviere Rouge (1857) Expedition d'exploration de l'Assiniboine et de la Saskatchewan (1858).

   964.   Day, J. E. (1897). Sketch of Peter Naw-gaw-nee, a celebrated Indian of the Isabella County Reservation. Collections and Researches Made by the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society, 27, 328-329.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:42)

   965.   Day, T. W. (1992). Cross-Cultural Medicine at Home. Minnesota Medicine., 75(3), 15-17.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: The cross-cultural approach allows the white physician to see the Ojibwe patient as a person with goals both similar and different from her own. Both the physician and the patient understand that the purpose of the visit is to retain or acquire good health. However, the expectations, communication, and the style of interaction may mask that concordance. Even the definitions of health differ between physician and patient. The Western medical model emphasizes normal physiologic health. The Ojibwe view incorporates spiritual health to a greater degree and emphasizes a wholistic approach encompassing a harmonious balance among the individual, community, and nature, as well as among body, mind, and spirit. The methods and attitudes so apparent in cross-cultural medical interactions are really no different from those needed for the delivery of good medical care generally. The more disparate a patient's and doctor's world views and lifestyles, the greater the effort required on both sides to communicate and collaborate. Nearly every patient encounter will be improved by a cross-cultural perspective. Acknowledgment and tolerance of health practices different from our own can lead to greater flexibility and understanding within the medical care system, thereby allowing for care with less confrontation and conflict. Physicians who incorporate such methods will likely gain better understanding of their own values and practices, which will enhance their care of all patients.  (Abstract by: Author)

   966.   . (1993). W. C. Day, & United States. Geological Survey Geochemical data of diamond drill core samples adjacent to the Red Lake Indian Reservation, northern Minnesota  . [Denver, CO] : U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey : [Books and Open-File Reports Section, distributor].
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 30207430. Cover title. System requirements for computer disk: IBM PC compatible. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 2-3). ... accession: 31913431. This report includes text (paper copy). Report 93-572-B includes data files on diskette.

   967.   Dayton, N. C. (1997). Women novelists and their imaginative search for American identity (Maria Amparo Ruiz de Burton, Willa Cathers, Toni Morrison, Louise Erdrich). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Miami University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine four novels written by American women whose discourse is shaped by the rhetoric of Americanization. Maria Amparo Ruiz de Burton's novel The Squatter and the Don (1885) incorporates a language of social scientific optimism to suggest that American identity may benefit from the influence of Californio culture. Willa Cather's O Pioneers! (1913) seeks to redefine American identity in terms of the vitalistic promise of the immigrants she portrays on the Nebraska Divide. Yet both of these novels, regardless of their progressive description of American identity which appears inclusive and unified, do not fully measure the price that their characters pay by distancing themselves from a concept of ethnic memory while embracing the possibility of  becoming a 'true' American. The final two novels begin to address that price. Toni Morrison's Beloved (1987) engages the rhetoric of Americanization from the point of view of an ex-slave who must first imagine herself in the terms of a human being before she may  imagine herself to be an American citizen. Louise Erdrich's Tracks  (1988) initiates a sequence of competing tales that vie for the  attention of Lulu Nanapush in order to shape her perception of her Chippewa heritage. This study analyzes these novels in the context of the continuing dialogue that informs the process of American  identity formation.

   968.   . (1988). M. de CerteauThe Writing of History . New York: Columbia University Press.
Notes: Source: cited by Stuart Christie (Summer 1997)

   969.   De Forest, J. W. (1991). History of the Indians of Connecticut from the Earliest Known Period to 1850.  Native American Book Publishers.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

   970.   de Gonzague, B., Receveur, O., Wedll, D., & Kuhnlein, H. V. (1999). Dietary Intake and Body Mass Index of Adults in 2 Ojibwe Communities. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99(6), 710-716.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: http://www.webofscience.com/CIW.cgi -- subject search on all indexes, Fall 1999
Source: UnCover database (Aug 1999)
Abstract: Objective: To describe and compare dietary intake and prevalence of overweight in a sample of adults in 2 Ojibwe communities in Mille Lacs, Minn, and Lac Court Oreilles, Wis.
The diet of many Native North American populations has changed because of European settlement, but maintaining traditional cultural food systems is still important.  To describe and compare dietary intake and prevalence of overweight among adults in 2 Ojibwe communities, researchers surveyed 104 tribe members. Mean nutrient intakes for women were low for vitamin A, folate, calcium, iron, and zinc, and for men for vitamin A and calcium. Prevelance of overweight was 47%. The prevalence of overweight among this population may be influenced by different cultural standards for weight, and cultural traditions such as hunting and gatherine are important to preserve. Dietetics professionals should strive to develop culturally relevant education programs for different populations.

   971.   de Ling, E. L. (1983). Mending the circle: processes in the loss and preservation of an American Indian language (Ojibwa, Michigan). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Michigan.
Abstract: This is a documentation of (1) Ojibwa language loss at Keweenaw Bay from 1600 to 1976, (2) efforts made from 1930 to 1978 at state and national levels to preserve Indian languages, (3) a participant-observer case study of efforts to preserve the dialect at Keweenaw Bay from 1972 to 1978. The author worked for the tribe at Keweenaw Bay in the language program and has written in a style familiar and acceptable to the Ojibwa (Anishnabe) people there. The language and culture of the Ojibwa people at Keweenaw Bay in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan has been subjected to many outside forces. Assimilation and acculturation resulting from French, British and American occupation caused the near-loss of the Ojibwa language on the reservation. After federal, state and local policies made it possible to do the necessary language research, curriculum development and teacher training, the Ojibwa Language Project began. It was staffed by tribal members, assisted by outside consultant. The program staff did language research, curriculum development, established a media center, and taught Ojibwa language classes at the college, secondary and elementary levels. They worked with the local Finnish community to help them start their own language program. Utilizing local resources and capitalizing on the skills and efforts of volunteers, the program was successful in restoring the Ojibwa language at Keweenaw Bay. Analysis of the findings of this study illustrates the difference between the procedures required by the white dominant society as compared with processes taking place in an Indian community. The study also shows how tribal people on one remote rural reservation performed a complex task, designing the program around available resources and personnel. A manual is provided with guidelines for language and culture research and curriculum development for other people faced with the same need to preserve and maintain their heritage.

   972.   De Waal, A. (1973). Overall economic development plan for the Chippewa Red Cliff Band, Red Cliff Reservation, Red Cliff, Wisconsin .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).  Red Cliff Overall Economic Development Committee (Wis.) Overall economic development plan for the Chippewa Red Cliff Band ...

   973.   DeCandido, G. A. (1999). The Legend of the Lady Slipper: An Ojibwa Tale.(Review). Booklist, 95(16), 1533 (1).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: Ages 4-8. The Ojibwa tell a story of the moccasin flower, called lady slipper in English, a beautiful woodland blossom. First-time children's authors but longtime storytellers Lunge-Larsen and Preus use native sources and tell the sweet legend in a powerful way. The only one left whole when a devastating disease strikes her village, a girl sets out in deep winter to a neighboring village to get healing herbs to save the sick. She does not stay the night but starts back immediately and is caught in drifted snow. The snow whispers, "Be wise!" and she figures out, like the fox, how to free herself. But her fur-lined moccasins are left behind. She perseveres, with frozen and bleeding feet, to save her village, in the spring, when she returns to look for her moccasins, she finds instead a patch of small pink-and-white flowers shaped like the shoes. Clear, limpid colors enhance the decorative effect of the illustrations, whose lively line and use of pattern are reminiscent of beadwork. An authors' note and bibliography are included, and the authors particularly thank several Ojibwa language scholars for their assistance in the cadences of the language.
Full Text COPYRIGHT 1999 American Library Association

   974.   Decker, L. R. (1981). A comparative perspective on the status attainment of White and Native youth. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, South Dakota State University, PhD dissertation.
Abstract: Status attainment, as commonly indicated by levels of educational and occupational achievement, is a complicated process. A variety of variables have been found to be quite influential in the determination of one's eventual position in the social hierarchy of American society. Research done jointly by William H. Sewell and Robert M. Hauser (1972, 1975) regarding the status attainment process has resulted in a Wisconsin model of Adolescent Achievement in which the authors have identified a number of experiences that have significant import for young people's post-high school educational and occupational attainments. The Sewell and Hauser model links socioeconomic origins and academic ability with status attainments by means of such social psychological variables as academic performance, encouragement from significant others, and aspiration formation. In order to assess the explanatory power of the Sewel and Hauser model as applied to rural Native American youth, a questionnaire was administered to a sample of high school students attending a mission school on a reservation in South Dakota. Results of the survey indicated the combined effects of model variables to be relevant to the explanation of status expectations among Indian youth. However, the data also revealed a lack of explanatory power regarding the ordering of variables in the model, thus supporting the hypothesis of the present research. This finding held true even when the effects of such variables as Native American cultural orientation and extended family encouragement for further education were controlled. Lastly, significant differences in the educational and occupational expectations of male and female Indian students were discovered. The evidence suggests a parental role modeling explanation for these differences.

   975.   Degonzague, B. (1999). Traditional and market food use among adults in two Ojibwe communities (Minnesota, Wisconsin). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, McGill University (Canada).
Abstract: Food frequency questionnaires and twenty-four hour recalls were conducted with a random sample of 104 Ojibwe adults in Mille Lacs, Minnesota and Lac Courte Oreilles, Wisconsin to assess traditional and market food use. Sociocultural questionnaires were used to assess the cultural significance of traditional food. The importance of the traditional food system was evident, with at least 50% of people engaging in hunting and fishing practices. Traditional food was among the top ten food sources of protein, zinc, iron and folate. The cultural significance of traditional food was apparent.  Obesity is prevalent, with almost 50% of the population studied over the 85th percentile for Body Mass Index (BMI).  Nutrient densities were lower than those in the NHANES III sample, in particular for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and folate.  Mean intakes of fat, saturated fat, and sucrose exceeded American Heart Association and World Health Organization recommendations. Areas of focus for education and future research needs are suggested in order to reduce risks for nutrition-related chronic disease such as diabetes and heart disease.

   976.   Degonzague, B. (1999). Traditional and market food use among adults in two Ojibwe communities (Minnesota, Wisconsin). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, McGill University (Canada).
Abstract: Food frequency questionnaires and twenty-four hour recalls were conducted with a random sample of 104 Ojibwe adults in Mille Lacs, Minnesota and Lac Courte Oreilles, Wisconsin to assess traditional and market food use. Sociocultural questionnaires were used to assess the cultural significance of traditional food. The importance of the traditional food system was evident, with at least 50% of people engaging in hunting and fishing practices. Traditional food was among the top ten food sources of protein, zinc, iron and folate. The cultural significance of traditional food was apparent. Obesity is prevalent, with almost 50% of the population studied over the 85th percentile for Body Mass Index (BMI). Nutrient densities were lower than those in the NHANES III sample, in particular for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and folate. Mean intakes of fat, saturated fat, and sucrose exceeded American Heart Association and World Health Organization recommendations. Areas of focus for education and future research needs are suggested in order to reduce risks for nutrition-related chronic disease such as diabetes and heart disease.

   977.   DeGroat, F. H., 1916- . (1963). Papers. Archive/Manuscript Control.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 21116518
Abstract: Legislative papers and correspondence. Includes correspondence, press releases, speeches, campaign materials, clippings and legislative records. Major portions of the legislative materials consist of records of the Indian Affairs Commission, from 1963 to 1972, and records of the House Committee on Agriculture, Subcommittee on Food Marketing and Distribution, for 1971-72. Frank H. DeGroat represented District 10-A in the Minnesota House of Representatives from 1962 to his retirement in 1976. District 10-A consisted of parts of Becker, Otter Tail, and Wadena Counties. Some of DeGroat's ancestors were American Indians, and he devoted much of his work in the legislature to the condition of Indians in Minnesota. He served on the Joint Indian Affairs Commission for ten years. The Commission, among other activities, studied conditions at the White Earth Indian Reservation. He was also chairman of the House Agriculture Subcommittee on Food Marketing and Distribution from 1971 to 1972.

   978.   Dejoie, C. M. (editor). (1989). Wisconsin Minority Women's Perspectives On Women's Issues.  Madison, WI: WI: Health and Human Issues Division of University Outreach, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Notes: Source: Women’s Resources International [University of Minnesota online database--Women, Race & Ethnicity Database], August 29, 1999 search
Abstract: Contents: "Completing the Circle: Legacies of Our Ojibwa Grandmothers" (Carol Hand); "Hispanic Women in Public Policy Positions in the State of Wisconsin" (Eloisa Gomez); "A Conversation with Dimetra Taliaferro Shivers" (Carolyn M. Dejoie); "Health Care Containment Strategies and Their Effect on Health Care for Minority Women in the 1990's" (Nelia Olivencia); "Silent Cries of African-American Women as They Struggle for Fulfillment" (Carolyn M. Dejoie); "Perspectives of an Asian American Woman in Wisconsin" (Agnes Cammer); "Where There is Power, There is Resistance: A Study of Caribbean Women's Social Movements" (Alexandra Burton-Jones); "Confluences: Cross- Cultural Influences in Wisconsin Literature" (Angela Lobo-Cobb); "Women and Borders: Traces of Arab-American Women in the History of Arab Americans" (Mary N. Layoun).

   979.   Delâge, D. (1992-1993). Premiers contacts dans "History of the Ojibway People" de William Warren: un récit de transition entre l'oral et l'écrit. Recherches Amérindiennes Au Québec [Montreal], 22(4), 49-59.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

   980.   Delage, D., & Tanner, H. H. (1994). The Ojibwa-Jesuit Debate at Walpole Island, 1844. Ethnohistory : the Bulletin of the Ohio Valley ..., 41(2), 295.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

   981.   Delâge, D., & Tanner, H. H. (1994). The Ojibwa-Jesuit Debate at Walpole-Island, 1844. Ethnohistory, 41 (2), 295-321.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search
Abstract: Walpole Island, a Canadian Indian reserve located in the St. Clair River delta thirty miles northeast of Detroit, Michigan, was the setting for a significant religious debate between two Ojibwa Indian leaders and a Jesuit missionary on 31 July 1844. Their conflicting points of view, expounded over two and a half hours before an attentive Indian audience, is clearly presented in a letter written six months later by the missionary participant, Father Pierre Chazelle, to a close friend in the Jesuit order. [References: 10]

   982.   Deland, C. E. (1977). The Aborigines of South Dakota.  A M S Press, Incorporated.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

   983.   Delanglez, J. (1985). A Jean Delanglez, S. J., Anthology: Observations on Mississippi Valley & Trans-Mississippi Indians.  Garland Publishing, Incorporated.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

   984.   Delisle, G. L. (1973). Universals and person pronouns in Southwestern Chippewa. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.

   985.   Delisle H. F., Rivard M., & Ekoe J. (1995). Prevalence Estimates of Diabetes and of Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Two Largest Algonquin Communities of Quebec. Diabetes Care, 18(9), 1255-9.
Notes: . (17 Ref)  Source: Biomed (Cinahl) electronic database, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in the two largest Algonquin communities of Quebec (Canada) with that of other native groups and to describe the different patterns of NIDDM and other cardiovascular risk markers in these communities (River Desert [RD] and Lac Simon [LS]). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The population-based study targeted all residents aged 15 years and older. In the age-group considered here (30-64 years), there were 480 eligible subjects and 299 participants (50.8% in RD and 86.9% in LS). All except those with confirmed diabetes underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Serum triglyceride and lipoprotein cholesterol levels, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured. RESULTS: The age-standardized (world population) prevalence of NIDDM in women was twice as high in LS as in RD (48.6% vs. 23.9%). In men, it was 23.9% in LS and 16.3% in RD. Upper-body obesity followed the same pattern. In contrast, high-risk serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were significantly more prevalent in RD than in LS, particularly among men. The rate of high blood pressure was twice as high in men as in women, with little community differences. When we controlled for age, sex, diabetic, and obesity status, mean fasting serum glucose remained significantly higher and triglycerides and LDL cholesterol lower in LS than in RD. There was also an independent community effect on WHR but no on BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of NIDDM in LS women reaches the rate observed in Pima Indian women. The observed differences between two Algonquin communities suggest a highly heterogeneous pattern of NIDDM and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Amerindian populations, even within a given tribe and a limited geographic area.  (17 ref)

   986.   Dellinger, J., Kmiecik, N., Gerstenberger, S., & Ngu, H. (1995). Mercury Contamination of Fish in the Ojibwa Diet .1. Walleye Fillets and Skin-on Versus Skin-Off Sampling. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 80(1-4), 69-76.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: Fish & Fisheries Worldwide [University of Minnesota onlinedatabase], August 29, 1999 search, from conference proceedings: Mercury as a Global Pollutant: Proceedings of the Third International Conference, Held in Whistler, British Columbia, July 10-14, 1994. Don Porcella, John Huckabee, and Brian Wheatley, editors
Abstract: During the past two years, walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) have been collected and prepared into skin-off fillets and submitted for total mercury analysis. The survey included 105 fish from 18 lakes in 10 counties in northern Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan. Fourteen lakes yielded walleye fillets with greater than 0.5 ppm mercury, and six lakes yielded samples in excess of 1.0 ppm mercury. Fourteen fish were collected in the spring and prepared as fillets ground up as either skin-on or skin-off samples. The difference in Hg was significant (T-14 = -3.26, p = 0.006) with skin-on fillets, resulting in an approximately 10% decrease in mercury concentrations. Results of this study suggest that by leaving the skin on the sample, mercury concentrations will be reported 10% lower than if the skin is removed Obviously, consumption advisories based on skin-off samples could provide more protection for Ojibwa people eating the spring harvest of walleye. In the fall, the difference in Hg samples between skin-on versus skin-off, was less and not statistically significant However, removal of the skin would be expected to underestimate lipophilic organochlorine burdens and may not be appropriate for fish species where PCBs, DDT, and chlordanes are the major concern. Fall data for 67 fish from 26 lakes in 9 counties are also reported. [References: 4]

   987.   Dellinger, J., Malek, L., & Beattie, M. (1995). Mercury Contamination of Fish in the Ojibwa Diet: II. Sensory Evoked Responses in Rats Fed Walleye. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 80(1-4), 77-83.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: Fish & Fisheries Worldwide [University of Minnesota onlinedatabase], August 29, 1999 search, citing: Mercury as a Global Pollutant: Proceedings of the Third International Conference, Held in Whistler, British Columbia, July 10-14, 1994. Don Porcella, John Huckabee, and Brian Wheatley, editors
Abstract: The Ojibwa people of the upper Great Lakes in the United States have a long history of utilizing walleye caught by spear fishing as a major part of their diets. Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) have been collected and prepared into fillets using traditional methods, submitted for total mercury (Hg) analysis, and fed to laboratory rats in standard neurotoxicity protocols to determine the human health risks associated with consuming these fish. Wisconsin officials recommend avoiding the consumption of fish containing more than 0.5 ppm Hg. Laboratory rodent neurotoxicity bioassays included blending composite fish samples of 0.8, 0.4, and 0.2 ppm total mercury and feeding it to 48 young adult female Long Evans rats for 90 days. Standard behavior assessments included: clinical neurologic observations, motor activity, and accelerating rotarod. Twelve of the 48 rats were surgically implanted for electrodiagnostic evaluations using sensory evoked potentials with auditory and visual stimuli. Auditory (clicks) responses were relatively stable and unaffected by Hg laden diets. However, visual evoked responses at low flash intensities demonstrated a dose related slowing of brain visual processing activity. Methylmercury contamination is known to affect visual systems, and visual evoked brain potentials are apparently sensitive indicators of dietary Hg.

   988.   Dellinger, J. A., Meyers, R. M., & Hansen, L. K. (1996). The Ojibwa Health Study: Fish Residue Comparisons for Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron. Toxicology & Industrial Health, 12(3-4), 393-402.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Source: Fish & Fisheries Worldwide [University of Minnesota onlinedatabase], August 29, 1999 search
Abstract: The Ojibwa Health Study is a descriptive epidemiology study of six Ojibwa reservations in the Upper Great Lakes. Fish consumption habits, contaminant (mercury (Hg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organochlorines (OCs)) residues in dietary fish and humans, and chronic disease outcomes currently are being documented. Four hundred and fifty questionnaires and approximately 200 biological samples had been collected as of December 1994. Fish collections from reservations included lake trout, walleye, lake whitefish, and lake herring from Lakes Superior (three sites), Michigan, and Huron. Hg and OC residue analyses have been completed for the fish composite samples. A preliminary examination of the data has revealed regional differences in the contaminant burdens of the fish. Lake Michigan and Lake Huron whitefish composite samples had approximately twice the OC concentrations of Lake Superior whitefish samples. In general, the whitefish composite samples were far below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or any state advisory limits for OC or Hg residues. Lake trout samples contained higher amounts of all residues than did the whitefish samples.

   989.   Deloria, E. (1998). Speaking of Indians.  University of Nebraska Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

   990.   . (1983). V. DeloriaAmerican Indians, American justice  1st ed. ed., ). Austin : University of Texas Press.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search)

   991.   Deloria, V., Jr. (1994). God is Red. Golden: Fulcrum Publishing.
Notes: Source: cited by Loew, Patty (Fall 1997)

   992.   Deloria, V. Jr., & Lytle, C. (1984). The nations within: the past and future of American Indian sovereignty. New York: Pantheon Books.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

   993.   Delorme, D. P. (1955). History of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians. North Dakota History, 22, 121-134.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:42)

   994.   Delorme, D. P. (1955). A socio-economic study of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians and a critical evaluation of proposals designed to terminate their federal wardship status. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin.

   995.   Delumley, M. I. (1993). Under the Sign of the Bear - Myths and Time Among the Northern Ojibwa - French - Desveaux,E [French]. Anthropologie, 97(4), 701.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search

   996.   Deming, A. O. (1938). Manabozho: the Indian story of Hiawatha. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, Publishers.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:95), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "Stories taken from the explorer Schoolcraft's works.  All realte to the life and acts of a single character called Manabozho.  Grades 4-8."

   997.   Dempsey, H. A. (1996). The Amazing Death of Calf Shirt & Other Blackfoot Stories: Three Hundred Years of Blackfoot History.  University of Oklahoma Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

   998.   B. DennisPersonal and subject matter jurisdiction in the tribal court setting  . 1990 .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 41766577. Student papers / University of Washington, School of Law. Includes bibliographical references.

   999.   Denny, J. F. (1980). Verb class meanings of the abstract finals in Ojibway inanimate intransitive verbs. International Journal of American Linguistics, 44(4), 294-322, ill.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXV (1982:108)

1000.   Denny, J. P., & Odjig, L. (1973). The meaning of nintotw one and pesikw one in Ojibway. International Journal of American Linguistics, 39(2), 95-97.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XIX (1975:78)
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1001.   Denny, J. P., & Odjig, L. (1972). A semantically organized list of Ojibway numerical classifiers. London, Ontario: University of Western Ontario, Department of Psychology.
Abstract: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:42)

1002.   Denny, W. A. (1979). Stories from the Old Ones: As Told to Walter A. Denny.  Rising Wolf, Incorporated.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1003.   Densmore. (1969). Chippewa & Dakota Indians: A Subject Catalog of Books, Pamphlets, Periodical Articles & Manuscripts in the Minnesota Historical Society.  Minnesota Historical Society Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1004.   Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin. (1913). Washington, D.C.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)

1005.   Smithsonian Institution, B. o. A. E. (1929). Bulletin. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Notes: Source: Human Relations Area Files Index, Category NG6 "[as of July 1, 1975]", identified as "(M)", page 1, item 5
cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:101), "Bibliography"
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:43)
Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1006.   Densmore, F. (1979). Chippewa Customs. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1007.   Densmore, F. (1910). Chippewa Music. Bureau of American EthnologyBulletin 45 ed.,  (pp. 1-209). Washington, D.C.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:42-3)
Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1008.   . (1913). F. DensmoreChippewa Music Vol. 2). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Notes: Source: Human Relations Area Files Index, Category NG6 "[as of July 1, 1975]", identified as "(M)", page 2, item 16
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:43)
Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1009.   Densmore, F. (1977). Dakota & Ojibwe People in Minnesota . Roots, 5(2-3).
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999
ERIC NO: ED218027
Abstract: A biographical sketch of Frances Densmore, ethnologist of Native American music, and seven articles describing the lives of the Dakota and Ojibwe people as Densmore saw them are presented. The biographical sketch recounts Ms. Densmore's study of Ojibwe music and her ability to copy songs from memory when listening to them at fairs or attending tribal ceremonials, giving her the opportunity to learn more about Ojibwe and Dakota customs, religion, and lifestyle. Since Densmore spent more time visting the Ojibwe people than the Dakota people, the descriptions presented of the Dakota are shorter and less complete than those of the Ojibwe. Intended for children to read, the material briefly describes homes of the Dakota and Ojibwe; their clothing; food; how they travelled; skills such as weaving, fishing, and leathermaking; picture writing and sign language used to tell what happened in the past or to communicate with others; and child rearing. Throughout the articles are captioned photographs taken between 1907 and 1920 of Ms. Densmore's visits to the White Earth, Red Lake, Mille Lacs, and Leech Lake reservations. (ERB)

1010.   Densmore, F. (1974). How Indians use wild plants for food, medicine and crafts.  Dover.
Notes: [original 1928]
cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1011.   Densmore, F. (1919). Material culture among the Chippewa. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 70(part 2), 114-118.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:43)

1012.   Densmore, F. (1920). Material culture of the Chippewa of Canada [Research of Miss Frances Densmore]. Smithsonian institution. Explorations and field-work ... in 1919  (pp. 78-80, illus.). Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1013.   Densmore, F. (1995). Menominee Music.  Reprint Services Corporation.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1014.   Densmore, F. (1941). The native art of the Chippewa. American Anthropologist, 43, 678-581.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:43)

1015.   Densmore, F. (1941). Native songs of two hybrid ceremonies among the American Indians . American Anthropologist, 43(1), p. 77-82 ; 25 cm.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October, 1999 search). Title from caption. "This paper was prepared for the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Milwaukee, June 1939."

1016.   Densmore, F. (1920). The rhythm of Sioux and Chippewa music. Art and Archaeology, 9, 59-67.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:43)

1017.   (1950). F. Densmore, & A. o. A. F. S. U.S. Library of Congress. (recorded and edited by). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Library of Congress, Music Division.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:44)

1018.   (1918). Smithsonian Instituition, Washington, D.C. Explorations and Field-Work ...in 1917,  95-100, illus. 97-102.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:101), "Bibliography"
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1019.   Densmore, F. (1941). The Study of Indian Music. Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution  (pp. 227-550). Washington, D.C.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)

1020.   Densmore, F. (1949). A study of some Michigan Indians.  (pp. 1-49). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

1021.   Densmore, F. (1927). Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians. U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology44th annual report, 1926-27 44 ed.,  (pp. 275-397, pl. 28-63, tables). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1022.   (1907). [Audiovisual]. F. Densmore, 1867-1957.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 30798009
Abstract: Views of Ojibway Indians on reservations at White Earth, Red Lake, Leech Lake, Mille Lacs and Manitou Rapids (Ontario), includes buildings on the reservations and Indian dwellings, views of Indians gathering and preparing food, wild ricing and crafts.

1023.   Department of Natural Resources, Land Bureau . (1985). A Summary of the origin of the title of all lands held by the State of Minnesota in fee or trust on the White Earth Reservation. [St. Paul, Minn.] : Dept. of Natural Resources, Land Bureau.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 11822228. Caption title. "Prepared by the Department of Natural Resources, Land Bureau to satisfy the requirements of Laws of 1984, Chapter 539, section 2."

1024.   Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management. Bureau of Indian Affairs. (1999). Status of Red Lake Tribal Indian Lands in Minnesota: Notice identifying lands subject to Secretarial Order of  Restoration of February 22, 1945. Federal Register, 64(21), 5069-5072.
Notes: Source: Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov] [DOCID:fr02fe99-82]
Abstract: SUMMARY: On February 22, 1945, the Secretary of the Interior issued an Order restoring to the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians of Minnesota (``Tribe'') certain lands that the Tribe had previously ceded to the United States for use by non-Indians. The lands restored to the Tribe by the 1945 Order are lands that were continuously held in trust by the United States since the cessions, that were never sold or otherwise disposed of, and for which the Tribe was never paid. This notice provides a partial list of the lands restored to the Tribe by the 1945 Order.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: W. Hord Tipton, State Director, Eastern States Office, or Walter Rewinski, Deputy State Director, Resources Planning, Use and Protection, Eastern States Office, Bureau of Land Management, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153.
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Nelson Act, Act of Jan. 14, 1889, ch. 24, 25 Stat. 642, created and authorized a federal commission to negotiate a cession of lands in northern Minnesota from the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians of Minnesota (``Tribe'') to the United States. By agreement dated July 8, 1889, 2.9 million acres of land known as ``Royce 706'' was ceded by the Tribe to the United States to be held in trust, subject to sale by the United States for the benefit of the Tribe. The Tribe retained a much smaller area known as ``Royce 707.''    On March 10, 1902, another agreement was negotiated between the Tribe and the United States for the cession of an additional 256,152 acres of land in the western portion of Royce 707. This agreement was approved by Congress. Act of Feb. 20, 1904, ch. 161, 33 Stat. 46. The Tribe's present-day reservation is composed of land remaining after the 1889 and 1902 cessions. Consistent with the provisions of the Nelson Act, the lands the Tribe ceded to the United States were opened for timber sales and homesteading, and most of the lands were disposed of by the 1930s.
    The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (``IRA''), 25 U.S.C. Secs. 461 et seq., authorized the Secretary of the Interior, if he found it to be in the public interest, ``to restore to tribal ownership the remaining surplus lands of any Indian reservation [that prior to June 18, 1934 were] opened, or authorized to be opened, to sale, or any other form of disposal by Presidential proclamation, or by any of the public land laws of the United States[.]'' 25 U.S.C. Sec. 463(a).    On February 22, 1945, exercising this authority granted by the IRA, the Secretary of the Interior issued an Order of Restoration (``1945 Order''), 10 Fed. Reg. 2448 (1945). The 1945 Order ``restore[d] to tribal ownership all those lands of the Red Lake Indian Reservation which were ceded by the Indians under [the Nelson Act and the Act of Feb. 20, 1904] and which were opened for sale or entry but for which the Indians have not been paid and which now are or hereafter may be classified as undisposed of[.]'' 10 Fed. Reg. at 2449. See also Act of Dec. 4, 1942, ch. 673, 56 Stat. 1039 (``[A]ll right, title, and interest of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe in and to the so-called Red Lake Indian ceded lands, including any administrative reserves, is hereby declared extinguished and title thereto vested in the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians[.]'').
    On May 28, 1945, the Acting Commissioner of the General Land Office forwarded to the Commissioner of the Office of Indian Affairs a list of lands that satisfied the criteria of the 1945 Order and could be returned to the Band. On April 29, 1946 and January 9, 1947, amendments to the list of lands were made. The list of May 28, 1945 and the amendments of April 29, 1946 and January 9, 1947 (collectively, the ``1945 List'') totaled approximately 157,499 acres of non-contiguous lands. The 1945 List was to have been published in the Federal Register to provide public notice of which lands were subject to the 1945 Order. However, shortly after the 1945 List was completed, several title and egal description problems with lands on it were discovered, and the 1945 List was never published in the Federal Register.
    From 1945 until 1988, the Department attempted to resolve many of the vexing title and legal description problems with the lands on the 1945 List. On December 22, 1988, the Acting State Director of the Eastern States Office, Bureau of Land Management (``BLM''), forwarded to the Bureau of Indian Affairs a comprehensive listing of lands totaling approximately 186,533 acres (``1988 List'') that the BLM had determined qualified for restoration to the Band under the 1945 Order. Many of the lands on the 1945 List were on the 1988 List. However, shortly after the 1988 List was completed, several further title and legal description problems were manifested and the 1988 List was never published in the Federal Register.
    In December, 1997, the Department initiated a review of the lands on the 1945 and 1988 Lists. The Department has determined that the following lands that were ceded by the Tribe to the United States in 1889 and 1902, that were held in trust by the United States, subject to sale for the benefit of the Tribe, and that were not disposed of by the United States, were restored to the Tribe by the 1945 Order. This list does not represent a final list of all those lands restored to tribal ownership under the 1945 Order. Descriptions of any additional lands that were restored by the 1945 Order may be published as they are confirmed.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        Description                                    Acreage
------------------------------------------------------------------------
T. 157 N., R. 25 W.
    Sec. 3, Lot 7.....................................................          3.08
T. 158 N., R. 26 W.
    Sec. 16, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4......................        640
T. 157 N., R. 27 W.
    Sec. 16, NW4, NW4NE4...............................        200
T. 158 N., R. 27 W.
    Sec. 16, NE4, NW4........................................        320
T. 156 N., R. 28 W
    Sec. 16, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4.....................        640
T. 157 N., R. 28 W
    Sec. 1, Lot 1, SE4NE4, E2SE4......................        162.76
    Sec. 4, Lots 1,2,3,4, S2NW4........................        255.40
    Sec. 6, NE4SW4..... ......................................         40
    Sec. 7, SE4SE4...............................................         40
    Sec. 8, SW4SW4...........................................         40
    Sec. 9, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4......................        640
    Sec. 10, NW4, NE4SW4, W2SW4,.............        280
    Sec. 12, NE4, E2SW4, SE4...........................        400
    Sec. 13, N2NE4...............................................         80
    Sec. 15, NW4NW4, SE4NW4, SW4SW4. 120
    Sec. 16, NE4, NW4, S2SW4, S2SE4.............        480
    Sec. 21, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4......................        640
    Sec. 22, SW4NE4, NW4, N2SW4, SW4SW       320
    Sec. 24, NE4NE4, S2NE4, SE4......................        280
    Sec. 25, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4.....................        640
    Sec. 28, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4.....................        640
    Sec. 33, Lots 1,2,3,4, NE4, NW4, N2SW4, N2SE4  637.16
[[Page 5070]]
    Sec. 36, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
T. 158 N., R. 28 W.
    Sec. 33, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 34, SW4NE4, NW4, SE4SW4..........................        240
    Sec. 36, S2SE4........................................         80
T. 159 N., R. 28 W.
    Sec. 3, S2NE4, SE4NW4, N2SW4..........................        200
    Sec. 4, S2SW4.........................................         80
    Sec. 5, SE4SE4........................................         40
    Sec. 36, NE4NE4.......................................         40
T. 153 N., R. 29 W.
    Sec. 7, Lot 2.........................................          0.31
T. 158 N., R. 29 W.
    Sec. 5, N2SW4, SE4SW4.................................        120
    Sec. 6, Lot 6.........................................         41.81
T. 159 N., R. 29 W.
    Sec. 2, E2SE4.........................................         80
    Sec. 3, Lots 3,4,.....................................         81.96
    Sec. 18, Lot 2........................................         33.64
T. 154 N., R. 30 W.
    Sec. 36, N2NW4........................................         80
T. 151 N., R. 31 W.
    Sec. 16, Lot 8........................................          1.18
T. 152 N., R. 31 W.
    Sec. 16, SE4SE4.......................................         40
T. 158 N., R. 31 W.
    Sec. 3, Lot 1.........................................         40.14
T. 158 N., R. 32 W.
    Sec. 6, Lots 1 thru 7, S2NE4, SE4NW4, E2SW4, SE4......        631.85
    Sec. 7, Lots 1,2, NE4, E2NW4, N2SE4...................        396
    Sec. 13, Lot 2, S2NW4.................................        112
    Sec. 18, Lot 4, SE4NE4, SE4SW4, SE4...................        278.16
    Sec. 19, NE4NE4, S2NE4, N2SE4, SE4SE4.................        240
    Sec. 30, Lots 2,3, 4, NE4NE4, E2SW4, SE4..............        399.01
    Sec. 31, Lots 1,2,3,4, NE4, E2NW4, E2SW4,NW4SE4.......        519.08
T. 159 N., R. 32 W.
    Sec. 7, SE4SE4........................................         40
T. 160 N., R. 32 W.
    Sec. 31, SE4NW4.......................................         40
T. 166 N., R. 32 W.
    Sec. 7, Lot 1.........................................         28.90
    Sec. 18, Lot 2........................................         17.50
T. 150 N., R. 33 W.
    Sec. 14, Lots 7, 8, 9.................................          2.71
    Sec. 15, Lot 11.......................................          2.99
T. 158 N., R. 33 W.
    Sec. 1, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, S2NE4, S2NW4, N2SW4, SE4SW4,
     SE4..................................................        594.04
    Sec. 2, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, S2NE4, N2SE4.................        308.88
    Sec. 3, Lots 1, 4.....................................         77.56
    Sec. 4, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, SW4NE4, S2NW4, N2SE4.........        360
    Sec. 5, Lots 1, 2, 3, S2NE4, SE4NW4, N2SW4, NW4SE4....        358.44
    Sec. 6, Lots 3, 5, SE4NW4.............................        117.20
    Sec. 7, SW4NE4, SE4NW4, E2SW4, SE4....................        320
    Sec. 8, SE4NE4, E2SW4, NE4SE4, S2SE4..................        240
    Sec. 9, W2SW4.........................................         80
    Sec. 10, W2SW4........................................         80
    Sec. 11, N2NE4, NE4NW4................................        120
    Sec. 12, S2NE4, NW4, NE4SW4, N2SE4....................        360
    Sec. 13, N2SW4........................................         80
    Sec. 14, N2NE4, NW4NW4, NE4SE4........................        160
    Sec. 15, E2NE4, W2NW4, SW4, N2SE4.....................        400
    Sec. 16, S2NE4, S2NW4, SW4, SE4.......................        480
    Sec. 17, W2NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4.........................        560
    Sec. 18, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, NE4, NE4NW4, SE4SW4, NE4SE4,
     S2SE4................................................        516.20
    Sec. 19, N2NE4, SE4NE4, NE4SE4, S2SE4.................        240
    Sec. 20, NE4, NW4, SW4, W2SE4.........................        560
    Sec. 21, W2NE4, NW4, N2SE4............................        320
    Sec. 22, SW4NE4, E2NW4................................        120
    Sec. 25, S2NE4, SE4NW4, NE4SW4, S2SW4, SE4............        400
    Sec. 26, SE4SW4.......................................         40
    Sec. 28, NW4NE4.......................................         40
    Sec. 29, NE4NE4.......................................         40
    Sec. 30, E2NE4, E2SW4.................................        160
    Sec. 31, S2SE4........................................         80
    Sec. 32, W2NE4, S2NW4, SW4, SE4.......................        480
    Sec. 33, SW4, SE4.....................................        320
    Sec. 34, S2NE4, SE4NW4, SW4, N2SE4, SW4SE4............        400
    Sec. 35, NE4, NW4, E2SW4, SE4.........................        560
    Sec. 36, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
T. 159 N., R. 33 W.
    Sec. 9, W2SW4, SE4SW4.................................        120
    Sec. 16, SW4NE4, N2NW4, W2SE4, SE4SE4.................        240
    Sec. 19, SE4SE4.......................................         40
    Sec. 26, SE4..........................................        160
    Sec. 27, NW4NE4, E2SW4, W2SE4.........................        200
    Sec. 28, NE4NE4, S2NE4, NW4, NE4SW4, S2SW4, NW4SE4,
     S2SE4................................................        520
    Sec. 29, NE4NE4, SE4SE4...............................         80
    Sec. 30, NE4..........................................        160
    Sec. 31, Lots 3, 4, E2SW4.............................        166.85
    Sec. 32, N2NE4........................................         80
    Sec. 33, SE4NE4, N2NW4, SE4NW4, NE4SW4, S2SW4, N2SE4,
     SW4SE4...............................................        400
    Sec. 34, W2NE4, W2NW4, SE4NW4, SW4, N2SE4, SE4SE4.....        480
    Sec. 35, W2SW4, SE4SW4................................        120
    Sec. 36, NE4, E2NW4...................................        240
T. 166 N., R. 33 W.
    Sec. 6, Lots 2, 3, 6, NE4NW4..........................        159.25
    Sec. 25, Lot 2........................................         35.75
T. 167 N., R. 33 W.
    Sec. 1, SE4NW4........................................         40
    Sec. 2, SW4SE4........................................         40
    Sec. 3, SE4NW4........................................         40
    Sec. 4, Lots 2, 6.....................................          6.85
    Sec. 5, Lot 5.........................................          7.55
    Sec. 7, N2NW4.........................................         80
    Sec. 11, N2NE4, NE4NW4................................        122.40
    Sec. 12, Lot 6, N2NW4.................................         80.15
    Sec. 13, Lot 1........................................          0.90
    Sec. 17, W2SW4........................................         80
    Sec. 18, S2NE4, S2NW4, SW4, N2SE4, SW4SE4,............        440
    Sec. 19, W2NE4, NW4, SW4SW4...........................        280
    Sec. 26, Lots 2, 3....................................         10.44
    Sec. 27, Lot 2........................................          4.87
    Sec. 30, W2NW4, SE4NW4,SW4............................        280
    Sec. 31, NW4, SW4.....................................        320
    Sec. 36, Lot 5........................................          0.33
T. 150 N., R. 34 W.
    Sec. 29, Lot 8........................................          0.56
T. 158 N., R. 34 W.
    Sec. 1, Lot 3, S2NW4, NE4SW4, NW4SE4..................        199.51
    Sec. 2, Lot 4, SW4NE4, S2NW4, NE4SW4, W2SE4...........        279.37
    Sec. 3, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, S2NE4, S2NW4.................        318.72
    Sec. 4, Lots 1, 2, 4, S2NE4, SW4NW4, N2SE4, SE4SE4....        361.32
    Sec. 5, Lots 1, 2, S2NE4, S2NW4.......................        242.34
    Sec. 6, Lots 5, 6, SW4NE4, SE4NW4, NE4SW4, SE4........        342.53
    Sec. 7, Lot 3, NW4NE4, E2SW4, N2SE4, SW4SE4...........        271.80
    Sec. 8, S2NE4, NE4NW4, S2NW4, SW4, SE4................        520
    Sec. 9, NE4NE4, S2NE4, E2NW4, SW4.....................        360
    Sec. 10, NE4, W2NW4, SE4SW4...........................        280
    Sec. 11, NW4NE4, N2NW4................................        120
    Sec. 12, SW4SE4.......................................         40
    Sec. 13, NE4, S2NW4, SW4, SE4.........................        560
    Sec. 14, SE4NE4, SW4SW4, SE4SE4.......................        120
    Sec. 15, SE4..........................................        160
    Sec. 16, SW4..........................................        160
    Sec. 17, N2NW4, SW4NW4, W2SW4, SE4SW4, SE4............        400
[[Page 5071]]
    Sec. 18, Lots 2, 3, 4, NE4, E2NW4, E2SW4, SE4.........        577.84
    Sec. 19, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, NE4, E2NW4, E2SW4, SE4......        612.08
    Sec. 20, N2NE4, SE4NE4, SW4NW4, SW4, NW4SE4, S2SE4....        440
    Sec. 21, S2SW4........................................         80
    Sec. 22, NE4NE4, SW4, SE4.............................        360
    Sec. 23, NW4NW4, S2SW4................................        120
    Sec. 24, N2NE4, SW4NE4, N2NW4.........................        200
    Sec. 25, NW4SW4, SE4SE4...............................         80
    Sec. 26, SW4, SW4SE4..................................        200
    Sec. 27, NW4, NW4SW4, E2SE............................        280
    Sec. 28, NE4, NW4, NE4SW4, N2SE4......................        440
    Sec. 29, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 30, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, NE4, E2NW4, E2SW4, SE4......        612.52
    Sec. 33, NW4NE4, S2NE4, N2NW4, SW4, SE4...............        520
    Sec. 34, NE4, NE4NW4, S2NW4, NW4SW4, S2SW4, NE4SE4....        440
    Sec. 35, S2NE4, N2SW4, SW4SW4, SE4SE4.................        240
    Sec. 36, SW4NW4, NW4SW4, S2SW4, S2SE4.................        240
T. 159 N., R. 34 W.
    Sec. 3, SW4NE4, S2NW4, NW4SE4.........................        160
    Sec. 34, S2SW4........................................         80
T. 166 N., R. 34 W.
    Sec. 1, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4............................        640
    Sec. 2, NE4NE4, S2NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4..................        600
    Sec. 3, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4............................        640
    Sec. 4, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4............................        640
    Sec. 5, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4............................        640
    Sec. 6, Lots 2, 4, NE4, E2NW4, SE4SW4, S2SE4..........        437.93
    Sec. 7, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, NE4, E2NW4, E2SW4, SE4.......        634.56
    Sec. 8, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4............................        640
    Sec. 9, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4............................        640
    Sec. 10, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 11, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 12, NW4NE4, SW4NE4, NW4, SW4.....................        400
    Sec. 13, NW4NW4.......................................         40
    Sec. 14, NE4, NW4, N2SW4, SW4SW4, NW4SE4..............        480
    Sec. 15, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 17, NE4, SW4, SE4,...............................        480
    Sec. 18, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, NE4, E2NW4, E2SW4, SE4......        634.56
    Sec. 19, Lots 1, 2, 3, NE4, E2NW4, NE4SW4, NW4SE4.....        435.94
    Sec. 20, SW4NE4, NW4..................................        200
    Sec. 21, N2NE4, N2NW4.................................        160
    Sec. 22, N2NE4, N2NW4, SW4SW4.........................        200
T. 167 N., R. 34 W.
    Sec. 1, Lots 3, 4, S2NW4, NW4SW4, S2SW4...............        281.05
    Sec. 2, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, S2NE4, SE4NW4, S2SW4, NE4SE4.        403.20
    Sec. 6, Lots 1 thru 7, S2NE4, SE4NW4, E2SW4, SE4......        641.32
    Sec. 7, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, NE4, E2NW4, E2SW4, SE4.......        641.92
    Sec. 8, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4............................        640
    Sec. 9, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4............................        640
    Sec. 10, NE4, NW4, SW4, N2SE4, SE4SE4.................        600
    Sec. 11, NW4, SW4, NW4SE4, S2SE4......................        440
    Sec. 12, NE4NW4, SE4SW4, NW4SE4, S2SE4................        200
    Sec. 13, SE4NW4, SW4, SE4.............................        360
    Sec. 14, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 15, E2NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4.........................        560
    Sec. 16, NE4, SW4NW4, SW4, SE4,.......................        520
    Sec. 17, W2NW4, W2SW4, SE4SW4, NE4SE4, S2SE4..........        320
    Sec. 18, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, W2NE4, E2NW4, E2SW4, SE4....        561.20
    Sec. 19, Lots 2, 3, 4, NE4, E2NW4, E2SW4, SE4.........        598.88
    Sec. 20, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 21, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 22, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 23, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 24, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 25, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 26, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 27, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 28, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 29, NE4, NW4, N2SW4, SE4.........................        560
    Sec. 30, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, NE4, E2NW4, E2SW4, SE4......        638.48
    Sec. 31, Lot 1, NE4, E2NW4, E2SW4, SE4................        519.80
    Sec. 32, NE4, S2NW4, SW4, SE4.........................        560
    Sec. 33, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 34, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 35, NE4, NW4, W2SW4, N2SE4, SE4SE4...............        520
    Sec. 36, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
T. 168 N., R. 34 W.
    Sec. 25, SW4NW4.......................................         40
    Sec. 26, SE4NE4, SW4, W2SE4...........................        280
    Sec. 27, S2SW4, S2SE4.................................        160
    Sec. 29, S2SE4........................................         80
    Sec. 32, N2NE4, SW4NE4, SE4NW4, SW4...................        320
    Sec. 34, NE4, NE4NW4, S2SW4, SE4......................        440
    Sec. 35, W2NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4.........................        560
    Sec. 36, S2NW4, SW4...................................        240
T. 148 N., R. 35 W.
    Sec. 36, Lot 4........................................          0.95
T. 149 N., R. 35 W.
    Sec. 26, Lot 1........................................          0.30
T. 150 N., R. 35 W.
    Sec. 32, NW4SW4.......................................         40
T. 166 N., R 35 W.
    Sec. 1, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, NE4SW4, S2SW4, SW4SE4........        320
    Sec. 2, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, S2NE4, S2NW4, SE4............        480
    Sec. 3, E2NW4, E2SW4, SE4.............................        312.72
    Sec. 10, NE4, E2NW4, E2SW4, SE4.......................        472.72
    Sec. 11, N2NE4, SE4NE4, NW4, NW4SW4, E2SE4............        400
    Sec. 12, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 13, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 14, E2SE4........................................         80
    Sec. 15, NE4, E2NW4, E2SW4, NE4SE4, W2SE4.............        432.72
    Sec. 24, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 27, NE4NW4.......................................         23.13
    Sec. 35, Lot 2........................................         49.80
T. 167 N., R. 35 W.
    Sec. 1, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, S2NE4, S2NW4, SW4, SE4.......        640.68
    Sec. 2, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, S2NE4, S2NW4, SW4, SE4.......        641.68
    Sec. 3, Lots 1, 2, 9, 10, S2NE4, SE4..................        397.78
    Sec. 10, Lots 5, 6, 7, 8, NE4, SE4....................        475.64
    Sec. 11, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
[[Page 5072]]
    Sec. 12, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 13, NE4, NW4, SW4, N2SE4, SW4SE4.................        600
    Sec. 14, NW4, SE4.....................................        320
    Sec. 15, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, NE4, SE4....................        482.93
    Sec. 22, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, NE4, SE4....................        482.92
    Sec. 23, N2NE4, SW4NE4, SW4, SW4SE4...................        320
    Sec. 24, NW4, SW4, SE4................................        480
    Sec. 25, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 26, NE4, NW4, N2SW4, N2SE4.......................        480
    Sec. 27, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, NE4, N2SE4, SW4SE4..........        442.92
    Sec. 34, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, S2NE4, SE4..................        402.92
    Sec. 35, NW4NW4, S2NW4, SW4, SE4......................        440
    Sec. 36, NE4, E2NW4, E2SW4, SE4.......................        480
T. 168 N., R. 35 W.
    Sec. 22, SE4SE4.......................................         40
    Sec. 23, S2SW4........................................         80
    Sec. 24, NW4SE4, S2SE4................................        120
    Sec. 25, S2NE4, SW4, SE4..............................        400
    Sec. 26, NW4NW4, SE4..................................        200
    Sec. 27, Lots 7, 8, E2NE4, SE4........................        316.69
    Sec. 34, Lots 5, 6, 7, 8, NE4, SE4....................        473.16
    Sec. 35, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
    Sec. 36, NE4, NW4, SW4, SE4...........................        640
T. 148 N., R. 36 W.
    Sec. 9, Lot 8.........................................          0.45
T. 156 N., R. 36 W.
    Sec. 1, Lot 4.........................................         22.28
T. 158 N., R. 36 W.
    Sec. 1, Lots 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, SW4NE4, S2NW4, SW4, W2SE4.        550.67
    Sec. 2, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, S2NE4, N2SW4, SE4......        542.42
    Sec. 3, Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.........................        227.44
    Sec. 4, Lots 1, 2.....................................        102.41
T. 158 N., R. 37 W.
    Sec. 28, E2NE4,.......................................         80
T. 159 N., R. 37 W.
    Sec. 4, S2NW4.........................................         80
    Sec. 6, NE4NE4........................................         40
    Sec. 8, NE4...........................................        160
    Sec. 23, SW4..........................................        160
    Sec. 24, W2SW4, SE4SW4................................        120
    Sec. 25, SE4NW4.......................................         40
    Sec. 27, N2NE4........................................         80
    Sec. 30, Lots 1, 2, 3, E2NW4, NE4SW4..................        229.90
    Sec. 31, Lots 2, 6, 7, SE4NW4, N2SE4..................        241.22
    Sec. 32, NE4SE4.......................................         40
T. 160 N., R. 37 W.
    Sec. 5, SW4SE4........................................         40
    Sec. 7, Lots 1, 2, NE4, E2NW4.........................        307.77
    Sec. 19, SE4SW4.......................................         40
T. 151 N., R. 38W
    Sec. 36, Lots 1, 2....................................          3.15
T. 159 N., R 38 W.
    Sec. 8, W2NW4.........................................         80
    Sec. 9, NE4SW4, N2SE4.................................        120
    Sec. 10, SW4SE4.......................................         40
    Sec. 24, SW4SW4, SE4SE4...............................         80
    Sec. 35, Lot 4........................................         47.60
    Sec. 36 Lot 1, NE4NE4.................................         87.11
T. 160 N., R. 38 W.
    Sec. 13, NW4NW4, NW4SW4...............................         80
    Sec. 28, NW4SE4.......................................         40
    Sec. 33, NE4NE4.......................................         40
T. 152 N., R. 39 W.
    Sec. 8, Lot 2.........................................          0.20
    Sec. 9, Lot 1.........................................          1.00
    Sec. 10, Lot 5........................................         27.15
T. 153 N., R. 39 W.
    Sec. 23, N2SE4........................................         80
T. 159 N., R. 39 W.
    Sec. 28, N2NE4........................................         80
T. 159 N., R. 40 W.
    Sec. 13, SW4SW4.......................................         40
T. 152 N., R. 41 W.
    Sec. 22, SW4NW4.......................................         40
    Sec. 36, Lots 1, 8....................................         10.90
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Dated: January 12, 1999.
Sylvia V. Baca,
Acting Assistant Secretary, Land and Minerals Management.
    Dated: January 14, 1999.
Kevin Gover,
Assistant Secretary, Indian Affairs.
[FR Doc. 99-2360 Filed 1-29-99; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4310-84-P

1025.   DePriest, M. (1991). Necessary fictions: the re-visioned subjects of Louise Erdrich and Alice Walker (Erdrich Louise, Walker Alice, Women Writers). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon.
Abstract: Of profound concern among current feminist and postmodern theories of the subject is what might be meant by a narrative construction of identity. This concern stems from reaction against the master narrative which tells reality according to conventions of linearity, the inevitability of progress, and, especially, the coherent self. In getting at the question of identity as formed by women writers, feminist theories often explore the link between traditional paradigms, like the romance or quest, and culturally mandated options for women that are oppressive. Postmodern theories usually privilege experimental fiction, marked by fragmentation, as a way of exploring identity in terms of loss of power and loss of control. The novels of Louise Erdrich and Alice Walker participate in the contemporary impulse to critique the master narrative but their critique takes a different form. For both writers, identity takes place in unorthodox narrative spaces, carved out by rendering the experience of Third World women in America. Each writer creates fictional identities through which the oppression of women and the loss of particular histories always presume the consequences and currency of racial domination. Working with Love Medicine and Tracks by Louise Erdrich, and The Third Life of Grange Copeland and Meridian by Alice Walker, this dissertation explores questions of racialized identities in narrative. At issue for Erdrich is colonization; for Walker, apartheid. By examining Erdrich's narrative strategies, I argue that, in each novel, the reservation is both a historically defined territory and a homeland for a non-Western culture. American hegemony is challenged by Chippewa trickster configurations and by imaginative depictions of a Native American assumption that stories make things happen. Attending to Walker's narrative strategies, I argue that freedom from the racist sexistapartheid system is enacted in both novels by southern black women, as reorganization of private and public space. In such a context, identity is an individual and community project, an improvisation based on the African American heritage of surviving slavery. Contesting dominant descriptions of identity, both writers locate the Third World in America as a site of creativity as well as resistance.

1026.   Deroo, B. D. (1991). Flotation data sampling strategies in archaeological research: an experiment at the Elam Site (20AE195), Allegan County, Michigan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Western Michigan University.
Abstract: Studies of prehistoric Native American subsistence patterns have benefited greatly from data recovered through the technique of flotation, which allows investigators to recover small scale organic remains which would otherwise be missed using standard excavation procedures. Using data recovered through flotation researchers have been able to more fairly evaluate the role of plant foods, both wild and cultivated, in the aboriginal diet. A common method of obtaining a flotation sample is to define a column through the center of the cultural feature or midden and removing a specified volume of soil matrix (usually 10 liters) from this column. This thesis project is designed to test the effectiveness of this data recovery technique at Elam, a Woodland Period site in Allegan County, Michigan. Six prehistoric pit features were selected for this study. After the excavation of half of the feature to obtain a profile, a 20 cm flotation column was defined and removed, followed by the removal of the remaining half of the feature as an extra flotation sample. The objective was to evaluate how well the data from the column represented the contents of the feature as a whole. This thesis describes the experiment and its results.

1027.   DeRoy, F.-R. (1996). Reseaux sociaux et mobilasation de ressources: analyse sociologique du dessein de Marie de l'Incarnation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec.
Abstract: Certains auteurs ont etudie des cas exceptionnels de mobilisation de ressources a travers un reseau social personnel choisi dans l'Histoire, par exemple I'histoire religieuse. Ainsi, Wayne Meeks (1983) a etudie le reseau social de Paul de Tarse. Dominique Bertrand (1985,1988) s'est penche sur celui d'Ignace de Loyola.
            Dans les deux cas, il s'agit de mystiques. A partir d'une Correspondance (reeditee en 1985) completee par deux autobiographies, notre objet consiste a identifier le reseau social de Marie Guyart, dite de l'Incarnation (Tours, 1599/Quebec, 1672), femme d'affaires, mystique, 'mere' de la Nouvelle-France, selon les differentes phases de sa vie definies en fonction des buts successifs qu'elle s'est donnee; notamment celui de realiser son projet mystique d'aller vers les femmes amerindiennes. La circulation des ressources sera decrite systematiquement selon une methode anthropologique, ce qui permettra de degager la structure d'un reseau social, puis de                  formuler des propositions inspirees de l'analyse sociologique de la mobilisation des ressources a travers ce reseau. L'attention sera focalisee sur la phase de la vie pendant laquelle la mobilisation de ressources est la plus inattendue et la plus visible. Partie prenante du debut du XVIIe siecle, pionniere en Nouvelle-France, Marie Guyart, comme Paul de Tarse ou Ignace de Loyola, est animee par des idees, des croyances ou des doctrines parfois differentes de celles d'aujourd'hui, mais suffisamment fortes pour motiver radicalement la bifurcation d'une trajectoire sociale apparemment
planifiee d'avance. Ils et elle ont franchi des obstacles sociaux, conjoncturels ou personnels, juges insurmontables par le bon sens de leur societe. Chez eux, la reference a une mystique actualisee retient l'attention. Or les courants mystiques qui preludent a la mise en place de toute Eglise, ou appareil a l'interieur d'une Eglise, ne s'ajustent pas bien au cadre des analyses sociologiques traditionnelles. Ils se developpent aux marges des institutions qu'ils ont participe a mettre en place, sont difficiles a cerner, prennent des formes inattendues. C'est pourquoi certains auteurs, comme Meeks
et Bertrand, ont enrichi les oppositions dichotomiques--individu/structure, acteurs/determinismes sociaux, mystique/institution--d'un troisieme terme mediateur, celui du reseau social. L'objectif de ce travail consiste premierement a essayer de construire, d'une maniere inspiree de l'anthropologie, un outil de description du reseau mobilise par Marie Guyart dans son cas particulier. Cet outil devra pouvoir depeindre des processus avec une certaine nettete. Il sera beaucoup plus precis qu'un usage du terme 'reseau' metaphorique ou purement utilitaire, sans etre aussi elabore qu'une application de la theorie des graphes, inutilisable dans notre cas. Un second objectif consiste a formuler des propositions analytiques concernant la mobilisation de ressources a travers le reseau social personnel degage. Une etude attentive de la matrice recapitulative des poles du reseau nous conduira a formuler une propositition d'ordre structurel--Marie, 'personne-pivot'--une proposition de l'ordre de la competence reticulaire--une femme d'entreprise capable de percevoir chez les autres d'autres roles potentiels au-dela de celui du premier lien--ainsi que quatre propositions relatives au fonctionnement des reseaux. Dans son cas, (1) d'abord des liens forts ont ete utilises; (2) ainsi que des personnes-relais; (3) et des sous-reseaux parfois etanches; (4)  tandis que des strategies ont du etre deployees pour decouvrir une personne rare, convaincre une instance decisionnelle, ou utiliser des voies alternatives. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

1028.   Desrosiers, R. (1987). Médiation, armature et structure in mythologie: propositions: cas Ojibwa. Anthropologie Et Sociétés, 2(2), 141-157, bibliogr.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXIV (1981:160)
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1029.   Desveaux, E. (1995). Do Native Peoples Naturally Respect Nature [German]. Anthropos, 90(4-6), 435-444.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: This paper challenges the widely accepted opinion that Native people have uniformely a genuine attitude of respect towards animals. Hunting practices, ideology, and ritualistic system converge to rather suggest a very ambitious perception of the animal sphere. Among Northern Ojibwas the relationship between the shaman and his own spiritual entities seems to be the model of an idealistic relationship between man and animal. A comparison with ethnographic materials from the Labrador Peninsula shows great variations of the matter. The author analyzes these variations - of which he discovers equivalences in the domain of social organization - as two opposite moments, generated by logical transformation of a common structure of predation and reciprocity. [References: 26]

1030.   Désveaux, E. (1987). Enigme locale, résolution continentale: nains lithiques et engoulevent. Papers, Algonquian Conference, (18), 113-120.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1031.   Désveaux, E. (1984). Fonction gélinotte. Papers of the Algonquian Conference, 15, 33-48.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1032.   Désveaux, E. (1995). Indiens sont-ils par nature respectueux de la nature? Anthropos, 90(4-6), 435-444.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1033.   Désveaux, E. (1992). Oiseaux-tonnerres sont partis: récit ojibwa recueilli et présenté par
Emmanuel Désveaux. Recherches Amérindiennes Au Québec [Montreal], 22(2-3), 44-46.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search, English Summary

1034.   Désy, P. (1983). Trente ans de captivité ches les Indiens Ojibea. Paris: Payot.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXIX (1986:11)
Abstract: Récit de John Tanner recueilli par le Docteur Edwin James

1035.   Devens, C. (1992). Countering Colonization: Native American Women and Great Lakes Mission, 1630-1900. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Notes: Source: Women’s Resources International [University of Minnesota online database-Women Of Color And Southern Women Database], August 29, 1999 search

1036.   Devens, C. (1992). "If we get the girls, we get the race": missionary education of Native American girls. Journal of World History : Official Journal of ..., 3(2), 219.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Abstract: Nineteenth-century missionaries targeted native American girls as a crucial part of their effort to "civilize" and convert Native American peoples. They developed programs to indoctrinate girls with Victorian values of female piety, domesticity, and submissiveness so that young women might raise their children by these principles. The cases of Ojibwa and Dakota girl suggest that this experience had a profound impact relationships with female kin.

1037.   Devens, C. A. (1987). Separate confrontations: Indian women and Christian missions, 1630-1900 (Native Americans, colonization). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rutgers//The State University of New Jersey//New Brunswick.
Abstract: The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the role of gender in the response of Native American communities to white colonization. For women of Ojibwa and Cree groups of the Great Lakes and eastern Subarctic, interaction with Europeans and Americans had substantially different meaning and impact than it did for men. Women responded differently to the pressures of colonization and to the change which it initiated in their communities. The study focuses on relations between Indian communities and a series of missionaries who worked among them from the colonial period through the nineteenth century. French Jesuits, British Wesleyan Methodists, and American Presbyterians each brought with them a message of the Gospel and a mandate to convince Native Americans of the virtues of a settled Christian life. The disparity between women and men in response to these efforts was often striking. Women frequently opposed Christianity and western values and social structure, which challenged their position and autonomy in native culture. Men, however, tended to be more receptive to the introduced practices and values, which they hoped would allow them to interact more successfully with whites. As a result of this divided response, women and men developed different understandings of the meaning and importance of traditional beliefs. Men, through their extended contact with whites, became in a sense intermediaries between the two cultures. Women, attempting to preserve their status, focused on older beliefs which stressed their autonomy and authority and in so doing became guardians of 'tradition.'

1038.   Devine, E. J. (Edward James), 1860-1927. (1922). Historic Caughnawaga. Montreal: Messenger Press.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)

1039.   Plan shewing the proposed route from Lake Superior to Red River settlement. (1858).
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search).  Other: Hind, Henry Youle, 1823-1908. ... accession: 17321919.
Abstract: Inset: Plan of the country between Red River settlement and the Lake of the Woods. Includes "Profile of Canoe route as handed in by Professor Hind." Facsimile of 1858 ed.  ... Publisher's no. from its catalog of nineteenth century maps of Canada and North America from the British Parliamentary papers: 18.

1040.   Dewdney, S., & Kidd, K. K. (1962). Indian Rock Paintings of the Great Lakes. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:101), "Bibliography"

1041.   Dewdney, S. H. (1975). The Sacred Scrolls of the Southern Ojibway. Toronto-Buffalo: University of Toronty Press [as] Published for the Glenbow-Alberta Institute, Calgary.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)
Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXI (1978:242)
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:44)

1042.   Diamond, J. (1935). The Ojibway Indians of Parry Island, their social and religious life.  (National Museum of Canada), Bulletin 78 ed., ).

1043.   DiCastri, F. W. (1997). Are All States Really Equal? The "Equal Footing" Doctrine and Indian Claims to Submerged Lands. Wisconsin Law Review, 1997(1), 179.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1044.   Dickinson, A. W. (Importance of education to the survival of the Chippewa nation). (1983). I. W. Brown (editor), Essays on the ethnohistory of the North American Indian Vol. 2 (pp. 134-153).
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1045.   . (1986). M. DiedrichThe chiefs Hole-in-the-Day of the Mississippi Chippewa . Minneapolis, MN: Coyotte Books.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXX (1987:52)

1046.   Diedrich, M. (1990). Ojibway Oratory.  Coyote Books.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999
Abstract: OJIBWAY ORATORY is a compilation of speeches, many of which have never been published before, by spokesmen of the Ojibway, or Chippewa, tribe. The prominent orators, Flat Mouth, both Hole-in-the-Days, & White Cloud are featured. This collection demonstrates, as no history book can, the character, beliefs, & attitudes of this people on the great issues of their lives. See, also, the companion volume, DAKOTA ORATORY, & other related books by the author.

1047.   Diedrich, M. (1991). Winnebago Oratory: Great Moments in the Recorded Speech of the Hochungra, 1742-1887 .  Coyote Books.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1048.   Dillon, H. C., Jr. (1979). Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis Following Pyoderma. [Review] [51 Refs]. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 1(6), 935-945.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: Studies of the epidemiology of acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) following pyoderma reported over the past 15 years have been reviewed. Investigations in Alabama, at Red Lake in Minnesota, and in Trinidad proved of special interest because they contribute new information concerning the natural history of streptococcal skin infections and the role of such infections in AGN. Interesting contrasts between streptococcal infections of the skin and those of the throat are now apparent. Compared with pharyngeal infections, skin infections are more common in young preschool children, are caused by different serotypes, and differ in the nature of the streptococcal antibody response. A number of new M-serotypes of group A streptococci, including several of importance in AGN, were found in studies of pyoderma. In contrast to M-types 1 and 12 (those of major importance in AGN followng pharyngitis), M-types 2, 49, 55, 57, and 60 are now recognized to be of major importance in AGN following pyoderma. Although streptococcal skin infections are quire important in AGN, they do not result in acute rheumatic fever. [References: 51]

1049.   . (1874). J. J. Disturnell (compiler), Sailing on the Great Lakes and rivers of America; embracing a description of lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan & Superior, and rivers St. Mary, St. Clair, Detroit, Niagara & St. Lawrence; also, the copper, iron and silver region of Lake Superior, commerce of the Lakes, etc. Together with notices of the rivers Mississippi, Missouri and Red River of the North; cities, vilages and objects of interest. Forming altogether a complete guide to the upper Lakes, upper Mississippi, upper Missouri. With map and embellishments.  Philadelphia.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search). ... accession: 19217284: "Forming altogether a complete guide to the upper lakes, upper Mississippi, upper Missouri, &c., also railroad and steamboat routes, with map and embellishments." Includes advertising on numbered pages. ... accession: 25866501, accession: 25866499.

1050.   Dobbs, C. A. (1984). Oneota settlement patterns in the Blue Earth River valley, Minnesota. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Abstract: The human occupation of southern Minnesota spans a period of 10,000 years. Human prehistory in this area is generally divided into four major stages: the Paleo-Indian, Archaic, Woodland, and Oneota. This study examines the settlement patterns of the Oneota in the Blue Earth River Valley. Oneota groups were semi-sedentary horticulturalists who lived in the Blue Earth Valley between approximately A.D. 1000 and 1650. The Blue Earth is a relatively short stream which flows north to join the Minnesota River at Mankato. One thousand years ago, the predominate vegetation of the area included tall-grass prairie and big-woods. Oneota sites in the valley are tightly clustered in two loci at the Center and Willow Creek localities. Identifiable Oneota sites occur only on the west side of the river. Fifteen Oneota sites were intensively studied at the Center Creek Locality. Six settlement types were defined at this locality based on surface collections of artifactual material from
these sites. These types seem to be related to soil type and site elevation. A number of factors affected Oneota settlement in the valley. In this study I suggest that these factors include ready accessibility to arable land, easy access to a mosaic of resource zones, protection from violent storms and blizzards, and proximity to good bison hunting territory in southwestern Minnesota.

1051.   . (1987). C. A. DobbsA phase one archaeological reconnaissance of a proposed dredged material disposal site at Prairie Island, Minnesota : final report  . Minneapolis, MN: Institute for Minnesota Archaeology.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22526858. "May 1987." Includes bibliography. Prepared for the St. Paul District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under the terms of of contract number

1052.   Dobkin de Rios, M. (1984). Hallucinogens: cross-cultural perspectives. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.
Notes: Source: Parapsychology Abstracts International, Jun 1985:42
Abstract: Anthropologist Dobkin de Rois surveys the use of hallucionogenic plants for sacred purposes in 11 societies.  The book is based on a report she prepared for the Second National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse (1973) under the title The Non-Western Use of Hallucinogenic Agents, an abridged version of which was published in 1976 as The Wilderness of Mind.  A number of additional papers have been incorporated in the text of the present volume.  The research reported here and in the earlier volumes was carried out in the "hope that the recurrent cross-cultural regularities that are observable among those societies using mind-altering plants will present us with a key to understanding and unlocking the doors of the art of prehistoric peoples, to reveal to us curious Westerners some of the belief systems of ancient peoples which are elusive in the archeological record" (p. x).  Part 1 is an Introductions.  The ethnographies of 12 cultures (Australian Aborigines, Reindeer herdsmen of Superia, North American Plains Indians, Nazca fishermen of Peru, New Guinea highlanders, the Mochicaha of Peru, the ancient Maya, Aztecs, and Inca, the Fang of Northwestern Equatorial Africa, and the Urban Aazonian Mestizos of Peru are presented in Prt 2.  Part 3 is entitled "Cultural Universals and Hallucinogens."  The author concludes that plant hallucinogens have always been used by humans, yet with little evidence of abuse.  Users had to be properly prepared to take the substances.  "The sacred nature of plant hallucinogens in non-Western society can only attst to the maturity and the experience of individuals in such socieites who dealt with hallucinogenic palnts in their rituals, integrating realms of inner experience and feelings with their natural and interpersonal milieu" (p. 219). --R.A.W.

1053.   . (1985). J. DochniakFriends, pause and look this way : songs from the Minnesota Dakota : reworkings  . Marvin, S.D.  Blue Cloud Quarterly.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 13088927
Abstract: Dakota-language originals are included with some of the songs. "In many cases my interpretations hold closely to the original tranlations done by the missionaries; in other cases I've taken more `liberties ... "--p. 23. "Cover illustration: Harlan Still Day". "A partial bibliography for these songs": p. 26- 27

1054.   Doermann, E. (1979). Early Indian people . St. Paul, Minn.  Minnesota Historical Society.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22620373. Title from cover. Reprinted from: Roots, v. 7, no. 2 (Winter 1979).

1055.   Doherty, S. J. (1999). The political behavior of Native Americans in the upper midwest (voting, socioeconomic status, mobilization model). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Loyola University of Chicago.
Abstract: This research deals with the issue of Native American electoral behavior. It begins with an examination of the major models of political behavior, the SES Model and the Mobilization model. This literature review also examines the major research findings on minority voting behavior for African-Americans, Hispanics and Native Americans. Chapter Two examines the social context of Native Americans in the Upper Midwest, providing an account of their unique social, legal and historical circumstances. The last three chapters are examinations of the major research hypothesises of this dissertation. Chapter Three examines the appropriateness of the SES Model by a quantitative study of electoral turnout among Native American precincts in Minnesota and Wisconsin. This study test several demographic variables (age, income, ethnicity) to find which demographic traits have the strongest influence on electoral turnout among Native American voters. Chapter Four looks at the Mobilization Model as a predictor of Native American electoral behavior. The research method for this study is somewhat qualitative, using personal interviews and other sources to try to measure political mobilization among reservation communities.  Chapter Five takes this study to a national context, research electoral turnout and partisan preference in America's Native American majority counties. Chapter Six provides an overview of the issue of Native American voting behavior, attempting to draw some broad conclusions as to the low levels of turnout among Native Americans. Chapter Six also provides a summary and conclusion about the findings of Chapters Three, Four and Five.

1056.   Doll, D. (1994). Vision Quest: Men, Women & Sacred Sites of the Sioux Nation.  Crown Publishing Group, Incorporated.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1057.   Don Owen. (1974). Julian Biggs (Producer), & John Spotton. (photographer)National Film Board of Canada. ACI Films, inc.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (Fall 1999 search)
Abstract: Describes the work of Indians from the Caughnawaga Reserve in  Quebec as they erect the skyscrapers of New York, showing how  they rivet in place the ribs of steel that form the framework  of the tallest buildings. Includes views of the Indian  community of Caughnawaga near Montreal.

1058.   Doolan, N. E. (1993). Selected nutrients and PCBs in the food system of the Sahtu (Hareskin) Dene/Metis (Northwest Territories). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, McGill University (Canada).
Abstract: Vitamin A, protein, iron, zinc, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied in the food system of the Sahtu (Hareskin) Dene/Metis of Fort Good Hope (FGH) and Colville Lake (CL), NWT. Traditional foods contributed significantly more (<0.005) protein, iron, and zinc than did market foods. The average protein intake (296 - 272 grams) of CL women over three seasons was higher than previously reported for Native Canadian women. Significant seasonal differences for protein, iron, zinc, and PCB intakes were found, with women in CL generally consuming more than those in FGH. On average, adult women consumed >100% of the Canadian Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) for protein, iron, and zinc but vitamin A consumption was generally <50% RNI. In all seasons, market foods provided significantly more vitamin A (p 0.05) than traditional foods for FGH adults. Body weights were assessed for comparison of PCB intakes with the tolerable daily intake level (TDI) (< /kg body wt/day). Women 19 yrs weighed 59.9 -10.7 kg while men weighed 71.7 -11.4 kg. Most of the adult population consumed <25% TDI for PCBs.

1059.   Dooling, D. M. (1992). The Sons of the Wind: The Sacred Stories of the Lakota.  Harper San Francisco.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1060.   Dorn, D. D. (1954). A comparative study of Indian and white children in the intermediate grades of the Cass Lake public schools . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Dakota.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 17255086

1061.   Dorney, C. H., & Dorney, J. R. (1989). An Unusual Oak Savanna in Northeastern Wisconsin: The Effect of Indian-caused Fire. The American Midland Naturalist, 122(1), 103.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1062.   Doty, J. D. (1846). Northern Wisconsin in 1820. Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 7, 195-206.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:44)

1063.   Douaud, P. C. (1982). Ethnolinguistic trajectory of a rural Metis community. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alberta (Canada).

1064.   Douglas, M. (1982). Natural symbols: explorations in cosmology. New York: Pantheon Books.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1065.   Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: an analysis of the concepts of pollution and taboo. New York: Praeger.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1066.   Dowling, J. H. (1974). The impact of poverty on a Wisconsin Oneida Indian community. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Michigan.

1067.   (1955). [Audiovisual]. A. Downs.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22575774. Other: Liebling, Jerome. Downs, Allen. The tree is dead.
Abstract: Original footage contained on one 16 mm. film reel, loaned for copying by Jerome Liebling, 1990. Footage was used in the 1955 motion picture The Tree is Dead. U-matic format. Filmed at Red Lake Indian Reservation, Minnesota during the summer of 1955. Visualization of the Ojibway Indian's isolation on the reservation and their difficulty adapting to the white man's world, contrasted with the spirit of their annual pow wow.

1068.   (1955). [Audiovisual]. A. Downs, & J. Liebling. Minnesota .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 11696182
Source: PALS online catalog (October 1999 search)
Abstract: Produced with aid from The Graduate School, University of Minnesota. Filmed at Red Lake Indian Reservation, Minnesota during the summer of 1955. Visualization of the American Indian's isolation and difficulty in adapting to the white man's world.

1069.   Draeger, C. L. (1992). A Harvest of Knowledge. Michigan History, 76(4), 33.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Abstract: Native Americans returned in late spring to historic Mackinac Island to host Michigan's first Woodland Indian Conference.

1070.   Draelos, Z. D. (1997). Color and Cosmetic Selection. Cosmetic Dermatology, 10, 19-20, 23.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: The colors selected by cosmetic manufacturers and the availability and safety of pigments to create new shades are discussed; cosmetic colors of various cosmetics for Caucasian, African-American, Oriental, American Indian, and Asian skin are listed in tabular form. (2 refs.) (Abstract by Rosemary Gregor.)

1071.   Drake, B. The Life & Adventures of Black Hawk: With Sketches of Keokuk, the Sac & Fox Indians, & the Late Black Hawk War.  Reprint Services Corporation.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1072.   Driben, P. (1975). We are Metis: the ethnography of a halfbreed community in northern Alberta. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.

1073.   Driben, P., & Trudeau, R. S. (1983).  When freedom is lost: the dark side of the relationship betgween government and the Fort Hope Band. Toronto, ON//Buffalo, NY: University of Toronty Press.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXX (1987:289)

1074.   Driver, H. e. (1961). Indians of North America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:101), "Bibliography"

1075.   Drouin, E. G. (1981). The United States Supreme Court and religious freedom in American educaiton in its decisions affecting church-related elemenatary and secondary schools during the first three quarters of the twentieth century. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Catholic University of America.
Abstract: Between 1908 and 1977, the U.S. Supreme Court handed down 18 substantive decisions affecting church-related elementary and secondary schools. The cases fall into two categories: government regulation and tax funding. The purpose of this dissertation is to study the issue of religious freedom in this stream of litigation. Considered collectively in three chronological segments, the cases pertained to three leading questions. The Court answered part of the first between 1908 and 1927: May government abridge the fundamental rights of parents, students, and schools? In Quick Bear v. Leupp (1908), petitioners challenged the right of Indians to finance Catholic schools with their own tribal funds. The Court backed the Indian claim. During the 1920s, Nebraska and Hawaii enacted laws which interferred with the curriculum and the administration of private schools. Oregon tried to abolish the schools by law. In Meyer v. Nebraska (1923), Pierce v. Society of Sisters (1925), and Farrington v. Tokushige (1927), the Court voided all this legislation. Three cases decided between 1930 and 1968 revealed a radically different concern: May government assist parents, students, and schools? The Court responded with a qualified affirmative, allowing limited tax-funded services to students, but not to their schools. In Cochran v. Louisiana State Board of Education (1930) and Board of Education v. Allen (1968), it allowed tax-funded textbooks. In Everson v. Board of Education  (1947), it allowed tax-funded transportation. The cases of the 1970s raised parallel issues of measure and method concerning government regulation and public funding. In Wisconsin v. Yoder  (1972), the Court ruled that Wisconsin could not require Amish children to attend school beyond the eighth grade. In Norwood v. Harrison (1973) and Runyon v. McCrary (1976), the Court found racial discrimination in some private schools and moved to outlaw it. In Wheeler v. Barrera (1974), it ruled that states acceptin participation in federally-funded programs must observe federal requirements which mandate services to all students. After 1970 appellants asked what measure and method of funding the Court would allow. The Court rejected all new funding provisions in Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971), Levitt v. Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty (1973), Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty v. Nyquist (1973), Sloan v. Lemon  (1973), and Meek v. Pittenger (1975). In these decisions, a Pennsylvania textbook program was the only surviving legislation  (1975) until the Court validated four of six Ohio provisions in Wolman v. Walter (1977): e.g. secular textbooks and workbooks, standardized testing and scoring, diagnosis of speech and hearing defects, and treatment of the same at 'neutral' sites. Since 1947, the Court based all funding decisions on a prevailing interpretation of the establishment clause of the First Amendment. During the 1970s, it ruled on the basis of three tests of constitutionality: (1) primary secular purpose, (2) an effect which neither advances nor inhibits religion, and (3) excessive entanglement of government in religious affairs. Under these tests, the majority of the justices adopted a policy of rigor which generated an increasingly vigorous dissent within the Court. Dissenting votes increased from one in 1971 to three in 1975. In their opinions, the dissenters pointed out inadequacies in the Court's perception of the church, the schools, the role of religion in schooling, and the concept of government neutrality. They objected to several inconsistencies in judicial policy. With respect to constitutional doctrine, they made two fundamental suggestions: (1) that the Court give to claims based on the free exercise clause of the First Amendment more recognition than it has in the past; and (2) that it grant due consideration to the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees, especially equal protection.

1076.   Drouin, E. O. (1962). La colonie Saint-Paul-des-Metis, Alberta, 1896-1909. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ottawa (Canada).

1077.   Drummond, D. M. (1977). The American Indian dropout problem : a comparative analysis of the attitudes of dropouts and their teachers at Waubun High School . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, North Dakota State University, Dept. of Education.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 11585978

1078.   Drury, N. (1989). The elements of shamanism.  Longmead Element.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1079.   (1998). (Report No. DOE Contract FG0393ER75931 . Sup.Doc.Num. E 1.99:DE98007392). Government Printing Office. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Primary Report Number: DOE/ER/75931--T1-Pt.2; PACKED PRIMARY REPORT NUMBER: DOEER75931T1PT2 )
Notes: Source: DOE Reports Bibliographic Database [electronic database, Fall 1999 search]
Abstract: The Rocky Boy Indian Reservation in north-central Montana has had difficulty in establishing a dependable source of drinking water. In 1993, due to a water shortage on the Rocky Boy Reservation, the Chippewa-Cree Council began negotiating water rights with the State of Montana in order to construct a pipeline that would pump water from an off-reservation source to reservation homes. The proposed plan is to pipe water from the Tiber Dam, located approximately 53 miles west, to the Rocky Boy Indian Reservation for treatment and distribution. The purpose of this internship was to initiate a ground water investigation on the Rocky Boy Reservation by writing a report and submitting it to the Tribe. The intern undertook this project because he felt there was no need for an expensive pipeline and from familiarity with the Reservation, thought a dependable supply of drinking water may already exist on the Reservation. The intern obtained topographic maps from the USGS, requested well logs, conducted a literature survey, and requested planimetric maps from the Montana Bureau of Mines. The preliminary ground water report has been completed, but final results of the investigation are dependent upon the review by the Rocky Boy Tribal Council. This intern report contains biographical data on the intern and his mentor, as well as the completed preliminary report submitted to the Tribal Council.

1080.   Ducatel, J. J. (1877). A fortnight among the Chippewas of Lake Superior. in W. W. Beach (editor), The Indian miscellany; containing papers on the history, antiquities, arts, languages, religions, traditions and superstitions of the American Aborigines; with descriptions of their domestic life, manners, customs, traits, amusements and exploits; travels and adventures in the Indian country; incidents of border warfare; missionary relations, etc. ...  (pp. 361-375). Albany: J. Munsell.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:44)

1081.   Duclos, C. W., Beals, J., Novins, D. K., Martin, C., Jewett, C. S., & Manson, S. M. (1998). Prevalence of Common Psychiatric Disorders Among American Indian Adolescent Detainees. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(8), 866-873.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of common psychiatric disorders among adolescents detained on a Northern Plains reservation. METHODS: Prevalence data were gathered using lay interviewers administering structured diagnostic instruments based on DSM-III-R criteria to 150 youths booked into a reservation-based juvenile detention center from July 1995 through April 1996. RESULTS: Approximately 49% of the sample had at least one alcohol, drug, or mental health disorder; 12.7% had two disorders; and 8.7% had three or more disorders. The most common diagnoses were substance abuse/dependence (38%), conduct disorder (16.7%), and major depression (10%). Females were significantly more likely than males to have major depression and/or anxiety disorders and were significantly more likely to have three or more disorders. These rates were higher in comparison with general and Indian adolescent community samples. CONCLUSIONS: These American Indian adolescent detainees had a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Local juvenile justice systems should be vigilant for the presence of psychiatric disorders and appropriately connected with psychiatric services to address this considerable need. Careful psychiatric assessment is necessary to ensure a more coordinated community service response to juvenile delinquency.  (Abstract by: Author)

1082.   . (1979). W. Dudley, & L. AgardReminiscences of William Dudley, Red Lake band of Chippewa, Minnesota .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 22906299

1083.   Duffie, M. K. (1989). The Talking Circle (American Indians). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Arizona.
Abstract: The text and accompanying video tape describe the 'talking circle' ritual as it is being used spiritually by a Native American group in Southern Arizona. The text analyzes the evolution of the ritual and applies widely accepted models of group therapy to its uses in the following capacities: Spiritually, (and in) Substance Abuse, Education and the Psychological Treatment of Troubled Teen-agers. The video tape features interviews with local practitioners and is narrated by a traditional Chippewa Indian.

1084.   Dunican, K. C., & Hoar, M. E. (1995). Herbal Remedies: Selected Comparison of Readily Available Information. Apha Annual Meeting, 142, 99.
Notes: Source: University of Minnesota BioMed electronic databases, Fall 1999 search
Abstract: A comparison of six herbal remedies in six readily available sources of information is presented. Herbal remedies are increasing in use by the self-medicating public. Alternative methods of health care are increasingly being utilized in place of more mainstream methods. Herbal remedies are seen as being safe, cheap, effective, and readily available. This appears to be most true when compared to OTC patent medicines and prescription drugs. Cost savings appear to be just one of the driving forces behind the increasing use of herbs. How does the readily available information compare regarding: reliability, safety, efficacy, route and instructions for use and variability of nomenclature? We utilized the following sources of information: The Honest Herbal; the U.S. Dispensatory; a current pharmacognosy text; a North American Indian Herbal; General Nutrition Centers; and Nature's Herbs, Inc. We have examined six popular herbal remedies: Black Cohosh; Blue Cohosh; burdock; chamomile; gentian; and valerian. It is not possible to control not only which herbs are used, but in what combinations. It is our belief, even though we have only looked formally at six herbs, that greater control over the use of herbal remedies will become a necessity as the use of these herbal concoctions increases. We should not wait for a series of catastrophes to occur before we enact meaningful controls over the sale and use of herbal remedies.

1085.   Dunn, A. M. (1991). Sugar Bush Journal: For Ojibwe families the sugar bush camp was a place of intense work and spiritual renewal. The Minnesota Volunteer, 54(315), 5.
Notes: Source: UnCover database (Aug 1999)

1086.   Dunnigan, C. M. (1998). Life histories: a Metis woman and breast cancer survivor. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alberta (Canada).
Abstract: Life histories of two women are presented in this thesis. The life histories were collected using oral history methods of individual open-ended interviews. The first was gathered from a Metis woman named Mary L. The second life history was collected from a woman named Mary Holdgrafer. Mary H. is a breast cancer survivor, she used quilting as a means of healing and expression following her diagnosis of breast cancer. Most of the information collected from Mary H. is about her experiences with breast cancer and her healing process. In addition to collecting two life histories I conducted two focus groups with four other women who also used quilting as a way to heal themselves express their feelings about breast cancer. The focus groups were conducted to investigate the similarities and differences between the experiences of the focus group participants and Mary Holdgrafer. All the stories presented in this thesis are tied together by the fact that the the women who were interviewed all had the experience of being marginalized by a western institution.

1087.   Dunnigan, T., 1951-, Barstow, R., & Northbird, A. (1988). Ojibwe texts : language mixing and humor in the Mille Lacs and Red Lake dialects . in An Ojibwa text anthology  (p. p. [1]-32 ; 29 cm.). London, Ont.  Centre for Research and Teaching of Canadian Native Languages.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 20780721.  Caption title. Text in Ojibwa and English. Includes bibliographical references.

1088.   Dunning, R. W. (1959). Rules of residence and ecology among the Northern Ojibwa. American Anthropologist, 61(5), 806-816, tables.
Notes: Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1089.   Dunning, R. W. (1959). Social and economic change among the northern Ojibwa. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Notes: Source: Human Relations Area Files Index, Category NG6 "[as of July 1, 1975]", identified as "(M)", page 2, item 22
Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. VI (1962:4659)
Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. VII (1963:157) [book review]
Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:45)

1090.   Dunning, R. W. (1958). Some implications of economic change in Northern Ojibwa social structure. Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, 24(4), 562-566.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. IV (1960:4375)

1091.   Dupont, J. (1976). Journey to Daylight-Land: through Ojibwa eyes. Revue De L'Université Laurentienne, 8(2), 31-43, bibliography.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXIII (1981:299)

1092.   Duran, E. C., & Duran, J. A. (1973). The Cape Croker Indian reserve furniture factory project. Human Organization, 32(3), 231-242.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XIX (1975:263)

1093.   Durbin, W. (1999). Wintering.  Bantam Doubleday Dell Books for Young Readers .
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1094.   Durkheim, E. (1915). The elementary forms of the religious life. London: Basic Books.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1095.   Dustin, F. (1919). The Saginaw Treaty of 1819 between General Louis Cass and the Chippewa Indians, written for the centennial celebration of the Treaty, September 19th, 1919 ... Saginaw, MI: Saginaw Publishing Co.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:45)

1096.   Dyer-Deckrow, P. (1996). Crafted with Good Intentions. Michigan History, 80(1), 10.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Abstract: Although designed to help Michigan Indians support themselves during the Great Depression, the Michigan Indian Handicraft Project never dealt with the needs of the people it sought to help.

1097.   Eagleton, T. (1983). Literary theory: an introduction. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1098.   Eastlick, L. L., 1833-1923.  (1864).  Thrilling incidents of the Indian war of 1862; being a personal narrative of the outrages and horrors witnessed by Mrs. L. Eastlick in Minnesota. Lancaster, Wis., Harold Book and Job Office.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 25277428 ... accession: 26230998 ... accession: 13852366 ... accession: 3308837 [3d printing]

1099.   . (1960). L. D. Eastlick, 1833-1923.  Thrilling incidents of the Indian war of 1862 : being a personal narrative of the outrages and horrors witnessed by Mrs. L. Eastlick, in Minnesota . Columbus, Neb.?
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 8014933. Cover title: A personal narrative of Indian massacres, 1862. "The photos, affidavits and other material for this booklet were compiled by Mr. Ross A. Irish of Columbus, Nebraska, a nephew of Mrs. Eastlick."

1100.   Eastman, C. A. (1911). Life and handicrafts of the Northern Ojibwas. Southern Workman, 40(273-78).
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:45)

1101.   Ebbott, E. (1983). Indians in Minnesota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Notes: Source: Midé bibliography compiled by Sára Kaiser (1997)

1102.   Echlin, K. A. (1983). The translation of Ojibway: the Nanabush myths. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, York University (Canada).
Abstract: The first part of this dissertation is a collection of myths about the Ojibway trickster-transformer, Nanabush. The written sources and variants of each myth are included as well as notes providing cultural contextualization. Part two consists of a discussion of translation issues in Ojibway. In each chapter a different aspect of the text is examined: cultural context, literary context, linguistic analysis, and stylistic analysis. Then a close analysis is made of Ojibway selections from William Jones' Ojibwa Texts. The narrative style  (using such devices as recurring connectors and particles to define the structure of the text) is studied in the larger framework of the oral performance context.

1103.   Echlin, K. A. (1983). The translation of Ojiway: the Nanabush myths. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, York University (Canada).
Abstract: The first part of this dissertation is a collection of myths about the Ojibway trickster-transformer, Nanabush. The written sources and variants of each myth are included as well as notes providing cultural contextualization. Part two consists of a discussion of translation issues in Ojibway. In each chapter a different aspect of the text is examined: cultural context, literary context, linguistic analysis, and stylistic analysis. Then a close analysis is made of Ojibway selections from William Jones' Ojibwa Texts. The narrative style  (using such devices as recurring connectors and particles to define the structure of the text) is studied in the larger framework of the oral performance context.

1104.   Eckert, A. W. (1992). Sorrow in Our Heart.  Bantam Books.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1105.   Edelman, M. (1967). The symbolic uses of politics.  University of Illinois Press.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1106.   Ederer, B. F. (1957). Birch coulie : a novel of the Indian uprising in Minnesota in 1862 . New York : Exposition Press.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 5711124

1107.   Edgerton, J. (1958). VOTE PLAN FOR RED LAKE INDIANS SCORED: U.S. commissioner’s order could leave Chippewas worse off than before, “U” experts feel. Minneapolis Star Journal.
Notes: The bureau of Indian affairs of the United States Interior department will soon be confronted by some very pointed questions about what is going on at the Red Lake Indian Reservation.
The occasion is an ambiguous set of regulations issued by Indian Commissioner Glenn L. Emmons, to govern the Red Lake tribal election of a committee to draft a new government for the reservation.
University of Minnesota experts who have examined Emmons’ order say that it is so confusing—to trained professionals, not to mention Indians—that it could result in no Indian government at all at Red Lake.
The Red Lake controversy goes back to the death of old Peter Graves, the “ruler” of Red Lake for more than 40 years, in March, 1957.  Two rival factions contended after his death for the government of the reservation.
The interior department sent in a fact-finding commission and as a result of this two separate elections were ordered at Red Lake.  One is to elect a constitutional committee to draft a new constitution for the reservation; the other is to elect a tribal government after the constitution is framed.
Then came Emmons’ order for the election of a tribal constitutional committee.  University faculty members in the fields of law, political science and Indian affairs, who have examined it, say that it leaves much to be desired.
It could result in the Red Lake Chippewas being worse off than they were in the first place.
The crux of the matter is in Sec. 4 of Emmons’ order dealing with the way Red Lakers shall vote for candidates.  The reservation is being divided into three election districts.  A fourth election district comprises the Red Lakes who now live outside the reservation.  The “Joker” is in one particular sentence of Sec. 4, the experts say.
This reads: “Each voter may cast is vote for any one candidate regardless of the district the candidate represents or whether the candidate is a nonresident member of the band”.
Translated into the realities of the situation, this means that the leaders of the two opposing factions—Rose Graves, a daughter of old Peter, and Roger Jourdain, leader of the other group—will receive the great majority of votes.  Because Indians will be able to cross district lines and vote for any candidate they please, it is believed that Miss Graves and Jourdain will get most of the ballots.
As a result of this, the majority of the constitutional committee may and probably will be elected by a very small number of votes.  In brief, it is believed that the committee to draft the new government will represent the minority—perhaps a mere fraction—of the reservation.
“If each voter can vote for only one man, and if he can vote, regardless of the district to which his choice belongs, how can the election result on any proportional or geographically representative Committee?” asks Helen Parker Mudgett, University of Minnesota assistant professor and well known authority on Indian Affairs.

1108.   Edmunds, D. R. (1987). Kinsmen Through Time: An Annotated Bibliography of Potawatomi History.  Scarecrow Press, Incorporated.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1109.   Edmunds, R. D. (1993). The Fox Wars: The Mesquakie Challenge to New France.  University of Oklahoma Press.
Notes: Source: Books in Print electronic database, Fall 1999

1110.   Educational Management Services, Inc. (1979). Final report on the statewide Indian and bilingual needs assessment submitted to State Board of Education, Minnesota Department of Education ; submitted by Educational Management Services, Inc. Minneapolis: Educational Management Services, Inc. [EMS].
Notes: Source: WorldCat (October 1999 search), accession: 6549925. Other: Minnesota. State Board of Education. Minnesota. Dept. of Education.

1111.   Edwards, E. E., 1900- . (1934). American Indian contributions to civilization. Minnesota History, 15, 255-272. diagrs.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 19112993. Signed: Everett E. Edwards.

1112.   Edwards, N. W., Robinson, G., & Goding, M. W. (1958). Findings and Recommendations, approved by Hatfield Chilson, Under Secrtary of the Interior.
Notes: cited in Wub-e-ke-niew (1995)

1113.   Edwin, J. (1957). Narrative of the captivity and adventures of John Tanner. Minneapolis: Ross and Haines, Incorporated.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:101), "Bibliography"

1114.   Egan, T. (1998). New Prosperity Brings New Conflict to Indian Country. New York Times.
Abstract: SKULL VALLEY, Utah -- Not long after the Goshute Indians stopped resisting the Mormons who had poured into the sun-cracked bowl of the Great Basin, the tribe seemed to disappear, gone like most natives into sepia tones of the past, their poses ever frozen -- noble, doomed, vanquished. -- noble, doomed, vanquished.
 But then, nearly a century and a half after the first state lines PARALLEL NATIONS were stamped on an area once known First of two as the Great American Desert, the articles. Goshutes reappeared. Suddenly, last year, the most powerful politicians in the West became deeply concerned about the actions of a tiny tribe that had been left in the alkaline dust of central Utah.
 With barely 100 members, the Skull Valley Band of Goshutes declared what few people outside the reservation had taken seriously: that they were a sovereign nation. As such, the Goshutes -- looking for a multimillion-dollar infusion -- have offered to lease part of their reservation as the temporary storage ground for high-level civilian nuclear waste. Utah's Governor and Congressional representatives are outraged, vowing to block the border of Indian country to any shipments.
 The Goshute proposal is a very un-Indian-like thing to do, critics say; native people are supposed to be keepers of the earth, not protectors of its poisons.
 But in fact, the Goshutes say that what they are doing is the most characteristic action a tribe can take in the modern era -- asserting itself to be a nation within a nation, free to make its own decisions.
 The clash in a forgotten valley of the unwatered West is but one awakening of sovereignty by hundreds of American Indian tribes. From the smallest bands in the desert to groups that govern from glass towers in the East, native tribes are actively shoring up the bonds of nationhood.
 What is happening in Indian country, an archipelago of 554 nations within the boundaries of the United States, goes far beyond the popular image of modern tribes.
 Between two extremes of Indian life -- the poverty of the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, which includes the poorest county in America, and the gambling gusher at the Foxwoods Casino in Connecticut, where Mashantucket Pequots are running the biggest casino in the country -- is a forceful drive for independence from the states.
 "Some people think we're living in teepees out here," said Leon Bear, the Goshute tribal chairman. "They come up to my house and see a satellite dish and a big color TV, it surprises them. We are alive and well and a sovereign nation. And we're using that sovereignty to attract the only business you can get to come here."
 A new generation of Indian leaders, schooled in the nascent sovereignty movement of the 1970's, has come to power at the same time that many tribes are getting their first taste of prosperity, through tribal casinos. Now, there is a convergence of economic strength, legal muscle and political will.
 The number of Indian lawyers has increased more than ten-fold to about 1,000 in the last 20 years, and there has been a four-fold increase to just over 300 in the number of tribal courts.
 "What we've seen is simply the civil rights movement for Native Americans," said John Echohawk, executive director of the Native American Rights Fund, a nonprofit legal defense group based in Boulder, Colo. "Tribal rights are finally being enforced because more and more tribes have the resources to have their own lawyers."
 On Wednesday, Congress is set to hold hearings on tribal sovereignty, pushed by some lawmakers who are alarmed by tribal assertions of nationhood. While the tribes fear that the hearings will be a platform to attack Indians, others see the hearings as a chance to make the case that Indian sovereignty is "un-American," as some members of Congress have called it.
 The tribes have never had a stronger presence in Washington, donating a record amount in the last Federal election. They share legal resources, under the mantra that a threat to one Indian tribe is a threat to all.
 Though some tribes fight each other over casino locations -- and seldom share the spoils with poorer tribes -- they say they are more united than ever behind the idea that sovereignty equals survival. And they are using this sustaining idea for a mix of cross purposes. Some of it is nakedly commercial, some is based purely on principle.
 In Idaho, the Coeur d'Alene tribe has just started an international on-line lottery, offering the chance at million-dollar jackpots to anyone on earth with access to a modem.
 In Montana, the Assiniboine and the Gros Ventre tribes have held up expansion of a major gold mine, using their sovereign status to protect the water and land that borders the mine, even if it deprives a neighboring small town of needed jobs.
 In New Mexico, the Isleta Pueblo, acting as a separate government, is forcing the City of Albuquerque to spend $300 million to clean up the Rio Grande before it flows downstream through Indian land.
 "What most people don't understand is that we are governments first, and racial entities second," said Anthony Pico, chairman of the Viejas Band of Kumeyaay Indians in Southern California.
 People who have rarely given a second thought to the natives in their midst suddenly find there really are four major levels of government in America: Federal, state, local and tribal. Until recently, one of them was nearly always invisible.
 A Power Restored: Decreeing Nations Within Nations
 [O] n a visit to Pueblo communities in New Mexico last month, Speaker Newt Gingrich told Indian leaders that he had trouble understanding the concept of tribal sovereignty. He was surrounded by Apaches, Navajos and numerous Pueblo tribes whose people have lived in well-ordered communities along the Rio Grande for nearly a thousand years.
 The president of the Navajo Nation, Albert Hale, offered Mr. Gingrich an explanation, telling him how an Indian leader would prefer to be treated.
 "When I come to Washington, you don't send me to the Bureau of Indian Affairs," said Mr. Hale, leader of a tribe with nearly a quarter-million members. "You have a state dinner for me."
 A week after the visit, Mr. Hale announced that the Navajo might block all roads for one day into their vast reservation, an area the size of West Virginia, as a demonstration of sovereignty. Three states overlap Navajo lands, and Mr. Hale's suggestion set off harsh criticism by members of his own tribe as well as neighboring communities.
 Local talk radio in the Southwest went aflame with anti-Indian talk, with people volunteering to arm themselves and storm past roadblocks. Mr. Hale has since resigned, under pressure over financial and personal improprieties, and the roadblock idea has yet to be revived.
 When Indians were held up mainly as icons, or poverty-crippled examples of failed policy, it was rare for any action in Indian country to become talk radio fodder. They were considered largely powerless.
 But in fact, the power was nearly always there, imbedded in Article VI of the Constitution, which holds treaties backed by Congress to be "the supreme law of the land."
 Congress ratified 371 treaties with native people, the first in 1778 with the Delaware, the last in 1871 with the Nez Percé. In most cases, Indians were forced to give up land in return for self-governing rights and a tribal homeland. But those rights were often ignored, and the homelands, or reservations, were sliced up or overrun.
 When Georgia declared Indian laws on designated Indian land within the state to be null and void, the Cherokees sued -- and won. Writing in 1830, Chief Justice John Marshall held that the Cherokees were "a distinct political society, separated from others, capable of managing its own affairs and governing itself."
 It was one of three Supreme Court decisions in the 1830's that established the right of American Indian tribes to be free from state control, while they remained subordinate to the will of Congress. A century and a half later, this remains the governing framework.
 Indian nations were not judged to be stand-alone countries. Instead, the Supreme Court defined them as "domestic, dependent nations" -- a unique status that is still subject to much contention. Indian country is an evolving political experiment, trying to live the oxymoron of being nations that are still subject to a greater political power.
 For more than a hundred years after the last treaty, virtually every census found Indian lands to be islands of squalor and poverty, with chronic unemployment and rates of disease and early death unmatched in the country.
 Then came the "new buffalo" -- gambling operations on Indian land, approved by Congress in 1988. A third of all tribes now operate some form of gambling enterprise, and though the windfall is unevenly spread, it generates more than $6 billion a year.
 "The Indians in California have been poverty stricken for 150 years," Mr. Pico said of the Viejas band. "We've never been to a point where we could exercise our rights. Now we have an economic base, and suddenly we're on people's radar screens."
 Indian country came alive, in ways both unintended and planned, with gambling. Suddenly, little patches of long-forgotten ground blossomed into cash centers in neon, which gave rise to cultural programs, language revival, scholarships, better schools.
 The venture into gambling also changed the average American's view of Indians, prompting talk of "rich Indians," even though an overwhelming majority of the tribes have seen no windfall from gambling.
 The tribes with money started to buy into the political process, giving more than $2 million in campaign contributions, mostly to Democrats, in the 1996 election.
 But even the tribes without money have seen their sons and daughters -- educated at law schools from Stanford to Dartmouth -- return to the reservations. They are well-versed in court rulings, treaties and laws passed in the 1970's and 1980's that gave the tribes more independence.
 More than ever, the tribes are acting like states and counties, levying their own taxes, enforcing their own land use regulations, building codes and criminal statutes. Some tribes are thinking of issuing their own driver's licenses.
 "I remember my dad used to take me out in a pickup truck, and he'd say, 'This is our land, only the people around us have changed,' " said Roy Bernal, chairman of the All-Indian Pueblo Council, which represents tribes in New Mexico. "Over the years, we have had sovereign recognition from Spain, from Mexico and the United States."
 But just as the full consequence of the nation-within-a-nation architecture designed by the Supreme Court is being realized, the sovereignty movement is bumping into a wall of opposition.
 Members of Congress from California, Utah, Washington and Montana, alarmed by the latest assertions of Indian nationhood within their states, ask: What right does a small minority have to ignore their neighbors' concerns?
 "I don't think this is what the Founding Fathers had in mind," said Representative Merrill Cook, Republican of Utah, referring to new tribal ventures like casinos and nuclear storage proposals. "It's just not right, this use of sovereignty. The implications are frightening for us as a nation."
 Nearly half the American states have no Indian tribes or reservations within their borders. But elsewhere, tribal land is etched in shades all over the national map, most of it in the West.
 Indian country today is 56 million acres, 314 reservations and about 1.4 million people living on or near tribal land -- less than 1 percent of the overall population of the United States spread over a bit more than 2 percent of the land. An additional 500,000 or so people who listed themselves as Indian in the last census live mostly in urban areas.
 The Government was supposed to hold tribal lands in trust, acting as guardian to the nations it had warred against. But instead Congress opened up tribal lands to sale, trying to make commercial landowners out of individual Indians.
 From the 1880's to the 1930's, the reservations lost more than 90 million acres -- nearly two-thirds of the land base -- as big pieces of Indian country were sold to non-Indians.
 The low point, for many tribes, was in the 1950's, when more than 100 Indian governments were dismantled under an Eisenhower Administration policy known as termination. Erased from official recognition in exchange for cash, many tribes simply ceased to exist.
 Flash Points: When Tribal Law And Others Collide
 [B] ut in the last quarter century, there has been a strong rebound, as Indians have defiantly rejected assimilation. There are now 554 tribes, each recognized by the Federal Government as a sovereign entity with varying degrees of power.
 "Sovereignty sounds like something from the King of England, but all it really boils down to is the right to make your own laws and be ruled by them," said Kevin Gover, a Pawnee who is the new Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Indian Affairs.
 By any measure, Indian country is deep in social problems. Unemployment is more than 30 percent. Among people who have jobs, nearly a third earned less than $10,000 a year in 1995 -- the last full year surveyed.
 Indians have the highest rates of alcoholism, suicide and child abuse in the country, though some progress is being made.
 More than 250 languages are spoken in Indian country. There are courts and statutes that are grounded more in tribal and family customs than English common law, but basic American Constitutional rights supersede. In 1924, Congress declared that all Indians were American citizens, though many reject the label.
 "I don't belong to two nations," Mr. Bear said, strolling on Goshute land in central Utah. "I belong to one -- the Skull Valley Goshute Nation."
 Today, governments collide with greater frequency, particularly where Indian country rubs up against major urban areas. And tribes are doing what any corporation or government with something to protect has done: they have hired top-tier lobbyists, publicists and legal talent to make their case.
 A scholarship fund, started more than 20 years ago by the Federal Government but now guided by private donations, has allowed any Indian with the grades to go to law school.
 "We started cranking out 20 to 30 graduates a year back in the 1970's," Mr. Echohawk said. His group, the Native American Rights Fund, recently argued a case before the Supreme Court that would have expanded Indian country through much of Alaska. In February, the Court ruled against the Indians, saying that the native lands in that state would not fall under tribal jurisdiction.
 The Alaska fight was about traditional native concerns: fish, game and culture. In Washington state, the conflict is how a modern Indian nation can coexist in a big city. A plan by a historically poor tribe to build an amphitheater has engaged everyone from President Clinton to leaders of Congress.
 The Muckleshoots, once a fishing tribe, were all but swept away by the growth of metropolitan Seattle. The tribe has held to a patch of land granted them by treaty in 1854. Just under 3,500 acres between Seattle and Tacoma, this land has become increasingly valuable as the suburbs marched south and north. Now they are using that land, and the ability to make their laws regardless of state and county concerns, to prosper.
 Several years ago, the Muckleshoots built a casino -- the closest to Seattle. It has become one of the most successful tribal gambling ventures in the country. Just as the Goshutes view a nuclear waste storage site as a chance for full employment, the Muckleshoots say the amphitheater would be a major step toward economic self-sufficiency, coupled with the jobs tied to the casino.
 But the tribe has attracted powerful opponents. In a recent letter to President Clinton, Representative Jennifer Dunn, Republican of Washington, characterized the amphitheater as an outlaw project, rising without environmental review or state and county building permits. A group of non-Indians who live near the project has just filed suit, making the same point.
 The Muckleshoots say Ms. Dunn never raised any concern when the latest non-Indian shopping mall rose on wetlands south of Seattle. In her home state, she is not known as a friend of the environmental movement.
 As the dispute heats up, Indian children are being taunted as they wait for school buses, and in some cases fruit has been thrown at them, tribal members say. It was much easier to like the Indians, the Muckleshoots note, when they were visible only at annual salmon ceremonies.
 More than 8,000 people signed petitions urging the local government to block the amphitheater. The issue is not about Indians, they say, but about a project that would destroy the rural way of life. But a majority of the King County Council concluded in a recent vote that there is little they can do, unless Congress wants to intervene.
 Congress has been sending conflicting signals -- on the one hand pushing for greater autonomy and self-determination, on the other warning that assertive tribal governments are going too far.
 More than a decade ago, in amending the Clean Water Act, Congress gave Indian tribes the same authority as states to set water pollution standards.
 The Isleta Pueblo, living along the river just south of Albuquerque, took Congress up on the offer, setting water standards that were much stricter than New Mexico's. The tribe wanted clean water not just for health, but for religious purposes.
 The city fought the tribe, saying it would cost $300 million to meet the Indian clean water standards. Albuquerque officials appealed all the way up to the Supreme Court, but were rebuffed last fall.
 To the tribes along the Rio Grande, the court victories on behalf of clean water are part of a logical extension of their power, even though most of them have no treaties with the United States.
 What they do have is a long attachment to the land. The Pueblos often show outsiders the silver-tipped canes given them by President Abraham Lincoln. It was Lincoln's way of rewarding people in this part of Indian country for standing by the Union in the Civil War. The canes are stronger symbols of sovereignty, they say, than anything written.
 The Future: Collision Ahead Over Sovereignty
 [I] n Skull Valley, cattle sleep in the middle of the main road and Navy fighter jets scream overhead. Petroglyphs older than the United States are etched in the rocks. The few people who stumble upon the Goshutes wonder why the only real tribal businesses are a money-losing mini-mart and a sliver of dry land leased to a rocket-testing company.
 The curious often follow the ghost trails that border the Goshutes -- the Pony Express route to the south, the Donner Party Trail to the north.
 "They want us to be traditional," Leon Bear said. "Sure, we'd like to be traditional. But you can't eat wild rice anymore because those lands are polluted. And you can't hunt around here -- they've poisoned the watering holes up in those mountains." He motioned toward a range with two commercial toxic waste dumps.
 In Salt Lake City, Mr. Cook, the Congressman whose district borders Skull Valley, sees a collision ahead. Nobody wants the nuclear waste site but a handful of Indians trying to get rich, he says. Plus, parts of Utah may be Indian country, but it is also earthquake country -- a potential safety problem, he says.
 "Something is dead wrong when a small group of people can ignore the will of 90 percent of our state," Mr. Cook said.
 It is possible, Mr. Cook said, that parallel nations may never work, a feeling shared by some experts. The sovereignty movement "is creating a hodgepodge of economically and perhaps politically unviable states whose role in the United States is glaringly undefined in the United States constitution," Fergus M. Bordewich wrote in a recent book, "Killing the White Man's Indian," (Anchor, 1997; Doubleday, 1996).
 Mr. Bordewich took a journalistic tour of Indian country and came away greatly worried. He imagines a future where nearly every major city has a tribal casino, and passports are needed to travel from one area to the next.
 The Indians scoff at such suggestions. For more than two centuries, the tribes have been in retreat. They once had a peak population of perhaps as high as 10 million people living 500 years ago in what is now the United States, according to the estimates of some historians. The population fell to barely 300,000 by the 1920's.
 "I believe we will be here as long as the United States will exist," Mr. Gover said. "By sheer tenacity, we have held on." The grip of life, he said, is the very sovereignty movement that scares non-Indians.
 But what about this nuclear waste site, these casinos and amphitheaters? What do these have to do with being an Indian, with living the old way? Leon Bear and other Indians have a ready reply.
 "We have our traditional values," he said, sorting through an application to bring 4,000 casks of nuclear waste to the leathery ground of the Goshutes. "Sovereignty -- that's what we've held onto."
 Next: The backlash against Indian sovereignty

1115.   Social anthropology: methods and results. (1955). F. Eggan (editor), Social anthropology of North American Tribes second ed., ).  University of Chicago Press.
Notes: Source: bibliography in Ritzenthaler and Ritzenthaler (1970)

1116.   Eid, L. V. (1979). The Ojibwa-Iroquois war: the war the five nations did not win. Ethnohistory, 26(4), 297-324, maps, il.
Notes: Source: International Bibliography of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vol. XXVII (1985:208)
Source: endeavor.rlg.org via University of Minnesota online database, August 1999 search

1117.   Eisenberg, L. (1989). The Hendrickson Site: A Late Woodland Indian Village in the City of Kingston, Ulster County, New York. Man in the Northeast, (38), 21.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1118.   El-Hai, J. (1990). Vitae. Minnesota Monthly, 24(2), 46.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)
Abstract: Anthropologist Jack Weatherford, author of Indian Givers: How the Indians of the Americas Transformed the World, works to take his readers beyond what he calls the “indian-as-victim story.”

1119.   Eldred, A. N., 1848, Eldred, L., & Eldred family. (1831). Eldred family papers.
Notes: Source: WorldCat database (October 15, 1999 search)
Abstract: Donor: 4231 Personal correspondence, courtship letters, and clipping; also copy of lease involving the Cheboygan Indians of Burt Lake, Michigan. Albert N. and Linda Eldred family of Benton Harbor, Michigan.

1120.   Eliot, A. (1996). The red road: Native American prophecy. Parabola, 21(1), 92 (2).
Notes: Source: InfoTrac [electronic database--Daemon@epub.med.iacnet.com]: Oct 1999 search
Abstract: The Six Nations hosted a conference on Native American prophecies in the spring of 1995. Several of the elders spoke of the need to seek the aid of the spirits to meet the challenges to come. Chief Arvol Looking Horse of the Lakota called on all peoples to pray at their sacred places on the summer solstice, June 21, 1996. The conference was attended by elders of the Ojibway, Cree, Cheyenne, Lakota Sioux, Algonquin and Hopi, as well as ambassadors from the Maya, Maori, Malaysia and Tibet.

1121.   . (1979). C. E. Eller, & H. T. Hoover Reminiscences of Cornelia Elizabeth Eller, Mdewakanton Community of Prior Lake, Minnesota .
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 23179962

1122.   Ellingworth, J. J. (1955). A guidance program for Red Lake Indians . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Moorhead State Teachers College.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 10232611

1123.   Elliott, R. R. (1896). The Chippewas of Lake Superior. American Catholic Quarterly Review, 21, 354-373.
Notes: Source: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, The Ojibwas, a critical bibliography (1976:45)

1124.   . (1864). E. S. Ellis, 1840-1916Indian Jim : a tale of the Minnesota massacre  . New York : Beadle.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 26383312 ... accession: 14959429 ... accession: 7033686. Earlier edition published under title: Christian Jim, the white man's friend. ... accession: 6380725. ... accession: 5914955 ... Illustrated cover in colors; 99 p. ; 18 cm. ... accession: 4311972. 100 p. : 17 cm. : Beadle's American library ; no. 40 [Yellow-back collection] Vol. 8, no. [1] in a collection without general title page.

1125.   Elting, M., & Folstrom, F. (1960). The story of archaeology in the Americas. Irvington-on-Hudson, New York: Harvey House, Inc.
Notes: cited in: Minnesota Chippewa Indians: a handbook for teachers (1967:91), "Annotated list of selected teaching materials"
Abstract: "Stories of recent archaeological discoveries in North and South America and of how young archaeologists may participate in diggings near their homes.  Grades 4-7."

1126.   Elwell, A. S., Holt, C. S., & Fuchsman, C. H. (1973). The environmental biological aspects of water management alternatives in the Red Lake River Subbasin, Minnesota. Bemidji, Minn.: Center for Environmental Studies, Bemidji State College.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search)

1127.   Emmert Fisher, D. (1993). The Education of the Chippewa Indians of Michigan. High Plains Applied Anthropologist, 13, 78.
Notes: Source: UnCover (August 1999 search)

1128.   An evaluation of the surficial geology and bog patterns of the Red Lake bog, Beltrami and Lake of the Woods counties, Minnesota . (1979). St. Paul, Minn.  Minnesota Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Minerals.
Notes: Source: WorldCat (November 1999 search), accession: 9871660

1129.   Eni Lawrenchuk, R. (1999). Parent participation in a Cree and Ojibway Head Start program: development of a conceptual framework. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Manitoba (Canada).
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of Cre and Ojibway parents and educators of an Aboriginal Head Start Program regarding parental participation in their children's education. Using a participatory action research approach which allowed for active involvement and reflection, participants discovered strategies to fulfil needs through parent participation. Human ecology theory and teachings of the medicine wheel were found to be helpful in data interpretation, using a grounded theory approach. Findings were collected through interviews, workshops and document review. Components which emerged were incorporated into a parent participation wheel design, composed of parent benefits, care giving role, Aboriginal education, culture, identity and community. Themes which emerged were care giving search for meaning. Limitations of the study and implications for further education, research and practice are provided.

 

 

 

 

 

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