We Have The Right To Exist, by Wub-e-ke-niew:  Chapter II -  The Western European colonists and their Indian interface - Early United States Indian policy - Columbus -  The influx of slaves, convict laborers, and military conscripts - Indian captivity literature - Genetic engineering.  The United States of America is founded on an unresolvable dilemma, because the land upon which that nation claims sovereignty is not theirs.  On one hand, the formulators of the U.S. Constitution defined the Aboriginal Indigenous peoples and nations as non-existent, describing us as a "vast extent of unpeopled territory."
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 We Have The Right To Exist, by Wub-e-ke-niew

- Chapter II -

        The Western European colonists
        and their Indian interface

Early United States Indian policy

            The United States of America is founded on an unresolvable dilemma, because the land upon which that nation claims sovereignty is not theirs.  On one hand, the formulators of the U.S. Constitution defined the Aboriginal Indigenous peoples and nations as non-existent, describing us as a "vast extent of unpeopled territory."[i]  On the other hand, the European colonists knew very well that Aboriginal Indigenous peoples and nations were real.  The White men who framed the United States Constitution intended that their new nation "endure not only for ages but indeed forever."[ii]  They understood that the founda­tion of their future was the legacy of their past and present, and sought to resolve their quandary by dealing with their Indians, who were patrilineally Lislakh and therefore came within the Western European paradigm--although these Indians were not the Aboriginal Indigenous people who owned the land.

            The first executive act of George Washington, President of the United States, after inaugural expressions of divine support and Congressional compliments, and a discussion of Presidential pay, was the following message to the Senate dated May 25, 1789, New York:[iii]

            In pursuance of the order of the late Congress, treaties between the United States and several nations of Indians have been negotiated and signed.  These treaties, with sundry papers respecting them, I now lay before you, for your consideration and advice, by the hands of General Knox, under whose official superintendence the business was transacted, and who will be ready to communicate to you any information on such points as may appear to require it.

Six years earlier, General George Washington had outlined the principles of his Indian policy in a letter included in the published papers of the Continental Congress:

             ... the faith of the United States stands pledged to grant portions of the uncultivated [sic] lands as a bounty to [the U.S.] army,[iv] and in reward of their courage and fidelity, and the public finances do not admit of any considerable expenditure to extinguish the claims upon such lands; because it is become necessary, by increase of domestic popula­tion and emigrations from abroad, to make speedy provision for extending the settlement of the territories of the United States, and because the public creditors have been led to believe and have a right to expect that those territories will be speedily improved into a fund towards the security and payment of the national debt.  Nor in the opinion of the committee can the Indians [sic] themselves have any reasonable objec­tions against the establishment recommended ...[v]

With racist blindness to the irony, the United States added genocide to the colonization tactics applied to themselves by King George III.[vi]  The Americans took the European colonial practices under which they themselves had suffered, and added yet another layer of violence.  They attacked the Aboriginal Indigenous people of this Continent with such brutality that everyone from Adolf Hitler[vii] to the Mongols of Genghis Khan's homeland[viii] have considered U.S. history the archetype of genocide.  The founding fathers set the cornerstone of the land of the free on stolen property soaked with blood.

            On September 17, 1787, Congress ratified the U.S. Constitution.  Through the Commerce Clause (Section 8), they used categorical Indians to unilaterally try to abrogate the inherent Sovereign right of the Aboriginal Indigenous nations to trade.  This violation of Internation­al Law was expanded and elaborated with additional Acts of Congress, so-called Indian treaties, executive orders, Government-monopoly trade, federal bureaucracies, and State statutes.  The Indian pseudo-structure created by the United States is still here, and it's still a violation of Aboriginal Indigenous peoples' natural rights, human rights, property rights and Sovereignty.

 

Columbus

            The history of this Continent has been continually distorted by the ambiguous use of the word, Indian.  In 1491, there were about one billion Aboriginal Indigenous people of the land erroneously called the Americas.  There was not one Indian on either one of these Continents, not a half-breed, or a quarter-breed.

            Kirkpatrick Sale cites the work of Sherburn Cook and Woodrow Borah of the University of California at Berkeley.[ix]  Working from the Spanish Census of 1496 of the island the Spaniards called Española (now re-named Haiti and the Dominican Republic), they calculated the pre-Columbian Aboriginal Indigenous population there at just under 8 million, or a population density of slightly less than one person for every two acres.  The ravaged nation which history called Tainos used a blend of forest permaculture and intercropped annual gardens, fishing and hunting in an ecologically sustainable subsistence base, as did Aboriginal Indigenous peoples throughout these Continents.  The details of our harmony varied with bioregional diversity, but the underlying pattern of efficient permaculturally-based subsistence was consistent throughout this Continent.  The ecological infrastructure of a tropical island is different from that of temperate woodlands or the Arctic, but from the perspective of Aboriginal Indigenous people none of this land was wasteland.  Euro-Americans are only now beginning to discover the remnants of Aboriginal Indigenous peoples' wealth of crops, for example the corn and beans reintroduced by Native Seed Search, which grow without irrigation in arid land the Euro-Americans call desert.[x]  The implications of these seeds and other crops, and the permacultural context in which they were grown, are greater than Western European historians, anthropologists, and ethnobotanists may realize.

            The land area of this Continent is approximately eight and a half million square miles; that of the continent misnamed South America slightly more than 6.8 million square miles.  The fecundity of this land has been demolished by European occupation.  Many highly productive permacultural crops have been intentionally destroyed,[xi] and others have been displaced by immigrant Eurasian plants.[xii]  In some places, the land itself has disappeared, eroded away after imported sheep and cattle trampled and overgrazed once highly productive perennial grain fields.[xiii]  An Aboriginal Indigenous population of approximately one billion people in the year 1491, on both of these Continents, is probably an underestimate--an overall population density one-fourth that of tropical islands like that renamed Española, one-half the average population density of Asia in 1990.  Our Aboriginal Indigenous permacultural agriculture is more efficient than any now widely practiced in the world.  Our population was limited not by a Malthusian approach to the limits of our potential food supply, or by what the Christians envision as the other three of the Four Horsemen (War, Pestilence, and Plague), but by common sense, an understanding of natural and social harmonies, valuing the balance among all living beings, and a variety of contraceptive medicinals.  Aboriginal Indigenous society is based on a different world-view than Indo-European, Semitic, Asian and African hierarchical societies.  The scattered tribes of Euro-American mythology sustain the self-serving illusion that Europeans discovered America, and that "there was nothing, and nobody, here."

            Sailors from the Mediterranean were not the first people from Eurasia who have visited our Continents.  The Vikings came through the quarantine of their Icelandic and Greenland colonies.[xiv]  The Inuit people have traded, visited, and married back and forth throughout the circumpolar arctic for millennia.

            On August 5, 1498, some of the seventeen ships of Christopher Columbus' second voyage chartered by Spanish royalty under the aegis of the Holy Roman Empire, made continental landfall.  Either then, or shortly thereafter, rats carrying bubonic plague scurried from the filth-encrusted Spanish ships onto the Continent.  Thus began five hundred years of pollution, rape, pillage, plunder, plagues, and the defiling of our land.  During the next fifty years, countless other ships[xv] brought nearly a hundred deadly diseases, armed and violent desperados, chemical warfare and ecological devastation.

            By the fifteenth century, Eurasia was a cesspool of deadly diseases.  Europe was so polluted that taking a bath nearly guaranteed death from water-borne diseases.  Part of the rush to find new routes to the Orient was the search for perfumes--the stench of the Europeans must have been vile.  Lethal and severely debilitating diseases are not something that just happen--they co-evolve with the host population.  The patterns of warfare and disharmony, which have prevailed in Eurasia and North Africa throughout their recorded history, created socio-ecological niches in which lethal epidemic disease organisms could flourish.[xvi]  The Lislakh and Asian subsistence patterns which included domesticated animals also engendered diseases, then these diseases further modified the cultural ecology of their host popula­tion.  Smallpox is an example: people who are intimately associated with cattle are relatively more resistant to smallpox because of some cross-immunity with cow-pox.  Periodic epidemics of smallpox created depopulated areas into which the cattle-herding peoples expanded.  The Hindu sacred cows, and worship of Kali, Goddess of Smallpox, acknowl­edges the role that smallpox played in the migration of Indo-European cattle-herders into India.[xvii]

            Over the millennia, the Aboriginal Indigenous Nations of these Continents had developed ecologically harmonious, non-violent networks of society which were not conducive to the co-evolution of epidemic diseases--but the same balanced ecologies and unimpeded contact which had prevented deadly plagues from festering in isolated populations, maintaining a reservoir for future epidemics, also made us extremely vulnerable to the introduction of the Europeans' diseases.  Within ten years of the time that the first Europeans were hospitably greeted by Aboriginal Indigenous people, nearly ninety percent of our people, from the Arctic in the North, to the place which Spanish sailors called Tierra del Fuego in the South, had died, and this was just the beginning.  More than nine hundred million Aboriginal Indigenous people died in the first wave of epidemics that swept across our Continents.  Many of the subsequent epidemics, particularly smallpox and tuberculo­sis, were deliberately planned germ warfare by the Europeans.[xviii]

            Not one single disease went the other way, from the Aboriginal Indigenous people to the European invaders.  Forensic archaeologists, among others, have tried to assuage their guilt by saying that we had non-venereal syphilis.  Syphilis spread through Europe from Italy, not Spain or Portugal--and Ahnishinahbæótjibway and other Aboriginal Indigenous people have been at least as devastated by syphilis as the Europeans were.  Stretching the evidence to claim documentation of pre-Columbian non-venereal syphilis in this hemisphere is a blame-the-victim projection of the Europeans.  The choice of syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease which can lead to insanity, as the one disease purported to have been given to the European invaders, is fraught with symbolism of the Europeans' relationship to this Continent.  Before it became expedient to blame Aboriginal Indigenous people here for syphilis, the not-unlikely European folklore was that it was a trans-species disease mutation which came from Mediterranean shepherds raping their sheep.

            European agriculture is based largely on annual mono-crops and domesticated animals.  A 90% depopulation of Europe would have left abandoned fields of noxious weeds, rats in the granaries while the surviving people starved, flocks devoured by predators.  Aboriginal Indigenous peoples' relationship with Grandmother Earth was based on an ecologically harmonious permaculture.  Although our people died by the hundreds of millions, the bounty of our food remained to sustain generations of Europeans, who called the gardens and forests of our people wild.

 

The influx of slaves, convict laborers, and military conscripts

            Nobody has ever counted the number of people who were brought to our Continents during the first hundred and fifty years after the Europeans tried to claim our property in the name of "God and King."  Convict laborers, slaves, Moorish mixed-bloods, military draftees, fortune-seekers lured by fantastic tales, second sons disinherited by primogeniture, and countless refugees from the violent European social hierarchy and religious fanaticism all came to this Continent.  The surviving records document the merchandise in more detail than the people whose forced labor produced it.  Between 1503 and 1660, 200 tons of gold and 18,600 tons of silver reached the Spanish treasury--how much more left these Continents undocumented is open to speculation.  By 1519, one hundred ships per year shipped cod back to Europe.  In 1620, thirty thousand beaver skins per year were part of the documented trade to Europe; by 1650 five thousand tons of tobacco and thirty thousand tons of sugar were being shipped to European markets.[xix]  No Aboriginal Indigenous person who could walk (or even drag themselves) away, would willingly have worked in the mines, or on the plantations; all of these plundered and ecologically exploitive products required labor controlled by the Europeans.  None of the fleets of galleons and trade ships made the Westward trip empty, and none of them contained trade goods for the Aboriginal Indigenous people in exchange for what was stolen.  The galleon holds that were bulging with gold, silver and other plundered resources going toward Europe, had been filled with human cargo in chains going the other way.

            Nobody knows how many slaves, indentured servants, hapless refugees and military conscripts, whose Sovereignty was held by the Europeans, escaped from the European colonies, plantations, and armies.  This is a question that has not been addressed in histories written by Europeans.  From the first voyage of Columbus to the Roanoke Colony, from the expeditions of Cortés to the coureur de bois of the French fur trade, written history is dotted with intriguing hints of uncounted European subject peoples who braved the unknown for their freedom and ran away.

            Many of these refugees from the cat-o-nine-tails, iron maidens, racks, burning at the stake, dungeons, starvation, forced labor and the gallows made it across the river and over the metaphorical hill.  The first refugees were welcomed with the hospitality that is inherent in Aboriginal Indigenous culture.  They were fed, and learned to recognize and prepare some of the foods which grew abundantly in our lands.  Their wounds were doctored, and they were clothed.

            Very few of these refugees could make the transition out of the violent, hierarchical values which remain part of the European world-view and languages, and acculturate into Aboriginal Indigenous communities, so many of them were eventually shunned.  These European, other Lislakh and African escapees ganged together, and developed a Creole culture out of their own cultures, the fragmentary bits of technology some of them had learned from Aboriginal Indigenous peoples and the rapidly developing European mythology of what Indians were supposed to be.[xx]  The rabble referred to as bands of Indians, who played such a prominent role in the wars of the frontier, were not Aboriginal Indigenous people.  They were bands of marauding escapees from colonial slave-labor economics and a few mixed-blood women, who understood European violence, and who were willing to use violence to keep the freedom they had tasted.  These European subject Indians, and the European subjects living within the context of officially-sanctioned colonies, generated a positive-feedback loop of Indian mythology.  The chroniclers who described Indians burning people at the stake, cutting noses and ears, and other tortures were writing about abominations which were common practices among the Spaniards at that time.  Either they were writing pure fiction based on the Europeans' self-justifying stereotypes and projections, or they were writing about these Lislakh and other immigrant Indians.  They were not accurately describing any Nation of Aboriginal Indigenous people on either one of these Continents.

            The vicious competition between factions of the European royal families and other contenders, for a share in the plunder of these Continents is hinted at by Niccolo Machiavelli, who wrote The Prince in 1513.  Their history is one of intrigue, plotting, wars and battles, fought not only in their own land, but on ours as well.  The Indian allies of the warring European states had been European subject peoples when they, or their fathers, had been shipped across the Atlantic.  Although many had run toward freedom, they did not understand how to escape the constraints of their heritage, their minds and their languages, and remained European subject peoples.  Throughout their history on these Continents, the Europeans have used their Indians as pawns in their wars with each other, as well as tools of genocide against Aboriginal Indigenous peoples.

            The people of the Lislakh hierarchies, including that of the United States, still sense, on some subconscious level, their loss of freedom.  They know that there is something missing, and many of them try to ease their pain with alcohol and drugs.  This yearning for something they have never experienced and do not have the words in their languages to express, is where the mythology of "Indian and Free" comes from.  The Euro-Americans are looking for their personal Sovereignty but they don't know what that is.  A White professor, Charles Brill, authored a photographic book about Red Lake, called Indian and Free.[xxi]  He should have been honest about the Métis and Euro-Indians who comprise most of his book.  These Indians are not free.  They are occupied peoples who are wards of the U.S. Government under trusteeship.[xxii]

            "Run away and join the Indians" was a part of American cultural mythology long before Tom Sawyer plans, "le's all three slide out of here one of these nights and get an outfit, and go for howling adventures amongst the Injuns, over in the territory..." and Huckleber­ry Finn muses "I reckon I got to light out for the territory ahead of the rest, because Aunt Sally she's going to ... sivilize me, and I can't stand it."[xxiii]

            The Europeans purposefully lured each others' labor force away from competing colonies with promises of freedom, then trapped the escapees into guerilla armies or even irregular militia.  James Oglethorpe, a British prison reformer, cosponsored the 1733 emigration from the English prison of Newgate to Georgia.  One of Oglethorpe's expeditions against the Spanish settlement at St. Augustine, Florida, included "six hundred infantrymen, eight hundred Negro pioneers, one hundred rangers, and two thousand Indians."[xxiv]  The Spanish resisted the British incursion in part by a "policy at St. Augustine and in Central America and the West Indies ... to encourage British slaves to desert, to grant them freedom, supplies, and small plots of land when they reached Spanish territory."[xxv]

            During the three centuries between the first Spanish boat-people refugees, and George Washington's Indian policy, how many European subject peoples had run away from the violence, slave-labor conditions, and meager rations of European settlements and garrisons?

 

Indian captivity literature

            The extent to which European subject peoples overcame their deeply embedded terror of what they saw as howling wilderness, and continued to run toward freedom is also hinted at by the enormous body of Indian captivity literature.  There have been thousands of "I was held prisoner by the Indians" true-confession stories published.  As Euro-American encroachment on Aboriginal Indigenous lands increased, the chances of a Black or White runaway being sighted and apprehended became greater.  Their culturally patterned "I was captured, tortured, enslaved, etc. by wild Indians" story not only allowed the runaway to be rescued as some kind of hero, rather than re-captured and punished by the Europeans who held his or her Sovereignty, but it also provided a medium for distributing propaganda vilifying Aboriginal Indigenous people and an eyewitness to attest to outrageous lies supporting the "Indian Savage" stereotype.  Indian captivity fiction also provided the U.S. Cavalry with an excuse for pursuing the Euro-Americans' long-term goal of total annihilation of Aboriginal Indigenous people.

 

Genetic engineering

            Some of the people identified as Indians were the children of Aboriginal Indigenous women and European men.  The Catholic Priests did not make successful converts until a generation had passed: their Christian Indians were mixed-bloods with an immigrant Lislakh patriline.  Aboriginal Indigenous people were not converted in significant numbers until we were kidnapped as children from our parents and communities into the boarding schools, and I question the validity of such forced conversions, as well as the ethics of any religion which would condone them.

            Genetic engineering: creating a mixed-blood community which is dependent on the colonizers for their identity and status but who are kept in place by a stigmatized identity, is a colonizing strategy of Western Civilization refined by at least five thousand years of Lislakh colonial expansion (which a historian friend of mine refers to as "penile colonization").  As the former Roman and Moorish colonies of the European peninsula metastasized throughout the rest of the world, they continued to use genetic engineering.

            Michele de Cuneo, a Ligurian nobleman on Columbus' second voyage, wrote in 1495:[xxvi]

            While I was in the boat I captured a very beautiful Carib woman, whom the said Lord Admiral gave to me [!], and with whom, having taken her into my cabin, she being naked according to their custom, I conceived desire to take pleasure.  I wanted to put my desire into execution but she did not want it and treated me with her finger nails in such a manner that I wished I had never begun.  But seeing that (to tell you the end of it all), I took a rope and thrashed her well, for which she raised such unheard of screams you would not have believed your ears.  Finally we came to an agreement [sic] ...

This was not the very beginning of the Western Europeans' rape of these two Continents, and it has not ended yet.  Rape, pillage, and plunder are part of Western Civilization's paradox of war and peace.  Historians write of the "ties of affection" between Europeans and Aboriginal Indigenous women (with their mixed-blood children defined as illegiti­mate by miscegenation laws, and thrust into Métis communi­ties in parasitic relationship with Aboriginal Indigenous people).[xxvii]  However, much genetic engineering is accomplished by force or more subtle coercion.[xxviii]

            The Métis, Mulatto, Mestizo, and Mestiço communities created by Lislakh genetic and social engineering are an inherent part of colonial occupation, all over the world.  Jim Hoagland explains with regard to the Portuguese in Angola:[xxix]

            The assumption is that the mestiços will identify completely with the Portuguese interests and help promote them.  ... Such theories have promoted miscegenation ... into official policy, encouraged by the government and praised as patriot­ic.  Officers have encouraged their soldiers to do their duty to Portugal by leaving at least six mestiço children behind when they finish their tours in Angola. ... Visiting dignitaries are introduced in Angola to "Africans" holding key jobs.  Many, if not most, are in fact mestiços, and some are not even Angolan.

Jim Hoagland also notes[xxx] that once the mixed-bloods, or "Coloreds" in British-occupied South Africa, became established as a community, Whites tended "to mix sexually with Coloreds rather than Africans--thus 'breeding' the ... Coloreds 'whiter,'" and adds the observation that "one does encounter a number of white supremacists with dark complex­ions in South Africa, but it is a touchy historical point with the Afrikaners and not the kind of subject a visiting correspondent, on a limited visa, digs into very deeply."

            The French policy of creating and using Métis people came from the same roots as that of the English and other Europeans.  The people who are categorized as French-and-Indian, Métis, and Chippewa Indian have several ethnic origins: Moorish mixed-blood and other dark-skinned Mediterranean people without any Aboriginal Indigenous ancestry,[xxxi] White Europeans defined as Indians, and Métis people with some Aboriginal Indigenous ancestry, often in the distant branches on the matrilineal side of their family tree.  Some of the people identified as Chippewa Indians on the United States Government Indian Rolls at Red Lake are descendants of John Rolfe and Pocahontas, and more than fifty of those listed in 1983 as enrolled members of the "Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians" are patrilineal descendants of White men who immigrated in the Mayflower.  Less than five percent of the so-called Federally Recognized Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians are actually Ahnishinah­bæótjibway, rather than Indians.

            The British and French colonial policies of rape and plunder merged into United States policy.  European and other immigrant men on the frontier between the European settlements of colonial occupation and the surviving Aboriginal Indigenous people, continued to pursue Western Civilization's implicit colonizing strategy of genetic engineer­ing.  In the 1880's, the B.I.A. and the Lake Mohonk Conference explicitly commented on the alleged civilizing influences of "Squaw Men," at the same time tsk-tsking that these squaw men were "morally depraved."  In 1928, the Brookings Institute[xxxii] described the squaw men of that time:

            Where they become surrounded by whites without having achieved these higher standards, they are menaced themselves and also become a menace to the better things in the white civilization.  Sexual relationships between the low types of the two races tend to develop.  ... Indian girls rarely become commercial prostitutes.  They may, however, be the victims of white men.  The more apparent relationship is a marriage or other union lasting for some little time.  Often a white man or woman marries an Indian for the sake of securing possession or use of the Indian's property; or, an extremely low grade white, a misfit in the economic and social life of the white civilization, forms a union with a low grade Indian.  These low grade whites turn Indian in a way that is quite shocking, and they may be found existing in shacks that are below rather than above those of the purely Indian [sic] dwellings in the neighborhood.  Children of these unions have frequently the handicap of both bad heredity and bad environment.  The white father, too, is apparently fairly prone to desert the Indian woman, leaving her with the burden of caring for the children.

Ahnishinahbæótjibway society is matriarchal, but we are patrilineal and patrilocal.  We say, "the man brings his wife to live with his people, the woman goes to live with her husband's people."  The women who married White men were, according to our tradition, supposed to go with their husband, to live with his people wherever he was from, and many of the Ahnishinahbæótjibway women who married White men during the intensive assimilation efforts of the 1950's did make their homes with their husbands in White communities off the Reservation.  But, Métis women continue to claim that their children with White men are Indians, and there are a number of squaw men still at Red Lake, running around claiming to be blood quantum Indians.[xxxiii]

 

            This United States policy appears contradictory and ambiguous until one realizes that the United States has been using the word, Indians, to refer to the European, mulatto and Métis people, and also trying to apply the word Indian to the Aboriginal Indigenous peoples of this Continent.  This intentional misuse of the word Indian is so critical to the United States' ultimate goal of a "Final Solution" (completely annihilating Aboriginal Indigenous people and then saying we never existed) that it is specifically spelled out in present-day United States Statute Law, including the United States Code, Title 25, Section 479:[xxxiv]

            For the purposes of this Act, Eskimos and other aboriginal peoples ... shall be considered Indians.

This section goes on to elaborate the United States' unilateral descriptions of the Indian Tribes they invented.

            The United States and the other European powers have historically used the Indian identity as a means of avoiding responsibility for their own actions.  The patriots at the Boston Tea Party dressed up as Mohawk Indians, and if history would have turned differently, it's certain that the Mohawk Indians would have retained the blame for the loss of British tea.  Indian disguises were used over and over again in the Europeans' wars across this Continent.  The United States Cavalry dressed up as Indians, and attacked their own people in the wagon trains.  Public opinion was then whipped into a frenzy, to justify going into Aboriginal Indigenous peoples' communities and massacring every man, woman, and child.  The Aboriginal Indigenous people did not have anything to do with these attacks on the wagon trains.  It was the U.S. Cavalry, and their own U.S. Indian Scouts who were doing it.  Aboriginal Indigenous people are non-violent because of our religion and philosophy.


Notes for Chapter II

[i].Mr. Pinkney, as recorded in James Madison's Notes on the Debates, Constitu­tional Convention, Monday, June 15, 1787, in Convention.  As reproduced in Winton Solberg, Editor, The Federal Convention and the Formation of the American States, Bobbs-Merrill, 1958, page 168.

[ii].James Madison, June 26, 1787, Op. cit., page xiv.

[iii].James D. Richardson, A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, Volume I.

[iv].The United States has used expropriation of Aboriginal Indigenous peoples' resources to "balance the budget" until we have almost nothing left to steal.  Abraham Lincoln, who launched his political career by warring with Métis people, was pressured to negotiate the 1863 "Red Lake and Pembina Treaty" with Métis people because of mounting Union war debts, and continued Washington's policy of paying off soldiers with Land Grants.

[v].Journals of the Continental Congress, 25:681-83, 693, as quoted in Francis Prucha, Documents of United States Indian Policy, 1975.

[vi].Described in "The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America," Congress, July 4, 1776, i.e. "Declaration of Independence."

[vii].Albert Speer, Inside the Third Reich, page 304.  Speer writes, "Hitler often cited the fate of the Indians [sic] in the United States as a quite practicable solution when taking over a territory. 'We need not feel any pangs of con­science,' [Hitler] said ..."

[viii]."Mongols need their own culture, their own history--recorded in their own hands.  Or else they'll face the fate of American Indians [sic]..." Huhehada, leader of the Inner Mongolia underground movement, as quoted by New York Times writer Nicholas D. Kristof [Minneapolis Star Tribune, page 17A, July 26, 1992].

[ix].Kirkpatrick Sale, The Conquest of Paradise, Christopher Columbus and the Columbian Legacy, 1990, page 161.

[x].Webster's New World Dictionary, 1988, page 373, defines desert as "1. an uncultivated region without inhabitants; wilderness  2. a dry, barren sandy region, naturally incapable of supporting almost any plant or animal life ..."  Some of the arid regions of the southwestern part of this Continent have sandy soils, but otherwise the word desert is an inaccurate description.

[xi].Including the Piñon trees uprooted by the U.S. Department of the Interior, purportedly to facilitate cattle grazing.

[xii].Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada, Nathaniel L. Britton and Addison Brown, Dover Publications reprint.

[xiii].Personal communication, Dr. John Martin, with specific documentation regarding canyon lands in Utah.  Dr. Martin mentioned that the decimation of the beaver destroyed the flood controls which were a part of the Aboriginal Indigenous ecosystem; after the root structure of the grasslands was damaged by grazing, in some areas the fertile bottomlands "where Utes [sic] harvested the perennial grain crop by knocking it directly into their baskets from the standing grasses" were eroded down to canyon bedrock.

[xiv].C.f.: a description of Viking settlements around the turn of the millennium, as quoted by Maynard Swan in The Ojibwe News, April 18, 1990, page 5; and a discussion of Vikings in Alexandria, Minnesota in 1362, in Roger Pinkley, "The Riddle of the Runes," Minnesota Calls, January/February, 1994, page 10.

[xv].The "Principal Voyages of Discovery," [sic] who we call invaders and illegal aliens, listed by Hammond's World Atlas, 1960 include: SPANISH: Vespucci, 1497-8; Columbus, 1498; Ojeda, 1499; Pinzon, 1499-1500; Columbus, 1502-4; Magellan, 1519-21; Orellana, 1940-41; and Cabrillo and Ferrelo, 1542-43; PORTUGUESE: Pedro Alvarez Cabral, 1500; Gaspar Corte Real, 1501; ENGLISH: John Cabot, 1497; John Cabot, 1498; Sir Francis Drake, 1577-80; FRENCH: Verrazano, 1524; Cartier, 1534 and 1535.  These expeditions circumnavigated both Continents from Newfoundland to Northern California, and wreaked havoc wherever they touched shore.  The first documented Spanish settlement was established in the "Caribbean" in 1493; within the next fifty years mainland Spanish colonial settlements included Culacán (1533), Navidad, Acapulco (1527), México (1519), Veracruz (1519), Guatemala (1519), Trumillo (1525), Puerto Bello (1513), Panama (1519), Cartagena (1533), Coro (1527), Santa Fé de Bogotá (1538), Popayán (1536), Quito (1534), Puerto Viejo (1535), Guyaquil (1535), San Miguel (1532), Ciudad de los Reyes [Lima] (1535), Cuzco (1535), La Paz (1548), Sucre (1540), Potosí (1546), Asunción (1537), La Serena (1544), and Santa María de Buen Aire (1536).

            There were innumerable other migratory Europeans who illegally immigrated onto our Continents, for whom documentation has not survived.  There were huge fleets of fishing boats at the Grand Banks off of Newfoundland.  The fishermen went ashore to dry the fish they took; some stayed as permanent residents and most were not celibate while ashore.  Slave boats carried Africans, Moorish and other mixed-bloods, and convicts.  Columbus' tall tales of gold lured fortune-seekers from all of Europe, and unimaginable Spanish plunder attracted large numbers of pirates, most of whose land bases are undocumented.

[xvi].Lethal epidemic diseases which kill the majority of their host population require unbalanced conditions, like those created by war, to perpetuate themselves over the generations.

[xvii].The author acknowledges telephone discussion of these issues with epidemiolo­gist Larry Brilliant, who Howard Reingold recommended as "the world's leading smallpox expert."  Dr. Brilliant helped clarify understanding of the co-evolution of diseases.  Also acknowledged is Dr. Paul Greenough of the University of Iowa, for his understanding of the history of epidemics.

[xviii].Ibid.  Dr. Brilliant mentioned a place called "Smallpox Acres" in the Atlantic northeast.  "Smallpox blankets" are general knowledge in Ahnishinahbæót­jibway oral history.  In this context, Dr. Brilliant commented that four hours exposure to sunlight will kill the smallpox organism.  This is probably why the recipients of blankets from the Prairie du Chien treaty, for example, were told "don't open these packages until you get home."  The Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History, edited by Helen Hornbeck Tanner, with cartography by Miklos Pinther (1987, University of Oklahoma Press) maps a few of the later epidemics of smallpox and other European diseases which were documented by the Euro-Americans.  Tanner's book relies heavily on the sources used by the Indian Claims Commission, and is a useful resource so long as one understands that the carefully documented interpretation is from an United States Government and Indian perspective, rather than an Aboriginal Indigenous one.

[xix].Kirkpatrick Sale, The Conquest of Paradise, pages 259-261, Op. cit.

[xx].There have been few writers of African mixed-blood history, and much of these peoples' history remains to be written.  One writer of what she calls her ancestors' Maroon history, in an anonymous manuscript, "Forbidden History," notes that "by 1650 Mexico alone had an African-Indian [sic] population (some with white ancestry) of one hundred thousand."  She adds, "theirs is a story worth remembering and worth teaching our children."

[xxi].University of Minnesota Press, first edition 1974.  Dr. Brill returned to Red Lake in the summer of 1990.

[xxii].We discussed these issues with Dr. Brill.  His response was, "you have to have a Ph.D. to do this kind of research," and besides which "your computer's obsolete."  He did not deign to look at the genealogical data which we were discussing with him.

[xxiii].Samuel L. Clemens, a.k.a. "Mark Twain," The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, 1884, pages 343-344.

[xxiv].J. Leitch Wright, Jr., Anglo-Spanish Rivalry in North America, 1971.

[xxv].Ibid.

[xxvi].Kirkpatrick Sale, The Conquest of Paradise, page 140, Op. cit.

[xxvii].For example, Sylvia Van Kirk, Many Tender Ties, Women in Fur Trade Society, 1670-1870, University of Oklahoma Press, 1983, which uses meticulous archival documentation to deal sympathetically with the Métis marriage ties to the fur traders.

[xxviii].This ranges from the propaganda promulgated by medieval raconteurs of peasant girls who willingly yielded to the advances of princes and "lived happily ever after," and the duress of the Western European hierarchical economic system, to the spoils of war and peace.  (Most G.I.s who were part of a wartime or occupation force know what some members of these forces did.)

[xxix].Jim Hoagland, South Africa, Civilizations in Conflict, Houghton Mifflin/Wash­ington Post, 1972, pages 274-5.

[xxx].Ibid, page 104.

[xxxi].Hundreds of dark Mediterranean people were listed on the 1860 U.S. Census of Minnesota as "mulattos," although this Census category also included some Minnesotans with sub-Saharan African ancestry.  Ten years later, many of the same individuals were listed on the U.S. Census under the category of "Indian."

[xxxii].Brookings Institute for Government Research, The Problem of Indian Administration, Report of a Survey made at the request of Honorable Hubert Work, Secretary of the Interior, and submitted to him, February 21, 1928, page 110.

[xxxiii].For example, as a part of the Indian Reorganization Act, some of these purely European "Squaw Men" became enrolled as Federally Recognized Indians, as documented by the Red Lake genealogies, Op. cit.

[xxxiv].Codified from the Act of June 18, 1934.


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