chief of the Pillagers, Flatmouth, has for several years resided in
sister, Ruth Flatmouth, is in her brother's absence the acknowledged
leader of the Pillagers; two other women of hereditary right acted as
of their respective bands, and at the request of the chiefs were
sign the agreements.
the census, which was a tedious work, we took unusual pains to see that
rightful persons were included, and in every case not only submitted it
chiefs and leading persons of the tribe, but secured their presence and
assistance. After having explained to
them the importance of accuracy, they fully and earnestly gave their
efforts to insure its correctness.
States Agent B.P. Schuler accompanied us to each and every band within
jurisdiction, and gave us most valuable official as well as personal
United States agent at Ashland, joined the commission at the fond du
Reservation and rendered us material aid.
Aloysius, O.S.B., was with us at Red Lake, White Earth, and Leech Lake,
all times used his influence in the interest of our work.
instance did we encounter opposition from the traders or white men,
Indian women; on the contrary all readily gave such assistance as they
could. We feel warranted in saying that
there was not an Indian who was not fully informed of the purport of
mission, and that the assent of all would have been obtained had
given us to put in the way of adjustment unsettled claims.
expenditures incident to the long distance traveled, the length of time
consumed, the number of Indians we were compelled to subsist, and the
force we had to employ as messengers in taking the census and aiding in
securing the signatures of such only as were authorized to sign the
and in making in duplicate said agreements, and in triplicate the
we have had constantly to view the injunction of "observing and
the utmost economy."
Indians are many well-educated mixed-bloods, who will be of great
leading the unenlightened onward.
Michigan, Wisconsin, and elsewhere we know there are persons of
that will claim, and no doubt many are entitled to, the benefits under
recent negotiations, who were, from their higher education and
forced to separate from their bands and seek an living and more
society elsewhere, who, now that they can hold lands in severalty and
under the protection of the law, will return to their old homes; for
consideration should be given hereafter.
We think, however, that the safe rule to be observed will be to consult
the chiefs and head men as to the justice of their claims.
the Indians to commence their new life in such as way as will, without the
loss of time,
encourage them to follow all industrial pursuits possible, it
is evident a sum should be advanced by the Government sufficient to
them, with their labor, to put as much land under cultivation and to
many homes as practicable. At each and
every place, either in open council or in private consultation, they
urgent in requesting such aids as are indispensable to white man.
Especially, all not pagans expressed a decided
preference for mission schools, deeming it essential that the morals of
children, as well as their education, should receive careful attention.
shall be done and the Indians are properly guided, the most happy
be expected to follow.
Indian justice, kind and patient treatment, and his confi-