Reflections from the Ah­nish­i­nah­bæójib­way (We, the People)

May 25, 1993

The Relocation programs which the Bureau of Indian Affairs used during the 1950’s and 1960’s to remove Aboriginal Indigenous people from the Reservation communities—and their indigenous lands—were not the first.

From a letter to Alexander Ramsey, from the Reverend William J. Boutwell (at La Pointe), September 18, 1851:

     “... Mr. [Clement] Beaulieu on his arrival at this place proceeded immediately to the interior to assemble the Indians at this point for removal. ... The Indians disputing every inch of ground and stoutly maintaining the right of soil, declaring they would encounter famine and death before they would relinquish their rights and go—declared the treaty [of 1842] a fraud. ...  The Inds. in the mining districts find strong inclinations not to remove. ...”

MUSTER ROLL of Removal Chippewas Transported from Lapointe, Wisconsin to Fond du Lac:

Nah-gaun-ub (1 man, 3 women, 4 children)
Uk-ke-wan-ence (1 man, 4 women, 4 children)
Was-sud-gun-ne-we-nin-ne (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Kan-gay-aus-ung (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Mi-gi-si (1 man, 1 woman), Kaus-kiss (1 man, 1 woman)
Kake-kake-onse (1 man)
Waw-say-ki-shig (1 man, 1 woman, 2 children)
Pup-e-ke-shig-o-que (1 woman)
Paud-way-way-guon (1 man, 1 woman, 5 children)
Pe-na-see (1 man, 1 woman, 2 children)
Mun-dum-in-ance (1 man, 1 woman, 2 children)
Nin-gauh-dush (1 woman)
Aish-qua-gon-dang (1 man)
Ke-nis-te-neau (1 man, 4 women, 3 children)
Me-tig-o-mish (1 man, 2 women, 3 children)
Wau-say-ki-shig (1 man)
O-dish-qua-iaush (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Waub-ish-kah (1 man, 1 woman, 3 children)
O-gub-ay-aun-uck-wad-o-que (1 woman, 1 child)
Pe-pe-ki-wig-ance (1 woman)
She-bow-ke-sis-o-que (1 woman)
O-muk-kuk-ence (1 woman)

MUSTER ROLL of the Chippewa Indians from the St. Croix Valley “emegrated” west of the Mississippi River on Crow Wing and Gull Lake River):

Ki-a-jig, Chief (1 man, 1 woman)
Ne-ke-boin (1 man, 2 women, 2 children)
Say-cous-e-gay (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Nin-e-waush (1 man, 1 woman, 5 children)
Mij-gee-jauk (2 men)
Aun-ge-cown-i-ay (1 woman, 1 child)
Manj-e-ke-shig-o-qua (1 woman, 1 child)
Sug-gwaun-dug-awe-win-ne-ne (2 men, 1 woman, 4 children)
Ah-be-tuh-ke-shig-o-qua (1 woman, 1 child)
Nin-ne-waush (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Mang-e-ge-wun-o-qua (1 woman, 1 child)
Waub-ish-esh-ence (1 man, 1 woman, 2 children)
Nah-gaun-ub (1 man, 1 woman, 2 children)
Kud-uck-way-saince (1 woman)
Min-nuh-waun-e-gwauz (1 woman, 1 child)
Bi-a-jig (1 woman, 1 child)
Tan-ans-gun (1 man, 1 woman)
Me-tig-o-minsh-ence (1 woman)
Awe-show-uck-cum-ig-o-qua (1 woman)
O-saw-gaw (1 woman)

Kay-gwa-daush (Chief) (1 man, 1 woman, 3 children)
Ke-way-ain (1 man, 2 children)
Nuh-aub-un-way (1 man, 1 woman, 3 children)
O-ke-mah-ke-shig (1 man, 2 women, 2 children)
Me-naun-uck-wud (1 man, 2 women, 2 children)
Kaw-wit-awe-say (1 man)
Min-uh-waun-ne-gwanz (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
O-ke-mah (1 man, 1 woman, 3 children)
Ke-way-din-o-qua (1 woman, 2 children)
Pe-tow-wuck-um-ig-o-qua (1 woman, 1 child)
Kaug-onse (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Way-zaw (1 man, 1 woman, 4 children)
Naw-wuh-go-bin-ais (1 man, 1 woman)
Sho-ne-iah (2 men, 1 woman, 3 children)
As-sin-ne-boin (2 men, 1 woman, 3 children)
Me-tig-waub-ence (1 man, 1 woman, 3 children)
Ke-nosh-ay (1 man, 1 woman, 3 children)
Osh-ke-now-ay (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Nuh-ab-un-way (1 woman, 2 children)
Pe-ko-min-ug-iz (1 man, 1 woman, 2 children)
Nun-ge-ke-shig-o-qua (1 woman)
O-daw-showe (1 woman)
Mons-o-maun-ay (1 man, 1 woman, 2 children)
Wesh-ay-mauh (2 men, 1 woman, 3 children)
Maun-de-mon-ien (1 woman)

Nin-o-min-e-cay-shein (Chief) (1 man, 1 woman, 3 children)
O-daun-num (2 women, 3 children)
O-wuh-yay-quah-ke-shig-o-qua (1 woman)
Wah-shuk (1 woman)
Kay-kake-onse (1 man, 1 woman, 2 children)
Pe-gaun-quod (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
O-ke-mah-wun-nung (1 man, 1 woman)
Buan-de-bay (1 man, 1 woman)
Nun-ne-co-be (1 man, 1 woman)
Mons-o-maun-ay (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Way-win-duk-um-ig-o-qua (1 woman, 1 child)
Waub-ons (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Pay-shig-obe (1 man, 1 woman, 2 children)
Nay-gwon-abe (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Nish-ke-bug-e-cosh-ay (1 man, 1 child)
Nish-kaut-ig (1 man)
Tu-yanh (1 man)
Aish-qua-ge-wun (1 man, 1 woman)
Muk-onse (1 man, 1 woman, 2 children)
Min-uh-wain-e-gwanz (2 women)
Pay-shig-o-bin-ais (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Aij-e-dow-aush (1 man, 1 woman)
O-bin-way-way (1 man, 1 child)
Nesh-o-danh (1 man)
Caug-o-min-de-mon-ien (1 woman)
Naug-aun-o-say (1 woman)
Naub-aunz (1 man)
Omb-e-gaw-bow (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Ay-gwan-o-day (1 man, 1 woman, 3 children)
Now-e-gwon-a-be-qua (1 woman)
Shaw-go-bay (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
May-dwa-waw-we-nind (1 woman)
Omb-way-ke-shig (1 man, 1 woman)
O-saw-wun-nun-ne-qua (1 woman)
Ke-ne-qua (1 woman)
Waw-saw-go-wun (2 men, 1 child)
Pug-e-nay (2 men, 1 child)
May-way-caw-ge-wung (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Shing-goob-e-min-de-mon-ien (1 woman, 1 child)
She-gaug (1 man, 1 woman)
Ke-way-o-say (1 man, 1 woman)
Nay-nuh-aung-abe (1 man, 1 woman)
Mons-onse (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Onaw-we (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Ke-me-wun-nun-ne-bee (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Way-me-tig-oshe (2 men)
Squa-dum-uck (1 woman, 1 child)
Muk-ud-ay-bin-aid (1 man, 1 woman, 3 children)
Ki-chi-no-din (1 woman)
Auk-o-gwon-ay-aush (1 man)
Shaw-baw-shkung (1 man)
Min-de-mon-ien (1 woman, 1 child)
Qua-ke-ke-shig (1 man, 1 woman)
Uh-way-ne-shein (2 men, 1 woman, 1 child)
Kay-kake-onse (2 men, 1 woman, r children)
Kaug-gans-in-do-bay (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)

MUSTER ROLL of Chippewas arrived at Fond du Lac from the ceded lands during the quarter ending December 31, 1851:

BAD RIVER BAND: 

Ask-a-we-ki-skik-oque (1 woman, 1 child)
Ma-shin-a-we (1 man, 1 woman, 5 children)
Ke-go-dinse (1 man, 1 woman, 6 children)
Ke-wan-se (1 man, 1 woman, 2 children)
O-kan-e-que (1 woman, 1 child)
Ta-kos-a-mo-que (1 woman, 1 child)
Ta-na-go-shin-a (1 man)
Ne-gon-e-ki-shik-o-que (1 woman)
Shin-gwauk (1 man, 1 woman, 1 child)
Is-pan-gi-ole (1 man, 2 women, 2 children)
Ma-in-ganse (1 man), Ta-kose (1 man, 1 woman)

BAD RIVER BAND ...

... and the lists go on, and on, and on.  Thousands of people were relocated during the 1850’s.

 In Boarding Schools paid for by the United States Government, they beat us for speaking our language of Anishinabe Ojibway—which meant that speaking the names of our grandparents ran the risk of physical punishment.  We were told, “forget about where you come from.  We want you to assimilate.  You are an American now.” [That means, you are a slave of the Europeans.]  Now, it amazes me to see the White man teaching his Indians “Indian culture” and the Chippewa-Creole language.  When they said “Assimilate,” they weren’t saying, “join us.”  For the Anishinabe Ojibway, “assimilate” is an euphemism for the Euro-Americans’ attempt to completely destroy our culture and our identity.

The people who were relocated included French Moorish people, Spanish Moors, Mulattos, Métis people, and also some Aboriginal Indigenous people were moved along with them.  They lumped them all together and said, “you’re Indians.”  Part of the point of the relocation was to prevent the dark-skinned Moors, Mulattos and Métis from contaminating the Clean Gene pool of the W.A.S.P. Whites, particularly to keep them away from White women.

Relocation also prevented people who had been “corrupted” by contact with egalitarian Aboriginal Indigenous peoples from disrupting the English hierarchial social system.

The Euro-American historians wrote in their version of history to say “the Chippewa Indians came from the East.”  There are no Chippewa Indians.  We, the Anishinabe Ojibway, have always been right here.  We have a right to exist on our own land.

 My telephone number is (218) 679-2382 and my mailing address is P.O. Box 484, Bemidji, MN 56601.

Wub-e-ke-niew


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